Unit 12 Objective Passage A @ Activities On Passage A Basic E-commerce Writing Related Reading Unit 12 Passage B @ Activities On Passage B Work online
Unit 12 Objective: In this unit, you will learn: The definition of e-cash Classifications and functions of e-cash The process of paying by e-cash Basic E-commerce English Writing Focus: The functions of e-cash Nodus: The process of paying by e-cash 学 习 目 标
Notes To Passage A E-Cash, The Natural Solution ！ Passage A 广义上说，电子现金既包括以智能卡为基础的代价券又包括数 字硬币或其它 数字代币（如：电子支票）。 注解：本句中的过去分词短语 broadly defined 为插入语，相当于一个非限制性定语 从句 which is broadly defined ； smart-card based 是定语，修饰 tokens ； tokens of value ：代价券／代币。 Electronic money, E-Cash, (also known as digital money, electronic currency, digital currency or internet money) refers to money which is only exchanged electronically. Typically, this involves the use of computer networks, the Internet and digital stored value systems. It is also a collective term for financial cryptography and technologies enabling it. E-cash, broadly defined, includes both smart-card based tokens of value and digital coins or other digital tokens of value (e.g. "digital checks"). The process or skill of communicating in or deciphering secret writings or ciphers. 密码术一种用秘密书写或密码进行交流的方法或技巧；译解秘 密书写或密码的方法或技巧 A piece of stamped metal used as a substitute for currency: 代币，常用钢币一种用于替代货币的印有符号的金属：
Notes To Passage A E-Cash, The Natural Solution ！ Passage A End Currently e-cash is represented by two models. One is the on-line form of e-cash which allows for the completion of all types of internet transactions. The other form is off-line ， essentially a digitally encoded card that could be used for many of the same transactions as cash. This off-line version (which also has on-line capabilities) is being tested by Mondex in partnership with various banks. 这种同时具备在线性能的离线版 ( 模式 ) 正处于由 Mondex 与各家银行合作的试用之中。 注解： Mondex ：由英国西敏寺（ NatWest Group ）于 1990 年开发的世界上最 早的电子钱包系统， 1995 年首先在英国的斯温顿市公开试用。 1996 年七月 Mondex International Ltd. 成立，并随后成为 MasterCard International 的重要附 属卡。
Notes To Passage A E-Cash, The Natural Solution ！ Passage A The primary function of e-cash is to facilitate transactions on the Internet. Many of these transactions may be small in size and would not be cost efficient through other payment mediums such as credit cards. These types of payments require mediums that are easy, cheap, private, and secure. Electronic cash is the natural solution. 许多这种交易都可能是小规模的，因此不会通过其它如信用卡之类的 支付方式来产生成本效益。 注解：本句是并列句，前后分句的主语相同，都是 Many of these transactions ； small in size 意为 “ 小规模的 ” 。 To make easy or easier 使容易或更容易的
Notes To Passage A E-Cash, The Natural Solution ！ Passage A There are a number of benefits of e-cash over greenbacks, but there are also new forms of old issues. In its current state e-cash is a necessary innovation in the financial market. It presents special challenges for the existing "middlemen" of the current paper currency society. More and more banks and other financial intermediaries will serve simply as storehouses for money, lenders, and processing/verifying electronic transactions. All one will have to do is to turn on his computer. However, it is highly doubtful that e-cash will actually replace paper currency. 它向当今纸币社会现有的 “ 中间商 ” 提出了特殊挑战。 注解： existing ：现有的，现存的。由现在分词转化的形容词，作定语。 A note of U.S. currency. 美钞美国流通货币的纸币 贷方 ; 贷款者
Notes To Passage A E-Cash, The Natural Solution ！ Passage A In essence, E-cash, actually an evolution from current paper-based mediums ， combines the benefits of other transaction mediums. Thus, it is similar to debit/credit cards, but E-cash allows individuals to conduct transactions with each other. It is similar to personal checks, but it is feasible for very small transactions. actually; in fact An item of debt as recorded in an account. 借方记录在帐本里的负债项目 Note: It means Capable of being accomplished or brought about; possible: 可行的能够完成的或能够实施的；可能的： e.g. The plan is feasible in reason but impractical. 这个计划道理上行得通, 但不现实 Your price is feasible (infeasible). 你方价格是可行（不可行）的
@ Activities On Passage A 1) What are the different names for “e-cash” ? 12.3.1 Critical thinking 2) Can you define “e-cash” in your own words ? 3) What is the primary function of e-cash ? 4) Which model of e-cash does Mondex represent ? 5) Do you think e-cash will replace the currently-used paper currency one day, with so many advantages ?
