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英语词汇学习探微 台州市教育局教研室 梁美珍. David Wilkins ( 1972 ) : Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. 名家观点.

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Presentation on theme: "英语词汇学习探微 台州市教育局教研室 梁美珍. David Wilkins ( 1972 ) : Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. 名家观点."— Presentation transcript:

1 英语词汇学习探微 台州市教育局教研室 梁美珍

2 David Wilkins ( 1972 ) : Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. 名家观点

3 No matter how well he learns grammar, no matter how beautiful he sounds, without rich words to express a wide range of meaning or to understand other’s ideas and thoughts, communication in a foreign language just can’t happen in any meaningful way. --- Michael McCarthy 名家观点

4 1. 在黑板上出示一张色彩鲜艳的天空图, 呈现并带读词汇; What’s this? It’s a nature park. What’s in the park? There is a… in the nature park. There are some … in the nature park. ( flower-flowers/grass/mountain-mountains/tree-trees…) 2. 学生自己拼读黑板上的单词; 3. 教师指着黑板上的单词,全班分组齐读; 4. 教师指着黑板上的图片,学生竞赛抢读单词; 5. 教师拿掉黑板上的图片,读出一个单词,让学生把相应的图片 贴到合适的位置上; 6. 教师擦掉黑板上的单词,让学生根据图片,分组竞赛上台写出 单词。 PEP 4 Unit 7 In a Nature Park

5 Unit 9 Have you ever been to an amusement park? Period 5 Self Check whenever conj. Whenever = no matter when However = no matter how Whatever = no matter what Wherever = no matter where The temperature in Singapore is almost the same all year round, so you can choose to go whenever you like. Go For It (8B) 无论你什么时候去,我都会跟你一起去。 Whenever you go, I’ll go with you.

6 whenever conj. Whenever = no matter when However = no matter how Whatever = no matter what Wherever = no matter where (1) I’m ready to answer any of your questions, so__________________________________________. (2) I see ___________ whenever I come into our classroom. (3) What would you like to do whenever you have time?


8 What have you seen? waterfall delta plain glacier rapids valley

9 How did they travel along?  dreamed about a great bike trip  an expensive mountain bike  cycle along the entire Mekong River

10 Whom did Wang Kun go with?  Wang Wei, his sister  Daowei and Yuhang, their cousins

11 What did they do to plan for the journey? Bought an expensive mountain bike Persuaded Wang Kun to buy one Got their cousins interested in cycling Planned the schedule(timetable) Went to the library Found a large atlas

12 Work in pairs. Imagine you are Wang Wei and Wang Kun. Make up a dialogue about how you make your travel plan. : ---How about cycling along the Mekong river? … : ---It sounds interesting. But how do you plan it? …

13 Introduce the Mekong as a tourist guide!

14 词汇学习目标四层次(舒运祥, 2001 ) 识知 理解 应用 交际 (由浅入深的认知层次) 教学目标分类(布鲁姆, 1986 ) 识记( knowledge )、理解( comprehension )、 运用( application )、分析( analysis )、 综合( synthesis )和评价( evaluation ) 交际(Communication) 应用( Application) 理解( Comprehension) 识知( Knowledge) 名家观点

15 级别级别 知识知识 目标描述 说明 五级五级 词汇词汇 1. 了解英语词汇包括单词、短 语、习惯用语和固定搭配等 形式; 强调学生对词汇的认识, 即词汇并不只是单个的 单词; 2. 理解和领悟词义的基本含义 以及在特定语境中的意义; 强调学生在语境中理解 词汇的意义; 3. 运用词汇描述事物、行为和 特征,说明概念等; 强调词汇的作用(如用 词汇来描述或命名事 物),而不是词汇本身 的含义; 4. 学会使用 1500-1600 个单词 和 200-300 个习惯用语或固定 搭配。 用 “ 学会使用 ” 代替以往 的 “ 掌握 ” ,更加突出语 言的运用。 课程标准五级 ( 初中毕业时 ) 词汇目标描述及说明 权威聚焦

16 Reading Advantage ( 3 ) Second Edition Casey Malarcher 方英 注释 上海教育出版社 海文音像出版社 ( 2005 ) Target vocabulary Match each word with the best meaning. 1. ____ artificial a. from a particular area 2. ____ benefit b. the army, air force, and navy 3. ____ military c. made by humans; not made naturally 4. ____ fund d. (verb) to receive a positive result; (noun) a positive result 5. ____ native (to) e. the possibility of something 6. ____ potential f. (verb) to provide money for a purpose; (noun) a sum of money for a purpose … c d b f a e

