Questions & Answers ★ 3. If you were given the decision to assist in your family member’s death, what are the challenges you might face? ※ 2. What’s your grandma like? What she did for you impressed you most? ※ 1. Have you ever been attracted by any hands? Do you think a pair of hands can tell you something about the person? key
1. warm-hearted, kindly,diligent, economical, fashionable, enlighted, well-educated, illiterate, rich-experienced, long-sighted,strong-willed 2. be concerned about, cook, improve, protect me from, see me off
truly speaking, to be faced with, the law of nature, be put in the situation, psychological, suffer the most profound guilt of helplessness, physical, to make contacts with, conquer Truly speaking, nobody wants to be faced with this situation, even though we all know that death is the law of nature. If I were put in the situation to assist in my family member’s death, the challenges I might face lie in two aspects. One is psychological. I can’t imagine how I can watch the person I love most leave me forever, while I can do nothing about it. I will suffer the most profound guilt of my helplessness. Another one is physical, for I might be afraid of making contacts with him/her. This is just what occurs to my mind. Maybe, in reality, I’ll conquer these challenges. Reference Words:
Text Structure ＊ main ideas main ideas ＊ devices for developing main ideas devices for developing main ideas
Narration-description ( 叙述 - 描写法 ) Main idea ? Devices for developing it ? For details For details I attend to a dying patient, who is very thin. Even, she has no enough strength to swallow some water. Part I (Paras. 1-4) Part II Part IV Part V Part III Part VI
Main idea ? Devices for developing it ? The patient is seriously ill, too weak for anything. General-specific ( 总分法 ) Part II (Para. 5) Part I Part IV Part V Part III Part VI
Description ( 描写法 ) This is focused on the author’s mental activities. Main idea ? Devices for developing it ? Driven by my thoughts, I exchange with the patient, who is able to utter only broken sentences. Though, I begin to see what a kind and considerate grandmother she is. Part III (Paras. 6-7) Part I Part II Part IV Part V Part VI
Description ( 描写法 ) This is also focused on the author’s mental activities. Main idea ? Devices for developing it ? The patient dies. And the author seems to have a better understanding of the patient. Mrs. Clark spares her family from seeing her die and the author feels it a privilege to be there with the patient. Part IV (Para. 8) Part I Part III Part II Part V Part VI
Statement of facts ( 事实陈述法 ) Main idea ? Devices for developing it ? It is only two days after Mrs. Clark’s death that the author comes to learn more about her from the newspaper. Part V (Para. 9) Part IV Part VI Part I Part III Part II
Description ( 描写法 ) This part consists of only one sentence. “Yes, they were long and graceful fingers.” Literally, the author praises the graceful fingers; in fact, she speaks highly of the patient. Main idea ? Devices for developing it ? Mrs. Clark is really graceful. Part VI (Para. 10) Part V Part IV Part I Part III Part II Thanks for your attention!
Word Study decayloosesecuredrip faintslidenakedoutline hintintervalblankepisode
decay 这一行业进入衰败期已有一段时间。 This industry has been in decay for some time. ★ n. [U] the action or state of gradually going bad; rotting 变坏，腐烂，衰败 他们声称塑料被埋起来就不会腐烂。 They claimed that the plastics would not decay if they were buried. She smelt the unpleasant smell of decaying meat. 她闻到肉腐烂时发出的臭味。 vi. ※ 1. become bad; rot 腐烂，变坏 ★ 2. lose power, influence, etc. 衰退，衰落，衰败 人的智力在年老时会衰退。 Our intellectual power will decay in old age. Example
decay 和 rot 都有 “ （使）腐烂 ” 的意思。 rot 损坏 的程度比 decay 要深一些，不一定发出难闻的气 味； decay 一般指损坏的全过程，强调发出难闻 的气味。 The capitalism is rotting with each passing day. 另外， decay 的引申意思为 “ 衰败，衰退 ” ， rot 的 引申意思为 “ （使）腐败，（使）堕落 ” 。
loose a. ※ 1. not tense; not tight 宽松的，不紧的 The radio wasn't working because of a loose connection in the wires. 收音机因导线系统接触不良而不响了。 ★ 2. free from control 自由的，散漫的 别让那男孩在花园里乱跑。 Don't let the boy loose in the garden. 3. not bound together 散放的，散装的 我买的这些糖果是散装的，不是盒装的。 I bought these candies loose,not in a box. ※ loosely ad. in a loose manner 他的断臂松松地从肩部垂下。我参加的音乐协会只是一个松散的组织。 The music society I belong to is only loosely organized. His broken arm hung loosely from his shoulder. 释放，放开 松弛的皮肤 宽大的外衣 let loose loose skin a loose coat
secure vt. ★ 1. make firm or tight; fasten 关紧，固定 大门不能一直开着，所以我们不得不将它 固定在柱子上。 The gate won't stay open, so we'll have to secure it to the post. ※ 2. make safe; protect 使安全，保护 建造这堵墙是为了保护村庄不受攻击。 The wall was built to secure the village from attack. 3. get, sometimes with difficulty 得到，获得 我为我们弄到了两个前排座位，观看表演。 I've secured us two front seats for the show. a. ※ 1. safe; protected against danger or risk 安全的 我们这里很安全，受不到攻击吧？ Are we secure from attack here? ★ 2. firm or tight enough for safety 牢固的 离开前要关紧窗户。 Make the window secure before leaving the house.
