The Chinese experiences on bamboo development and contribution of bamboo to the environment Ministerial Workshop on Bamboo and Rattan Sector Development.
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Presentation on theme: "The Chinese experiences on bamboo development and contribution of bamboo to the environment Ministerial Workshop on Bamboo and Rattan Sector Development."— Presentation transcript:
The Chinese experiences on bamboo development and contribution of bamboo to the environment Ministerial Workshop on Bamboo and Rattan Sector Development for INBAR Member Countries, 28 May, Beijing Dr. Lou Yiping (Email: email@example.com) Programme Director Environmental Sustainability
I. Facts on bamboo and benefits to environment and the people II. Chinese experience & lessons on bamboo sectoral development III. Bamboo for environment What is inside:
I. Facts on bamboo and benefits to environment and the people
Bamboo basic facts 1200 species in 90 genera, about 100 domesticated yet 1 billion people live in bamboo houses Annual trade 5-7 billion USD (i.e. tropical timber 8 billion USD, similar to bananas and to US beef), local trade estimated at ten times that. Estimated 2 billion people worldwide live in conjunction with bamboo. Total area exceeds 1% of tropical and subtropical forest, i.e. 22 million ha
CommodityTotal Export, billion USD Wheat16,0 Natural Textile12.2 Coffee10.2 Iron9.3 Tropical Timber8.0 Nickel7.8 Zinc7.1 Cotton7.1 Hides & skins6.4 Tobacco5.6 Bamboo and rattan5.0 Banana4.2 Rubber3.7 Cocoa beans2.5 Tea2.5 Wool2.4 Tin1.5 Jute0.1 Total World Export of Commodities (billion USD)
Why bamboo is getting so increasingly important? The world forest is shrinking, bamboo is an excellent wood substitute Cheap, efficient, fast growing and easy management Environmental friendly
II. Chinese experience & lessons on bamboo sectoral development
Before 1980, Traditional management and use. Since 1985, China began to introduce bamboo-processing machines to mainland from Taiwan. Till 1990s, most machines were made in mainland, bamboo industry has been developed in all provinces where bamboo is produced, mainly in Zhejiang, Hunan, Anhui and Jinagxi Provinces. 1. History of bamboo development in China
Bamboo Resource In 1980s, the total area of bamboo plantations of the country was about 3.20 million ha. In the next 20 years, the national annual increase of bamboo plantations is 50,000 ha in average.
Moso Bamboo Raw Material Production Increases Rapidly
Bamboo Industry greatly contributes rural development and poverty alleviation The yearly output of China’s bamboo industry increases rapidly, from 0.6 billion USD in 1990 to $8.97 billion in 2007, estimated to be $10.76 billion in 2009.
Export of Bamboo Products Bamboo products ( such as bamboo floor, decoration board, laminated bamboo furniture, bamboo charcoal products, bamboo fiber products, bamboo handicrafts, and bamboo shoot) are exported mainly to Japan, North America and Europe; The export value increased from 0.17 billion USD in 1990 to 1.5 billion USD in 2007, about $1.77 million in 2009.
Experiences at national and provincial levels Government played a key promoting role in bamboo industrial development in China 1. Make strategic plans for bamboo development 2. Empower farmers with land management right 3. Favorite financial policies 4. Support bamboo product market establishment 5. Research and development of new technologies and new products 6. Capacity building of farmers and enterprises, technology extension
Bamboo forest: 72,000 ha. Stock: 0.17 billion culms Yearly harvested culms: 28 million culms of moso bamboo, and 100,000 tons of other bamboos Case of bamboo industry development in Anji County (experience & lessons)
2009 年全县竹产值构成图 2009 年全县竹业总产值达到 112 亿元，其中一产 7.5 亿元、二产 94 亿元、三产 10.5 亿元。 Total output value of bamboo industry reached 11.2 billion Yuan in 2009 (USD 0.16 billion), of which the primary production accounts for 0.75 billion, the processing industry accounts for 9.4 billion, the eco- tourism and other service accounts for 1.05 billion Yuan.