17 Vocabulary reinforcement Circle the letter of the word or phrase that best completes the sentence. 1.The inventor had a hard time finding someone with money to _____ his new invention. a. suggest b. fund c. stand a chance of d. benefit 2. Many scientists don’t feel comfortable doing research for ______ purpose. a. military b. beneficial c. artificial d. comparative 3. I think you can trust him; he has a good ______. a. benefit b. species c. organ d. reputation 4. Kangaroos are ______ Australia. a. beneficial for b. native to c. as the name suggests d. unfortunately … b a d b

18 Complete the passage with items from the box. One item is extra. The thousands of different _______ of spiders range from the size of dinner plates to smaller than a period. Spiders are unique because they spin webs of silk, and some people think spider silk is ____________ useful for humans. Spider web silk is very strong and is biodegradable, so it is good for the _______________. No modern businesses have been able to ______________ spider farming, but one company claims To have found a way to produce the chemicals to make __________ web silk through goat’s milk. If this company is successful, the new silk could ___________ people in many ways. species potentially environment make a go of artificial benefit artificial benefit environment species make a go of potentially reputations

19 Quiz Use words from the box to complete the passage. Write the words in the spaces. One item is extra. reputation potential benefit funding artificial significant funding reputation artificial benefit potential Many people are afraid of spiders because of their _________ as dangerous animals. However, only thirty of nearly forty thousand species have the ____________ to poison humans. By contrast, spider silk can ___________mankind. In fact, the military is ______________ the development of ____________ web.

20 Active skills for reading Neil J. Anderson( 美 ) fltrp 2003 B2 U1 Eat Chocolate-It Might Be Good For You! Word definitions A.Look at the list of words and phrases from the reading. Match each one with a definition on the right. 1.addiction ____ a. facts or information that show something is true or untrue 2. stimulate ____ b. a habit, usually harmful, that someone cannot stop doing 3. evidence ____ c. to make something become more active or energized 4. contribute (to) ____ d. to help make something happen … b c a d

21 B. Now complete the sentences using the words or phrases from A. Be sure to use the correct form of the word. 1.Smoking is an _________ that millions of people die from each year. 2. Do you have any ____________ that Mark took the money? 3. One way to ___________ a conversation is by asking people about themselves. 4. Living in the countryside with her family will __________ Elaine’s recovery from surgery. … addiction evidence stimulate contribute to

22 Words in context A.The words in italics are vocabulary items from the reading. Read each question/statement and choose the correct answer. 1. Which person would give you a prescription for something? a. a teacher b. a doctor 2. You are in Beijing and you are going to Bangkok. Your destination is _______. a. Beijing b. Bangkok 3. To protect your home from a thief, what precaution can you take? a. lock your doors b. open your windows 4. You see a woman holding a baby that is crying. What might you assume? a. You talk to them. b. The woman is the child’s mother. B2 U4 Going Abroad

23 B. Now think of other examples using the vocabulary from A. Share your answers with a partner. 1. What might you need a prescription for? 2. Where is your ideal holiday destination? 3. What other precaution can you take to protect your home from a thief? 4. What have you assumed about one of your classmates? …

24 Odd word out A.For each group, circle the word that does not belong. 1. courageous brave scared 2. funny humorous serious 3. accept receive reject 4. face hide avoid 5. history fortune destiny B2 U2 Read All About It!

25 B. Complete the sentences below using the words in italics from A. Be sure to use the correct form. 1. I think it was ____________ that led Kylie to become such a famous pop star. 2. Why is that woman laughing? I don’t think there is anything ____________ about a car accident! 3. I had a terrible fight with Loretta yesterday, and I just don’t think I can _____________ her today. 4. I don’t think I can do a bungee jump-I’m just not __________ enough. … destiny funny face brave courageous

26 Cutting Edge 朗文当代英语教材 fltrp ( 2007 ) Book 3 Module 9 Modern and Traditional A Match the modern items in A with the more traditional items in B. a fast food restaurant e-mail a personal computer a rock concert a shopping mall a CD player an electronic organizer a CD-ROM a computer game a microwave a supermarket a theme park a market letters and telegrams a circus a cooker a board game a corner shop a cassette player a traditional restaurant a fair a typewriter an encyclopedia a diary an address book A B

27 B. Which box do these belong to, A or B? a mobile phone the Internet a library air conditioning a photocopier a fax machine a motorway a bicycle a skyscraper C. Choose three pairs of items above and decide what the advantages and disadvantages of the old and new items are.

28 Interchange 剑桥国际英语教程 fltrp ( 2007 ) Jack C. Richards with Jonathan Hull and Susan Proctor Word Power Cooking methods A How do you cook the foods below? Check the methods that are most common in your country. Then compare with a partner.