drip ★ v. (cause to) fall in drops 滴 你有没有听到水龙头滴水的声音？ Can you hear the tap dripping? ★ n. 1. (sing.) series of drops of falling fluid ( 连续落下的 ) 液滴 I can hear the steady drip of water from the tap. 我能听见从水龙头不断滴落的水声。 2. [C] any one of these drops 一滴 一滴滴的水被汇集在一只桶中。 The drips were being collected in a barrel. 大汗淋漓 （话里）带刺 透过 … 撒下 … 从 … 滴下 drip sweat drip acid drip through drip from/off
faint a. ※ 1. lacking clearness, brightness, strength, etc. 微弱的, 不清楚的 Tom seemed to hear some faint sound coming from the graveyard. 汤姆好像听见从坟场传来的微弱的声音。我一点也不懂你的意思。 I haven't the faintest idea of what you mean. ★ 2. weak and about to lose consciousness 虚弱的，衰弱的 由于没有进食，他感觉要昏倒了。 He felt faint for lack of food. 渐渐变弱 模糊的想法 看起来要昏倒 grow faint a faint idea look faint
slide v. ※ 1. (cause to) move smoothly （使）滑动 他拉开抽屉。 He slid the drawer open. ★ 2. (cause to) move quietly （使）悄悄地移动, 溜进 当没有人看到时，他将信塞入了口袋。 He slid the letter into his pocket while no one was looking. 窃贼迅速地溜到帷幕后面。 The thief quickly slid behind the curtains. n. 1. [C] (usu. sing.) the act of sliding 滑，滑行 汽车在冰上打滑。 The car went into a slide on the ice. 2. [C] a small piece of photographic film in a frame which, when light is passed through it, shows a larger image on a screen 幻灯片 The lecture was illustrated with slides. 讲座通过幻灯片加以说明。
naked a. ※ 1. not covered by clothes 赤身的，裸露的 这片海滩禁止裸泳。 Naked bathing is not allowed on this beach. ★ 2. without the usual covering 赤裸裸的，无遮蔽的 他显露出赤裸裸的野心。 He showed naked ambition. 裸浴 用肉眼看某物 赤裸裸的事实 上身赤裸 naked bathing see sth. With the naked eyes the naked truth naked to the waist bare 指局部的裸、表面光秃秃的，或毫无 … 的、 勉强的。 naked 指整体的裸，或无掩饰的． 最低限度的生活必需品 没有家具的 the bare necessities of life bare of furture
outline n. ※ 1. [C] line(s) showing the shape or outer edge(of sth.) 轮廓，外形 她先描出了这只船的轮廓，然后给它着色。 She drew the outline of the boat and then colored it in. ★ 2. [C] a statement of the main facts or points 要点，大纲 教师把这学期计划要做的工作简要地说了一下。 The teacher gave a brief outline of the work planned for the term. ★ vt. give a short general description of (sth.) 概述 在面试时她略述了我将要做的工作。 At the interview she outlined what I would be doing.