@ Activities On Passage A 126.96.36.199 Give the Chinese equivalents of the following words or expressions: 12.3.2 Translation practice 1) electronic currency 2) paper-based medium 3) conduct transaction 4) on-line form 5) paper currency 6) financial cryptography 7) in essence 8) financial market 电子货币 纸质媒介 进行交易 在线形式 纸币 金融密码系统 本质上 / 实质上 金融市场
@ Activities On Passage A 188.8.131.52 Give the English equivalents of the following words or expressions: 12.3.2 Translation practice 1) 数字货币 2) 代币 3) 网上交易 4) 智能卡 5) 密码卡 6) 价值体系 7) 支付媒介 8) 中间商 digital currency token on-line transaction smart card encoded card value system payment medium middleman / intermediary
@ Activities On Passage A 184.108.40.206 Sentence translation from English to Chinese: 12.3.2 Translation practice 1) Electronic money, E-Cash, (also known as digital money, electronic currency, digital currency or internet money) refers to money which is only exchanged electronically. 电子钱，即电子现金，（亦称数字钱，电子货币，数字货币或网钱，）是 指只能通过电子方式进行交易的钱。 2) It is also a collective term for financial cryptography and technologies enabling it. 它也是金融密码系统和技术运作的合称。 3) The other form is off-line ， essentially a digitally encoded card that could be used for many of the same transactions as cash. 另一种形式是可以离线使用的电子现金，其实它就是一种数字编译卡，这 种卡可以作为现金用于许多同类交易。
@ Activities On Passage A 12.3.2 Translation practice 4) In essence, E-cash, actually an evolution from current paper-based mediums ， combines the benefits of other transaction mediums. 从本质上说，电子现金实际上是从现代纸质货币演变而来的，它汇集了其 他交易介质的各种长处。 5) More and more banks and other financial intermediaries will serve simply as storehouses for money, lenders, and processing/verifying electronic transactions. 越来越多的银行和其它金融中介机构将只充当人们存钱的宝库、扮演贷 款者的角色，以及负责处理和验证各种电子交易。
@ Activities On Passage A 220.127.116.11 Sentence translation from Chinese to English 12.3.2 Translation practice 1) 新的地下铁路将为去城市各处提供方便。（ facilitate ） The new underground railway will facilitate the journey to all parts of the city. 2) 情况紧急, 非马上完成不可。（ require ） The emergency requires that it should be done at once. 3) 它与个人支票相似，但它可以用于小额交易。 ( be similar to ) It is similar to personal checks, but it is feasible for very small transactions.
@ Activities On Passage A 12.3.2 Translation practice 4) 博物馆藏有几幅代表这个艺术家早期风格的油画。 ( represent ) 5) 有什么东西能取代母亲的爱和关怀吗 ? ( replace) Can anything replace a mother's love and care? End The museum had several paintings representing the artist's early style.
Payment By E-cash Passage B Notes To Passage B 电子现金用户只需要将钱从自己的银行账户转到受款人的账户里就行了，而无须请 求银行通过开支票的办法来转移资金。 注解：介词短语 Instead of requesting the banks to transfer the funds through the mechanism of a check 中的不定式 to transfer the funds through the mechanism of a check 是宾语补足语。此处运用了动词 request sb. to do sth 的结构。 The concept of electronic money is at least a decade old. When one person writes a check on his bank account and gives the check to another person with an account at a different bank, the banks do not transfer currency. The banks use electronic fund transfer. Electronic money, removes the middleman. Instead of requesting the banks to transfer the funds through the mechanism of a check, the E-cash user simply transfers the money from his bank account to the account of the receiver.