29 Methods Foods fishshrimpeggschickenbeefpotatoesonionseggplantbananas bake fry roast boil barbecue steam

30 B Pair work What’s your favorite way to cook or eat the foods in Part A? A: Have you ever steamed fish? B: No, I haven’t. I prefer to bake it.

31 规律发现 1. 词汇学习目标层次的递进性; 2. 词汇学习的语境性; 3. 词汇学习的过程性。

32 Vocabulary study My Greatest Teachers( 成功英语阅读 ) 1 endless, unlimited, ___________ 2 booming, resounding, __________ 3 show, disclose, ______________ 4 assistance, help, ______________ 5 charms, fascinations, _____________ 6 support, acclaim, ______________ 7 be unsure of oneself: ______________________________ 8 come up with good answers on the spur of the moment: _____________________ 9 encourage sb. to show the best: _________________________ infinite resonant reveal benefit attractions approve be in the midst of a sea of uncertainty think on one’s own feet draw out the best in sb.

33 1 Who do you always have to reveal your secrets? Why? 2 Is there anyone who has a resonant voice around you? Is it an attraction to you? Why(not)? 3 Name another person or thing that is an attraction to you. Explain what makes it so attractive. 4 Give a description by using as …as …. 5 What may be the benefit of using mobile phones? Do you approve of middle school students using mobile phones on the campus? 6 Name a job which needs infinite patience and imagination. Explain your reasons. 7 What (else) can a teacher do to draw out the best in his students? Now think of other examples using the words or expressions above. Share your ideas with a partner.

34 高中英语词汇教学的内容 ( 高中英语教师教学用书) 内容 高中英语词汇教学主要是使学生掌握词义、 词的搭配和用法。 权威聚焦

35 What is involved in knowing a word? What makes learning a word difficult? What features of the word should be focused on? 专业引领 Teaching And Learning Vocabulary I. S. Nation( 新西兰 )

36 What is involved in knowing a word? Form Spoken form How is the word pronounced? Written form How is the word written and spelled? Position Grammatical patterns In what patterns must we use the word? Collocations What words or types of words can be expected before or after the word? (What words or types of words can we use with this word?) Function Frequency How common is the word? Appropriateness Where would we expect to meet this word? Meaning Concept What does the word mean? Associations What other words can we use instead of this one? What other words does this word make us think of?

37 Learning Burden Form Spoken Written pen see sun achieve bargain Christmas cigarette convenient destroy efficient foreign influence librarian material soldier rice regular eighthprefer permit

38 Learning Burden Position Grammar Collocation We talked/argued/joked/spoke about it. We discussed about it. We discussed it. Module 1 Unit 1 Friendship calm down be concerned about on purpose according to sweet voice strong tea black tea black and blue a green hand a white night a blue film He told/encouraged me to write to you. He suggested me to write to you. He suggested that I should write to you.

39 Learning Burden Function Frequency Appropriateness diligent/hardworking determine/decide perform/do nick/steal chuck/throw kid/child tummy potty I am firm; you are obstinate; he is a pigheaded fool. slim/skinny

40 Learning Burden Meaning Concept Associations presentspringaddress long/shortbig/small Tips: 1.Teach opposites and other strongly associated items separately, that is, weeks or months apart. 2.The similarity between items can be reduced using different contexts, pictures or objects for conveying the meaning of the items.

41 高中英语词汇学习的方法(高中英语教师教学用书) 1. 培养学生分音节按拼读规则拼读单词,注意音、形、义结合, 做到 “ 听其音知其形,见其形知其音,观其形知其意 ” 。 2. 运用构词法知识判断和记忆派生词及合成词的词义和词类。 (word formation) 3. 在学习词汇的过程中,善于对比、联想、发现英语单词的构词 方法以及多义词、多词性的特点。 4. 用比较和归类的方法学习和记忆单词,例如比较同形异义词、 同音异形词、同形异音词,比较同义、近义、反义,按词义、 词性、发音、构词法等归类,成串记忆单词比单个记忆单词 效率要高。 (word family) 权威聚焦

42 A play stage curtains lights microphone script theme lines stage directions scenes others budget props costumes cast actresses actors director narrator playwright character Module 3 Unit 3 The Million Pound Bank-Note

43 brave great women intelligent confident generous modest unselfish hard-working warm-hearted considerate knowledgeable responsible perseverant determined careful patient energetic passionate Module 4 Unit 1 Women of Achievement