hint n. 1. [C] a slight indication 细微的迹象 他们一看苗头不对，就拔腿溜了。 They fled at the first hint of trouble. ★ 2. [C] a subtle way of indicating to sb. what one is what thinking or one wants 暗示，提示 布朗先生看了看手表，暗示我们应该动身了。 As a hint that it was time for us to go, Mr. Brown looked at his watch. v. suggest sth. slightly or indirectly 暗示 他向我们暗示已达成了一项协议。 He hinted to us that an agreement had been reached.
hint 所指的暗示往往是由表情、动作或含 蓄的话表示出来的。 imply 强调所行或所言之中包含着另一层 意思。 Suggest 指事物的表征等使人引起的联想。 His reply implied a criticism of our work. His white face suggests bad health.
interval n. ★ 1. [C] a period between two events or times, or the space between two points 间隔，间距 明天大部分时间是阴，有时转晴。 Tomorrow it will be mostly cloudy, with a few sunny intervals. 2. [C] a brief period between the parts of performance 幕间休息，中场休息 中场休息才过 3 分钟，他就射入了他本场比赛 的第一个进球。 He scored his first goal of the match three minutes after the interval.
blank a. ※ 1. without expression, understanding or interest; empty 茫然的，无表情的 ★ 2. carrying no information or mark 空白的，无字的，空着的 My questions only drew blank stares. 我的问题只招来茫然的凝视。 在表格末端有一空白处需要你签名。 There's a blank space at the bottom of the form for you to sign your name in. n. [C] an empty space 空白 事故发生后的情况，我什么都不记得了。 For me the time after the accident was a total blank.
episode n. 1. ★ [C] a single event or group of related events 一个事件，一组事件 被命名为本年度最佳运动员是这位棒球选手 一生中的重大事件。 Being named the best athlete of the year was an important episode in the baseball player's life. 2. [C] one of the single parts into which a story is divided, esp. when it is broadcast on the television or radio. ( 尤指电视或无线电广播的 ) 一集，一出，一部分 这是这部连续剧的最后一集。 This is the last episode of the serial. Thanks for your attention!
Useful Expressions 活学活用 1. 伸手去拉灯 to reach for the light (L. 6) 的确，没有钱我们无法生活，但是我们决 不应该把手伸向公家的口袋。 It is true that we can’t live without money, but we should never reach for it in the public pocket.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 2. 用无动于衷的、医生的目光观察着病人 to observe the patient with an unemotional, medical eye (L. 7) Seen with a romantic eye, living in mountains is an adventurous experience, but in reality, the inhabitants there have to earn a living through hard labor. 用浪漫的眼光来看， 住在山里是一种充 满刺激的经历，然 而事实上，那里的 人们必须通过艰辛 的劳动来谋生。
Useful Expressions 活学活用 3. 松松地裹在嶙峋的骨骼上 to hang loosely around exaggerated bones (L. 10) 那些行贿、受贿的人实际上是在给自己的 脖子缠上紧紧的绳索。 Those who offer and take bribes are actually hanging a tight rope around their necks.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 4. 感觉那微弱的脉搏 to feel for the faint pulse (L. 15) 队长再一次摸摸伤员的胸口看有没有心跳，他 吃惊地感觉到了跳动着的生命的迹象。 When feeling again on the chest for the heartbeat of the wounded, the head of the team surprisingly got the pumping sign of life.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 5. 缓解她的干渴 to ease her thirst (L. 20) 要用微笑面对挑战，因为它是缓解焦虑与压 力的良药。 Smile through any challenging situations, for smile is the best medicine to ease your anxiety and stress.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 6. 没有用力去吞咽 to make no attempt to swallow (L. 21) 不要一遇到挫折就打退堂鼓，至少你应该 再试一次。 Don’t beat a retreat immediately after any setback, at least you should make another attempt to hit it.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 7. 虚弱得无法交谈 to be too weak for conversation (L. 26) 说到交友，有些人太精明，在你有困难的 时候往往靠不住。 As for friends-making, some people are too sophisticated for you to turn to when you are in trouble.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 8. 开始做她所需要的 to go about providing for her needs (L. 26) 如果你决心要拿硕士学位，现在就开始为 之准备吧！ If you are determined to pursue a master’s degree, just go about preparing for it from now on.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 9. 