Passage B Notes To Passage B 若想采用电子支付方式给网络商家付款，只需经电子现金银行进行真 实性认证，核实交易后，电子现金用户就可通过软件将应付的金额从 自己的电子钱包转到商家的当地硬驱（钱包）里即可。 注解：该句较长，但只有一个主谓结构（ the E-cash user goes through the software ），所以依然是个简单句。注意区分句中（ To pay a WWW merchant electronically, 和 to pay the desired amount ）这两个不定式各自修饰的对象。 Payment By E-cash The reality of E-cash is only slightly more complicated, and these complications make the transactions both secure and private. The user downloads electronic money from his bank account using special software and stores the E-cash on his local hard drive. To pay a WWW merchant electronically, the E-cash user goes through the software to pay the desired amount from the E-cash "wallet" to the merchant’s local hard drive ("wallet") after passing the transaction through an E- cash bank for authenticity verification. The merchant can then pay its bills/payroll with this E-cash or upload it to the merchant's hard currency bank account. The E- cash company makes money on each transaction from the merchant (this fee is very small, however) and from royalties paid by banks which provide customers with E-cash software/hardware for a small monthly fee. Transactions between individuals would not be subject to a fee. A list of employees receiving wages or salaries, with the amounts due to each. 薪金名册领工资或薪金的雇员名单，带有每个人应付数额 ; 工资表 The payment for such a right. 特许使用权费 ; 提成 费 受支配, 从属于 电子现金公司的资金来源有两个方面：一是来源于商家的每一笔交易（然而这种收费很 低）；二是来源于银行所支付的特许使用权费。银行则为其客户提供电子现金硬软件也 能按月索取一小笔费用。
Passage B Notes To Passage B Payment By E-cash Debit cards and online bill payments allow for the immediate transfer of funds from an individual's personal account to a businesses account, without any actual paper transfer of money. E-cash truly globalizes the economy, since the user can download money into his cyber-wallet in any currency desired. A merchant can accept any currency and convert it to local currency when the cyber cash is uploaded to the bank account. 电子现金一旦上传至银行账户，商家即可接受任何形式的货币，而且还可以将 之转换成当地货币。 Note ：此处的 when 相当于 as soon as; 动词短语 convert … to… 意思是 “ 把 …… 转换为 … ” ； local currency : 当地货币。
Passage B Notes To Passage B End Payment By E-cash Although there are many benefits to digital cash, there are also many significant disadvantages. These include fraud, failure of technology, possible tracking of individuals and the loss of human interaction. Fraud over digital cash has been a pressing issue in recent years. Hacking into bank accounts and the illegal retrieval of banking records has led to a widespread invasion of privacy, and has promoted identity theft. To follow the tracks of; trail: 跟在 … 在足迹后；跟踪： Note: 人际互动 e.g. This installation is exploring the ambivalence in the perception of human interaction. 这个装置探索的是人们如何看待人类相互交流的矛盾心理。 Every advance in communications technology is a setback to the intimacy of human interaction. 通讯技术的每一个进步都是人类交往的亲密程度的一种倒退。 enter illegally 非法访问 ( 黑客入侵 )
12.6.1 Tell whether the following statements are (T) or false (F) 12.6 Activities 1E-cash is greatly different from personal check 2An E-cash user can pay a WWW merchant without any actual paper transfer of money 3The E-cash company makes money on each transaction from the merchant and from royalties paid by banks. 4Every transaction online costs a fee. 5E-payment offers a great convenience to many people and businesses. 6E-commerce is globalized by means of e-cash. 7E-cash is a perfect type of payment medium. 8There are many disadvantages as well as benefits to digital money. @ Activities On Passage B F T T F T F T T
12.6.2 Match the English on the right with Chinese on the left 12.6 Activities @ Activities On Passage B 1 bank account A 电子钱包 2 electronic fund transfer B 侵犯隐私 3 hard drive C 人类互动 4 authenticity verification D 银行账户 5 hard currency E 电子资金转账 6 WWW merchant F 窃取身份 7 cyber-wallet G 有效认证 8 human interaction H 硬驱 9 invasion of privacy I 网上商家 10 identity theft J 硬通货币 End
Shipping 装 运装 运 Basic E-commerce Writing The conditions of transportation are an important and essential item in the business contract. It includes shipping instructions, shipping advice and shipping documents. In the foreign trade, after goods shipping, the seller must provide shipping documents to the buyer as implementing the contract and the basis of the payment. Letter, common mails or telegram can be adopted in the shipping announcement. At the meantime, sellers can show their wishes for the cooperation with the buyers. Letters concerning shipment usually have four purposes: urging shipment, sending shipping instructions, amending shipping clauses and sending shipping advice.