44 A collocation grid sb’s car a painting the environment one’s health sb’s reputation children one’s legs sb’s feelings sb’s pride sb’s speech sb’s enjoyment sb’s happiness + damage harm hurt injure spoil +++++ +++++ ++++ +++ ++++

45 高中英语词汇学习的方法(高中英语教师教学用书) 5. 直观教学词汇,利用图片、视频、实物的直观效果帮助学生 记忆单词。 (demonstration) 6. 组块学习短语、固定搭配、习惯用语和句型,这种方法有利于 学生用英语思维和表达。 (lexical chunks) 7. 学会使用词典,根据上下文从词典中找到词义、读音、 词形变化、用法、词义辨析等。( using a dictionary) 8. 大量阅读,通过泛读不断复习已知词语,吸收新词, 扩大词汇量。( extensive reading ) 权威聚焦

46 Module 1 Unit 1 Friendship concern vt. (使)担忧;涉及;关系到 n. 关心;关注;(利害)关系 be concerned about 关心;挂念 Your friend comes to school very upset. The bell rings so you need to go to class. You will tell your friend that you are concerned about him/her and you will meet after class and talk then.

47 ( 剑桥高级学习词典 ) 1.Matters of pollution and the environment concern us all. 2. What I have to say to Amy doesn’t concern you. 3. There is no need for you to concern yourself with what happened. 4. The state of my father's health concerns us greatly. 5. It concerns me that he hasn't been in contact. [T] to be important to someone or to involve someone directly [T] to cause anxiety to someone

48 ( 剑桥高级学习词典 ) 1.What were the major concerns of the writers from this period? 2. I don't want to hear about it - it's none of my concern. 3. Concern for the safety of the two missing teenagers is growing. 4. There's a lot of public concern about/over dangerous toxins recently found in food. noun [C or U] something that involves or affects you or is important to you noun [C or U] a feeling of worry or nervousness, or something that worries you

49 ( 剑桥高级学习词典 ) 1.I'd like to thank everyone concerned for making the occasion run so smoothly. 2. Her job is something concerned with computers. 3. I'm a bit concerned about your health. 4. He was concerned to hear that two of his trusted workers were leaving. adj. involved in something or affected by it adj. worried

50 1.She picked up the little book and gave it to me. 2.We picked up the radio signals on our receiver. 3.Pick me up at the hotel so that I can go with you. 4.He has picked up some bad habits at that club. 5.He picked up French while he was staying in Paris. 6.The class picked up the story where they left off yesterday. She went over to her parents' house to pick up some clean clothes.

51 词汇教学过程四环节:呈现词义 促进理解 巩固运用 适时检测

52 Go For It (8A) Unit 7 Let’s make a banana milk shake! peel 1. 动作呈现词义 2. 问题促进理解 Mary, can you peel bananas? (Yes.) Can you peel the banana for me? (Of course.) What is Mary doing? (She is peeling a banana.) What else can we peel? (Apples, pears, potatoes…) Why do we peel them? 3. 课中巩固运用 Give instructions to make a fruit milk shake. 4. 课后作业检测 Last night when I went back home, I felt a bit hungry, so I peeled an apple for myself instead of having some potato chips because I know “An apple a day keeps doctors away.”

53 常见的词汇处理方式 第一步:教师对一个单元的词汇分几次或集中一次 在早读课或课堂中进行讲解 。 第二步:学生根据生词表或笔记背诵和记忆所学词汇。 第三步:在每个单元结束时,对该单元的词汇进行检测。

54 1. 教学方法传统,过分重视学生对单词的记忆,而忽视 其对单词的运用,致使学生对词汇的学习只停留在 识记的层面,达不到充分的运用和交流。 2. 单元词汇教学不分层次,平均用力,造成学生词汇 记忆负担很重,词汇教学效率低下。 3. 词汇学习策略指导不到位或错位,不利于词汇的认知 和理解,更不利于培养学生的独立学习能力。 4. 词汇检测方式和教学方式的不一致使得学生形不成 有效的词汇学习策略。 词汇教学过程中的常见问题

55 为了促进词汇认知,在词义呈现阶段应加强如下指导: 情境学习 (demonstration) ; 结构分析 (word formation) 意义解析 (definition) ; 词汇教学过程中要加强的几个环节

56 为了促进词汇理解,教师应进行适当拓展,增大相关 信息含量: synonyms and antonyms (odd word out) word family word web organizing words loan words

57 为了促进词汇运用,教师应把目标词汇和课堂活动进行 紧密结合,在听、说、读、写中多创造表达机会, 实现内化和意义输出。 Making sentences Solving problems Writing a short story Role play Word-guessing game