像一个严重饥荒的受害者 like a victim of some terrible famine (L. 28) 在一个法制松懈的社会，青少年和儿童很 容易成为暴力的受害者。 In a society with loose legal systems, teenagers and children are quite likely to become the victims of violence.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 10. 打开护肤霜的瓶盖 to remove the lid from a jar of skin cream (L. 29) 一个人的名声就像一块白布，很容易被玷污， 但要清除这些污点却很难。 One’s reputation, like a piece of white cloth, is easy to stain while it is hard to remove the stains from it.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 11. 把护肤霜揉在她发黄的皮肤上 to rub cream into her yellow skin (L. 30) 对于一个有责任感的老师最好要避免给学生灌 输老生常谈的东西。 It is better for a dutiful teacher to avoid rubbing cut- and-dried things into students.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 12. 握住她那只空闲的手 to take her free hand between mine (L. 34) 白发苍苍的老妈妈满含热泪紧握着他失散多 年儿子的手，久久无语。 That grey-haired old woman took the hands of her son between hers, whom she had had no news of for years, tearful, wordless.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 to spend her last ounce of strength (L. 40) 13. 耗尽了最后的那点力气 一分脑力胜似十分财力，而一分实践胜似十 分理论。 An ounce of brain is worth a pound of wealth while an ounce of practice is worthy of a pound of theory.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 14. 为她的家人省去了一幕人生插曲 to spare her family an episode (L. 54) 在浪漫的恋爱关系 中开诚布公将省去 你很多麻烦。 Being open and honest in romantic relations will spare you a lot of troubles.
Useful Expressions 活学活用 19. 他们或许无力面对 perhaps they were not equipped to handle (L. 47) 离婚对有些成年人来说 或许可以接受，但是他 们的孩子却无力面对这 种变故。 Getting divorced may be acceptable to some adults, but their children are not equipped for the change. Thanks for your attention!
Sentence Study 1. Typical patterns for making judgmentsTypical patterns for making judgments 2. Typical patterns for coming to the realization of sth.Typical patterns for coming to the realization of sth. 3. Typical patterns for revealing one’s feelingsTypical patterns for revealing one’s feelings
1.Typical patterns for making a judgment of sb. or sth. ( 对 ······ 的判断 ) 原句 : I have never seen Mrs. Clark before, but I know from her medical chart and the report I received from the preceding shift that tonight she will die. (L. 1~2) Sentence Study 我从未见过克拉克夫人，但看过她的医疗记录和上一 位值班医生交给我的报告后，我知道她今晚会去世。 句型提炼 1)Sb. has never done sth. before, but he / she knows / judges / infers / deduces from …that sth. or sb. … 某人从未做过某事，但他／她 从 ······ 中得知／推断某事／某人 ……
应用： a. 我从未处理过离婚的案件，但从双方 的申诉中判断他们的夫妻缘分已尽。 I have never handled any case of divorce before, but I judge from the appeals made by both sides that their relationship has come to an end. Sentence Study
应用 : b. 我还从未预 测过中国的未来，但 从其近 20 年的经济发 展推断她将拥有一个 更加灿烂的明天。 I have never predicted the future of China yet, but I can deduce from her economic development of last 20 years that she will embrace a more brilliant tomorrow. Sentence Study
原句 : As though she is a mind reader(seems to sense my thoughts), Mrs. Clark answers my thoughts and quietly tells me, “…” (L. 38) 克拉克夫人似乎读懂了我心思，平静地回答 我说： “······” 句型提炼 2) As though sb. senses / reads my mind, he / she answers my thoughts and tells (that) … 某 人似乎读懂了我心思，他／她回答我， ······
Sentence Study 应用 应用 :a. 他似乎读懂了我对他的爱情的疑虑，坦 率地回答我说，他已和很多女孩相处过，但唯 独和我的接触使他的生活变化最大。 As though he sensed my doubt about his love for me, he answered my thoughts and frankly told me that he had made contacts with many girls but none of them had brought greater changes to his life than the contact with me.
Sentence Study 应用应用： b. 老师似乎读 懂了学生们的心思，他 安慰他们说： “ 只要大 家把我课上讲的知识复 习到位，都可以在期末 考试中取得好成绩。 ” As though the teacher was a mind reader, he assured the students and said, “ Everyone will achieve good results in the term-end examination as long as you have a good review of what I have taught in class.” Thanks for your attention!
