What is Self-regulation Learners’ intentional efforts to manage and direct complex learning activities. SRL is a multidimensional construct that includes complex interactions among cognitive strategy use, motivation, and metacognition (Butler & Winne, 1995; Perry, 2002; Schraw et al., 2002; Zimmerman, 2000)
Cognitive strategy component Activities that support students’ active manipulation of academic content. –Free form note taking A baseline approach, or what students do before learning more effective methods. –Matrix organizer A 2-dimensional cross-classification table with topics along the top row, repeatable categories down the left-most column, and details in the intersecting cells.
Metacognitive Component Refers to the knowledge and ability students have to regulate cognitive activities (Brown,1987) Help learners carry out a specific task –Help learners understand and regulate these cognitive processes (Artzt & Armour-Thomas, 1988) Self-monitoring is a critical aspect of effective SRL because it provides learners with self- generated feedback regarding their own performance (Butler & Winne, 1995)
Motivational Component In this present study, the motivational component was operationally defined as academic self-efficacy. Academic self-efficacy as a significant predictor of student achievement (e.g.,Horm et al., 1993) Students who received feedback demonstrated higher achievement and increased self-efficacy judgments as compared to students who did not receive feedback.
Results Self-efficacy feedback –A significant within subjects*academic self-efficacy building feedback interaction –self-efficacy did not increased Metacognitive prompts –Self-monitoring prompts did not influence self-reported levels of metacognitive awareness Note taking method –Matrices recorded (M=50.84) more notes than in the free form method (M=44.09)
Results SRL prediction –Note taking methods, self-monitoring prompts, and self-efficacy building feedback, 雖然有一致性，但不顯著。 Self-monitoring prediction –Received self-monitoring prompts achieved higher as compared to students who did not receive prompts. –Self-monitorning * note taking interaction on the application test 在 matrix note 中達到顯著 在 free form 沒有差異 Academic self-efficacy prediction – 高一點但未達顯著 Note taking prediction –Using the matrix achieved higher than took notes freeform
Educational implications Providing students with a matrix note taking tool is an efficient and effective way to help students gather and organize certain kinds of information from multiple Web sites. Efficacy-building feedback has a positive influence on achievement, particularly on application-type questions Students who are prompted to monitor their progress achieve higher than do students who are not prompted to self-monitor.