Basic E-commerce Writing 12.7.1 A Letter of Urging Shipment 催促装运 Dear Sirs We refer to the contract no. 1260 covering 300 dozen men suits. We wish to remind you that we have had no news from you about shipment of the goods. According to the contract stipulations, the aforesaid suits should be shipped in three equal lots in May, June and August, we are in urgent need of the goods and we may be compelled to seek an alternative source of supply. Under the circumstances, it is not possible for us to extend further our letter of credit no. 243, which expires on 21 August. Please understand how serious and urgent it is for us to resolve this matter. We look forward to receiving your shipping advice, by fax, within the next seven days. Yours faithfully Shipping 装 运装 运
12.7.2 A Letter of Shipment Advice 装运通知 Basic E-commerce Writing Dear Sirs Thank you for your letter of 1 August enquiring about the shipment of your order under contract 2534. Please accept my apology for the delay which has been caused by the unavailability of shipping space from Bombay to London. The following copies of shipping documents are enclosed so that you may find no trouble in taking delivery of the goods when they arrive: 1. One non-negotiable copy of the bill of lading 2. Commercial invoice in duplicate 3. One copy of the certificate of guarantee 4. One copy of the certificate of quantity 5. One copy of the insurance policy I am glad that we have been able to execute your order as contracted; I trust the goods will reach you in time for the winter selling season and prove to be entirely satisfactory. I will personally ensure that you receive our prompt and careful attention at all times. Yours faithfully, Enc. Shipping 装 运装 运
Basic E-commerce Writing Agency Shipping 装 运装 运 12.7.3 Useful Expressions (1) Thank your letter dated May 20th, advising us that all the goods ordered are available for collection. 感谢你方 5 月 20 号来信通知我方所订购货物已备妥待发。 (2) Since we need the goods urgently, we must insist on express shipment. 由于我方急需这批货物，我方坚持使用快递装运。 (3) The above order is now ready. Please give us forwarding instructions as soon as possible. 上述定购货物已备齐, 请早日指示, 如何发运。
Basic E-commerce Writing Agency Shipping 装 运装 运 (4) In reply to your letter of the 15th May, please send ten bales of our goods, marked 1-10, by rail as soon as possible to our address, and the other ninety bales afterwards by next steamer. 复贵公司 5 月 15 日来函, 请将本公司的 10 包货物, 尽快用火车运来, 并 请标注唛头 1-10 。其余 90 包, 请用下次轮船运出。 (5) The goods are being prepared for immediate delivery and will be ready for shipment tomorrow. 该货可以立即交付, 准备明日装船。 (6) Our shipment terms are shipment within two months after receipt of L/C. 我方的装船条件是收到信用证之后两个月内装运。
Basic E-commerce Writing Agency 12.7.4 Writing Practice Translate the following sentences into English: Shipping 装 运装 运 1) 兹随函附寄下列装运单据，以便贵公司在货物抵达时顺利提货 Document of shipping is enclosed, so that you can pickup the goods when goods arriving. 2) 感谢贵公司对我公司的支持，希继续来函询价、订购。 Thanks for your sustaining for our company, we should be grateful if you kindly keep us on your inquiry with details of our prices and order. 3) 随信附寄一份我方最新价目表，请查收。 Enclosed please find a copy of our latest price list.
