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Discovering useful structures Unit 3. 1. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. 2. Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

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Presentation on theme: "Discovering useful structures Unit 3. 1. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. 2. Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise."— Presentation transcript:

1 Discovering useful structures Unit 3

2 1. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. 2. Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. 3. A light heart lives long. 4. Good health is over wealth. 5. Health is happiness. 6. Wealth is nothing without health.

3 Learning Goal 1.“It” used in the subject or object position to stand for an infinitive, -ing form, or a clause. 2.Impersonal “it” used to talk about time, distance, weather, etc. 3. It is + adj./n./-ed + that clause 4. it, one,that 的用法

4 Discovering “It” 1. It rains heavily. 2. It is 20 kilometers from Granddad's house to James’. 3. It is November 11, 2005. 4. It is 9 o’clock at night. 5.It'll be lovely in the garden tonight . 6. It is bad to smoke. 7. It is likely that he will succeed. 天气 距离 日期 时间 形式主语 环境 形式主语

5 “It” is a very useful word in English and can be used in many ways. “It” can be used in the subject or object position to stand for an infinitive, -ing form or a clause. For example: It is amazing that at my age I am still fit. It is easier to fall than to rise. I think it best that you should do more exercise. It is no good crying over spilt milk. He found it difficult to accustom himself to getting up early.

6 Impersonal “it” can be used to talk about time, distance, weather, etc. For example: It is a beautiful day. It takes all sorts. It never rains but it pours. It is 10 kilometres to the castle. It was time to quit smoking.

7 Keys to Exercise 1 1.it6. this 2.it7. that 3.it8. it; one 4.it9. one; one10. that

8 Key to Exercise 2 1.B 2. B3. A 4. D 5. D 6. C 7. A8. B 9. D10. A

9 1. it 的最基本用法是作代词,主要指刚提到的事物,以 避免重复 : Xi’an is a beautiful city, isn’t it? 2. 也可以指动物或婴儿 ( 未知性别的婴儿或孩子 ): Is this your dog ? No, it isn’t. 一、 it 作人称代词

10 有时并不指具体的东西,而泛指天气、时间、日期、 距离、价值、度量、温度、环境等,称为非人称的 it : 指天气: It is a lovely day, isn’t it? It is a bit windy. 指时间 : It was nearly midnight when she came back. 指环境 : It was very quiet in the café. 指距离: It is half an hour’s walk to the city centre from my home. 二、 it 作非人称代词

11 指日期: --What's the date today? --It's May 1, 2007. 指季节: It is summer now. 指度量: It is about 5 kilograms. 指价值: ----What's the cost of the T-shirt? ----It is 150 yuan.

12 替代作主语的从句、动词不定式、动名词, 而把真正作主语的从句、动词不定式、动名 词置于句尾。 三、 it 用作形式主语

13 ( 1 ) It be adj. ( for sb. ) to do sth. 此处 adj. 通常为描述事件的形容词: easy , difficult , hard , necessary , unnecessary , possible , impossible , likely , unlikely , right , wrong , important , unimportant , legal , illegal , well-mannered , ill-mannered , polite , impolite , clear , obvious , certain , suitable , proper , fit , useful , useless , dangerous… It is illegal ( for a teenager ) to drive a car without a license. 1. 代作主语的动词不定式

14 ( 2 ) It be adj. of sb. to do sth. 此处 adj. 通常为描述人的形容词: kind , unkind , nice , rude , cruel , considerate , thoughtful , thoughtless , careful , careless , silly , foolish , stupid , clever , wise , crazy. It’s kind of you to help me with the problem.