58 They are h______ and h_______ by bad people. Their habitat is t_______ and becomes smaller.threatened What problems do they face? They are e___________ ( 受到危害 ). Their number in the wild is d_________. hunted They are _________ of _________. harmed decreasing endangered in dangerdying out. Endangered Species

59 What Learned Tibet Zimbabwe a thick rainforest Antelopes are being killed ___ the wool and become an e_______ species. Elephants used to be endangered but their numbers are i_______ now.used to ______________ ( 关注 ) rainforest,help protect animals and even some powerful d_____. Daisy for endangered increasing Pay attention to drugs Where

60 World Wildlife Fund --- an organization that works to save endangered wildlife.

61 ____________a flying carpet, Daisy came to Tibet and learned antelopes were__________. Daisy flew to Zimbabwe and learned good things were being done to ______ the number of elephants. In the rainforest Daisy __________how animals lived together in the rainforest. Part1 ( para1 ): Part2 ( para2 ): Part3 ( paras 3-4 ): With the help of endangered increase How Daisy Learned to Help Wildlife appreciated

62 What do you learn from Daisy ’ s experience? Pair work You should pay attention to the rainforest where I live and appreciate how the animals live together. No rainforest, no animals, no drugs.

63 Farmers said the elephants _________ their farms and money from tourists only went to the ________companies. So they ________ the elephants without _______. hunted mercy tour Why were they endangered? destroyed

64 a. The monkey’s stopping others from attacking mosquitoes. b. The monkey’s playing with a millipede insect over its body. It contains a drug that affects mosquitoes. c. It asked Daisy to think little of the rainforest where it lived. d. It asked Daisy to understand how the animals live together. protecting itself from mosquitoes. rubbing a millipede insect over its pay more attention to the rainforest. appreciate how animals live together. What was the monkey doing and what did the monkey tell Daisy?

65 A monkey in the rainforest was ______ a millipede over its body to ______ itself ____ mosquitoes because the insect ______ a powerful drug which ______ mosquitoes. It asked Daisy to_____________ the rain forest and________ how the animals live together. It also asked Daisy to remember “No __________, no animals, no drugs.” rubbing protect contains affects pay attention to appreciate rainforest from

66 教师应适时对词汇进行检测,以反观教学效果, 而且应尝试多样化的检测方式,不要总是检查学生在 词汇认知水平上的机械记忆。 听写句子 完成句子 关键词造句 回答问题 课堂活动 课后作业 阶段或终结性考试

67 Make sentences with the following words or phrases. 1. conclude 2. fade 3. account 4. ever since 5. 表语 / 状语 / 动词原形 +as/though+ 主 + 谓(让步状语从句) 6. whether…or… (让步状语从句) 7. make for

68 1 At the closing ceremony, our headmaster concluded the sports meeting of this time was a great success, with the hard work of all the athletes, cheering teams and service workers. 2 His memory faded with age, but there are one thing that he remembered very clearly as if it had happened yesterday. 3 In the army, soldiers have no right to account for their being late, because being late just means you’ll get punished whatever the reason is. 4 Young as he is, he speaks like an adult, even more experienced than adults. 5 What matters is not whether you come from a rich family, but how many years’ working experience you have. By Tang Mengyao

69 1 My English teacher is always trying to make every student interested in her class, but in vain. 2 Our English class often occupies 50 minutes. 3 When teaching us new words, our English teacher always classifies them into groups according to the part of speech. 4 Our maths teacher often warns us that we should not refer to the answers as soon as we find the questions are hard. 5 Because of the high cost of medicine and a lack of specific medical skills, the clinic in our school causes lots of complaints from students. 6 I’m indeed fed up with the high price and the bad taste of the food in our school canteen.

70 1 Whatever great difficulty you come across, never lose heart. Just keep it in mind that there’s nothing difficult if you put your heart into it. 2 Listening to teachers and working hard by ourselves are of equal importance to the improvement of our grades. 3 We should do nothing at the expense of our health, as it is the most precious for us.

71 1 When asked to write on the blackboard, we are often told not to be afraid of making mistakes. 2 When I was young, I was so timid that I was afraid to sleep alone in the room. 3 I tried my best to explain to her, as I didn’t want there to be any misunderstanding between us. 5 He stood there, with his hands crossed on the chest, looking very proud. 6 Only if equipped with high grades can we have the possibility to choose the university we dream of.

72 共识达成 1. 词汇学习的终极目标在于运用。 2. 词汇学习一定是在具体语境中进行的。 3. 词汇学习过程要注重学习者自身的参与和体验, 促进吸收和内化。 4. 词汇教学过程中要注重目标词汇的复现及与听说读写 等教学活动的结合。


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