4) 如果你们能给我们一份装箱单及保险单、证书和商业发票的副本， 我们将不胜感激。 Basic E-commerce Writing Agency Shipping 装 运装 运 We should b obliged if you would send us a copy of the packing list for the shipment, the insurance policy, certificate and the commercial invoice. 5) 我方尽力提前装船，但是你方的信用证应在 7 月初开立。 We’ll do our best to advance the shipment, but your L/C should be opened early July. 6) 我们保证货物抵达你处时会完好无损。 We assure you that the goods will reach you in perfect condition. End
Strategies for Global Communication Now that you know how to approach communicating with someone from another culture, here are some specific suggestions to help you succeed. In some cases, the information in this list is just a reminder that you may need to do some research to be able to communicate effectively. Related Reading Cross-cultural communication does take extra effort. 1. Be adaptable. American communication tends to be informal, direct, and verbal. In cultures that are more formal, slow down. Take your lead from your international colleagues. Find out what others value in their business communication and adapt your style to theirs. Cultural Differences at Home and Abroad 2. Use your best English-speaking habits. Speak somewhat slowly and clearly when speaking to people whose first language is not English. If you must, use specific technical terms to discuss business. When not discussing business, however, use a relatively simple vocabulary and short sentences.
Related Reading 3. Do not use acronyms, slang, and jargon. Don't use them even if the person you're communicating with speaks English fluently. Avoid the American tendency to use military and sports terms in business communication. In addition, avoid idioms- -words or phrases whose meanings are something different than the literal meanings of the words. For example, think about what it means to "hit the road" or to "take five". Strategies for Global Communication Cultural Differences at Home and Abroad 4. Be aware of a culture's forms of nonverbal communication. Recognize that even seemingly harmless gestures such as a smile or a nod may send a message other than what you intend. If you are not familiar with a culture's nonverbal communication habits, err on the side of caution. 5. Use visual aids. If you are trying to communicate with someone whose first language is not English, don't be afraid to resort to sketching or drawing a picture. Sometimes it even helps to write a difficult word down. The person's comprehension of written English may be greater than his or her understanding of spoken English.
6. Recognize that people from cultures other than your own have different assumptions. If you are invited to someone's home, should you take a gift for your host or hostess? What type of gift? If you gave a bouquet of all white flowers to your hostess in Norway, why would she be offended? If you are introducing people, who should be introduced first, the older gentleman or the woman in the group? Basic understandings about social procedures as well as business matters vary from culture to culture. Do some research, or ask a reliable source for advice. Related Reading Strategies for Global Communication Cultural Differences at Home and Abroad 7. Be careful about using humor. There are many issues to consider when using humor. First, many businesspeople prefer to separate business and social matters. Save the humor for the social time. Second, jokes are very difficult to understand for someone who doesn't know the language completely.
Third, "the one about the guy walking down the street" may seem funny to you, but it may seem senseless or, worse yet o, offensive to your listeners. Joking about something that other people take seriously can put a permanent dent in a business relationship. Related Reading End Strategies for Global Communication Cultural Differences at Home and Abroad 8. Maintain personal contact. Technology allows us to communicate with people all over the world without actually having personal contact with them. People of some cultures are uncomfortable with the impersonal nature of such communication. Make the effort to communicate face-to-face, by means of a videoconference, or at least by voice periodically.
12.9 Work online Work online This is the end of Unit 12 Visit the following websites and see how e-cash works: http://www.digcash.com http://www.visa.com http://www.europay.com