左：竹林面积占全国的 1.5 ％ Bamboo forest area accounting for 1.5% of the country 右：竹业总产值占全国的 18 ％ Bamboo industry accountsing for 18% of GDP 以全国 1.5 ％的竹资源创造了全国 18 ％的竹产值 1.5% of bamboo resource produces about 18% of the national bamboo output value
大户示范 Demonstration by some leading householders 全县共培育科技示范户 800 余户，通过以点带面，极 大地带动广大竹农应用和实施竹林经营新技术，提高 竹林经营水平和经营效益。
林地规模化经营。 Large Scale management of bamboo forest 全省第一家毛竹股份制合作社在 安吉皈山乡尚书矸村成立
知识产权保护 Intellectual property protection 2009 年 2 月，成立了南林知识产权联盟，利用集体的 力量，保护知识产权。 South forestry Intellectual Proper ty Alliance was set up in February, 2009, using the collect ive strength to protect the intellectual property.
Policy supporting Research and technological support Technology extension Demonstration by some leading householders Management of bamboo forest at large scale Intellectual property protection Successful experience from Anji
III. The Contribution of bamboo for Environmental sustainability
1.Soil conservation and degraded land rehabilitation 2.Bamboo forest for water filtration 3.Biodiversity conservation in bamboo forests 4.Climate change, carbon sequestration and adaptation 5.Bamboo as environmental friendly construction material 6.Recommendations 3. Bamboo forest for Environment
1. Soil conservation and degraded land rehabilitation
1. Role in the rehabilitation of degraded land Bamboo could make a significant contribution to rehabilitate waste and degraded lands. Studies in an INBAR project with 106 ha. rehabilitated brick-mining land in India show: 1. The ground water level that had fallen to 40 meters deep rose to 33.7 meters within 4 years. 2. The land became arable and productive. 3. Micro-climate is much improved. Land devastated by brick mining Rehabilitated by bamboo plantations
Land degradation I INBAR-Utthan project near Allahabad Before After INBAR's this bamboo-project partner wins Alcan prize for Sustainable Development
Land degradation II Tamenglong (Manipur) project - slash and burn agriculture elimination and bamboo-based livelihoods development
2. Role in soil erosion control Bamboo is an ideal plant to help prevent erosion as it grows and spreads quickly and forms a network of rhizomes and roots to control or stop damage from flowing water. According to study on a new bamboo plantation in its 5 th year after planting, the annual soil erosion has significantly decreased from 4,235 tons/km 2 to 436 tons/km 2. Soil Erosion Monitoring River bank stabilization
Compared to sweet potato farming lands, the soil erosion is reduced by 78%
As a summary, a great potential exists in using bamboo to combat land degradation in Vietnam, enhance capacities and competences at the local and national levels to implement sustainable land management (SLM) with bamboo, and to provide tools and mechanisms to promote the inclusion of the SLM best practices using bamboo developed in the project into national, regional and global SLM strategies and programmes.
2. Bamboo for water filtration Living plants and plantation Bamboo charcoal for sewage
There are quite a few projects on bamboo for polluted water filtration in Australia, China, France and other countries.
Bamboo Plantation: The Phytoremediation is Soil remediation, The sewage waste or clean indoor air, using vascular plants, Of algae (Phycoremédiation) or mushrooms (Mycoremédiation), and by extension Ecosystems that support these plants. Thus we eliminate or control contamination. The degradation of harmful compounds is accelerated by the activity microbial.Soil remediationsewagevascular plantsalgaemushroomsEcosystemscontaminationmicrobial
Ecological Solution- Complete dispersal of all waste, with no remaining wastewater remaining on the water surface Guaranteed results- The system has been tested and validated by ANVAR. Removal of all visual, bacterial and smell pollution is guaranteed. Perennial solution- the bamboo takes in pollution and heavy metals all year round.