Sentence Study 2. Typical patterns for coming to the realization of sth. 原句 : Our eyes meet and somehow, together, we become aware that this is a special moment between two human beings. (L. 19) 我们相互对视，不知怎么的，我们都意识到， 这是两个生命间的一个特殊时刻。 句型提炼 1) Their / Our eyes meet and somehow, ( together,) they / I become aware / conscious or realize that … 相互的目光发生碰撞，不知 怎么的，他们／我意识到 ······
Sentence Study 应用应用： a. 他们的目光相遇了，不知怎么的， 他们都意识到这可能是他们的诀别。 Their eyes met and somehow, together, they came to realize that this might be the time for them to part with each other forever.
Sentence Study 应用应用： b. 我们的目光相 遇了, 不知怎么的， 我马 上意识到，这次目光接 触将使我与她的关系发 生根本性的改变。 Our eyes met and somehow, I immediately became conscious that this eye contact would bring about a complete change in my relationship with her.
Sentence Study 原句 : Slowly, still holding her hand, I become aware that I do not mind this emotional battle, that in fact, it was a privilege she has allowed me, and I would do it again, gladly. (L. 52) 我依然握着她的手，渐渐地，我意识到我并不害怕 这种感情之战，意识到这实际是她赐予我的特殊荣 幸，而且我还乐意再来一次。 句型提炼 2) Slowly / Gradually, in the course of doing sth., sb. becomes aware / conscious or realizes that …, that in fact, … 某人在做某事的过程 中渐渐地意识到 ······, 实际上, ······
Sentence Study 应用 应用 : a. 我在教书的过程中渐渐地意识到我天 生适合这项工作，意识到它实际上是我生命 的一部分，而且我乐意把它视作自己的终身 职业。 Gradually, in the course of teaching, I became aware that I was made for the job, that in fact, it was a part of my life, and I would like to see it as my life career.
Sentence Study 应用 : b. 在与人交往的过程 中，渐渐地，我意识到宽宏 大度可以为你营造一个愉快 的生活氛围，意识到它事实 上可以使你终生受益。 Slowly, in the course of associating with others, I have come to realize that large- mindedness can create you a pleasant climate of living, that in fact it can be of benefit to your whole life. Thanks for your attention!
Sentence Study 3. Typical patterns for revealing one’s feelings 原句 : In the total silence, I feel my own pulse quicken and hear my breathing as it begins to match hers, breath for uneven breath (L. 42~43) 在一片寂静中，我感觉自己的脉搏加快了，我听 到自己的呼吸开始伴随着她那不均匀的呼吸一起 一落。 句型提炼 1)In the face / case (In a state / a climate of …) of …, sb. feels …( 从句 ) and … 在 ······ 情况下，某人 感觉 ······, ······
Sentence Study 应用 : a. 面对女友的绝情信，他感觉天快塌 下来了，并听到内心在嘲弄他是世上最笨的 人。 In the face of his girlfriend’s Dear John email, he felt the sky was about to fall and heard his innermost being mock him as the most foolish one in the world.
Sentence Study 应用 : b. 在等待那 次重要的面试时， 我感觉自己的脉搏 加快，记忆一片空 白。 In waiting for that important interview, I felt my own pulse quicken and my memory become a complete blank.
Sentence Study 原句 : There is swell of emotion within me for this stranger who so quickly came into and went from my life. (L. 50~51) 为这位迅速走进又很快走出我生活的陌生人， 我心间涌起了一股感情。 句型提炼 2) There is a swell / fit / an outburst / outbreak of … within sb. for sb. who … / sth. that... 对这个 …… 人 / 事，某人心中 涌起了一种（股） ······
Sentence Study 应用： a. 对这位世上第一个横渡英吉利海峡 的残疾中国人，我心中涌起一股敬佩之情。 There is a swell of esteem within me for this disabled Chinese who is the first in the world to swim across the English Channel.
Sentence Study 应用： b. 对这种既破坏环境又殃及子孙 的做法我心中爆发出一股无明火。 There is an outburst of inexplicable anger within me for the move that not only destroys the environment but affects our offspring as well. Thanks for your attention!
hang around // hang about ↘ hang on to ↘ hang over reach for // stretch out for // feel for turn towards // turn to ↔ turn away // turn aside make an attempt to do sth. // Make an attempt at doing go about // go at // go in for // engage in // be engaged in provide for ↘ provide …for ↘ provide…with ↘ supply… with ↘ supply…for ↔ provide against