15 It's no good/use doing… It's ( well ) worth doing… It's ( well ) worth one's while doing/to do… It's ( well ) worth while doing/ to do It's no use crying over spilt milk. (3) It 替代作主语的动名词的常见句型

16 2. it 作形式主语替代主语从句 It is clear ( obvious , true , possible, certain …) that... 该句型中 it 是形式主语,真正的主语是 that 引导 的主语从句,常译为 “ 清楚(显然, 真的 …… ) ” 是主语从句最常见的一种结构。例如: It is very clear that he’s round and tall like a tree. ① It is adj. +clause

17 It is said (reported/ learned/believed /thought/known/told/hoped.....) that... 该句型中的 it 仍是形式主语,真正主语是 that 引导的主 语从句;该结构常译为 “ 据说(据报道,据悉...) ” 。 It is said that he has come to Beijing. It is reported that another earth satellite has been put into orbit. ② It is v-ed that…=sb./sth. is to do

18 ③ It is + noun + 从句 It is a pity (a shame /an honor /a good thing/a fact /a surprise/... ) that... 该句型中, that 后的从句一般用虚拟语气( should + 动词原形), should 可省去.表示出乎意料,常译为 “ 竟 然 ” 。没有这种意义时,则不用虚拟语气。例如: It is a pity that such a thing (should) happen in your class. 这种事竟然发生在你们班上,真是遗憾! It is a pity that he is ill. 他生病了,真遗憾!

19 四、 it 作形式宾语 当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式、动名词宾语从 句时,往往把宾语放在它的补足语后面,而用 it 作形式宾语,放在宾语补足语之前。 该句型中的 it 作形式宾语,常用的动词有 think, believe, make, find, consider, feel 等。 6123

20 I think it no use arguing with him. 我认为和他争吵没有用。 I found it very interesting to study English. 我发现学英语非常有趣。 He made it clear that he was not interested in this subject. 他非常清楚地表示他对那门学科不感兴趣。

21 Making a dialogue Role-play a dialogue. One of you is an eyewitness (E) who has Seen a robbery or an accident. The other is the policeman/ policewoman(P) Who wants as much information as possible. Use “it” in the answers. Example: P: What was the weather like on the day of the accident? E: It was beginning to rain hard and the ground was slippery. P: How far could you see? E: It was impossible to see more than twenty yards ahead of you, so all the cars were travelling very slowly. P: What about Mr. Li’s car? Was it travelling slowly too? …

22 More Exercises: 1.I hate ______ when people talk with their mouths full. A. it B. that C. these D. them 2. In which play is ______ your brother will appear? A.that where B. this when C. it that D. it where 3. ______ the harder you work, the better result you’ll get. A.It’s believed that B. What we believed that C. It’s fact D. What the fact is 4. Nothing can stop us, _______? A. can’t it B. can it C. can’t we D. can we A C A B

23 5.---Can you tell us how the war was won in the end ? --- I don’t know, ________. A.It’s hard to say B. It doesn’t matter C. It’s no use saying D. It depends on the work 6. Does ______ matter a lot whether she will come here by bus or by taxi? A.The thing B. that C. it D. her mother 7. ---Listen! Someone is unlocking the goods. --- _____ must be your father coming back from Beijing. A. It B. There C. That D. This A C A

24 8. ---Have you written a letter to her ? --- No, but I’m going to write _____ tonight. B. that C. those D. one 9. --- Are they coming to the meeting ? --- ________. A.I know so B. I am sure so C. I am sure of it D. I question it 10. _______ now pretty late, we took candles and went upstairs. Being B. For C. For being D. It being 11.Our food and service are better than _____ used to be. A. It B. we C. they D. them D A D C

25 12.The teacher told the students _______. A. why to learn English important B. why was it important to learn English C. why it important to learn English D. why it was important to learn English 13.The TV sets made in China are much better than ______ in Japan. A.that B. those C. them D. it 14.---I’m looking for a flat. ---Would you like _______ with _____ garden? A. it; the B. it; a C. one ; a D. one ;the 15._______ four years since I joined the Army. A. It was B. It is C. There is D. There was D B C B

26 1.Remember the grammar focus and finish exercises 1-3 on pages 54-55. 2.Preview the reading passage on page 22.

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