Case: Fushun County of China: Bamboo bio- organism charcoal sewage water treatment 1. Sewage water 2. 1000tons/per day 3. CODcr ： 250 ～ 350mg/L before treatment 4. CODcr ： 30 ～ 40mg/L after treatment 5. Cost of the treatment plant : USD 200,000 6. Status: in operation Bamboo charcoal for sewage
3. Biodiversity conservation and habitat connectivity in bamboo forest
Role in nature conservation and biodiversity Bamboos are main components of tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems. Bamboo forests provides habitats and food for animals such as giant panda. In China, for instance, 2.8% bamboo forests provide 7.5 % of total commercial timber in volume. Bamboo forests and plantations greatly help reduce the destruction of natural forests and its biodiversity by providing substitutes for timber and by generating income for the rural poor in the conservation areas.
Beautiful natural bamboo forests with rich biodiversity
Issues and problems Huge market demanding Over-harvesting & over-exploited 700 million ha. Bamboo in China 300 ha. Is not accessible in remote mountainous area What is happening with the 4 million accessible natural bamboo forests?
4. Climate change, carbon sequestration and adaptation
Context and challenge 1.Modeling carbon sequestration of bamboo forests 2.1 Carbon credits for CDM and voluntary market 2.2 Carbon sequestration of bamboo forests 2. Adaptation to climate change
The Context and the Challenge The MAD Challenge: 1. Mitigation of global average 2 degrees temperature 2. Adaptation to unavoidable local climatic changes 3. Development in line with MDG ’ s and other goals
Bamboo ’ s ability and potential Exaggeration of the ability of bamboo to sequester extraordinary volumes of carbon and produce oxygen Recognition of the multiple factors affecting sequestration Types of bamboos (sympodial, monopodial, species etc) Climatic conditions (tropics, sub-tropics, temperate) Growth rates and management practices (selective harvesting) Age of bamboo: Risks and mitigating factors (disease, flowering, fires)
The Forestry Context Management of bamboo stands is an integral part of most bamboo forests Bamboo forests should be compared to other fast-growing productive forests for carbon sequestration, such as eculyptus, NOT to primary tropical forests Left to themselves, bamboo forests are more or less carbon neutral- they release as much CO 2 into atmosphere as they sequester BUT when managed, bamboo can outperform fast-growing species in terms of carbon sequestration
Quantification of achievable carbon removals and amounts of carbon credits in the example project at a scale of 800 ha.
The total amount of carbon that a project of the scale and the design of the LDP project could remove from the atmosphere is about 75,000 tCO2e, which accrue in years 3-10 after planting at an average rate of about 6,000 tCO2e /year, with slower accumulation at the beginning and towards the end. These dynamics correspond to approximately 60,000 carbon credits under the VCS across those 10 years. At a carbon price of USD 5 per VCS carbon credit the example LDP project at 800 ha could generate a total of USD 300,000 of gross revenue. This would be enough to cover the costs of carbon project development but not leave much net revenue to invest in other activities. Upscaling or other approaches must be considered for a feasible action.
The example case of bamboo plantings from the LDP project we analyzed is clearly not additional and thus qualifies neither for the CDM nor for the VCS. The lands on which bamboo is planted would in large parts not be eligible for the CDM, although they could potentially in parts qualify under the VCS. Lastly, the scale of activities is much too small to make economic sense.
Modeling of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubecens) with Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata)
Adapting to Climate Changes Bamboo is a species with agency, but is also vulnerable Help the poor communities to adapting Climate change
What the attributes of bamboo which lend itself to higher levels of resilience and adaptive capacity? Forestry and Cultivation 1. Quick growth = short rotation 2. Short rotation = low financial outlay, quick recouping 3. Plant-it-and-leave-it 4. Plant anywhere 5. Easy Harvesting 6. Multipurpose
Providing resilience to other systems 1.Erosion Control 2. Windbreaks and Shelterbelts 3. Watershed 4. Rehabilitation of Degraded 5. Bioremediation of contaminated
In less bamboo-sectoral developed countries, to overcome current barriers to the greater inclusion of bamboo in these environmental programmes, a few recommendations are: 1.Develop policy and undertake effective demonstrations of best-practice sustainable bamboo management on different types of degraded lands; 2.Strengthen human, institutional and technical capacities to implement sustainable bamboo management projects at local and national levels, and; 3.Raise awareness amongst senior decision-makers for greater inclusion of bamboo in national and regional strategies. Recommendations