Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Target Market. 1.What model can be used to examine the consumer buying behavior? 2.what is the consumer buying decision process composed of?"— Presentation transcript:
deal with: 处理，对待，打交道 (1) You dealt with an awkward situation very tactfully. (2) They try to deal politely with angry customers. (3) He hates dealing with large impersonal companies.
engage in: 参与或从事 I have no time to engage in gossip （闲谈）. I engaged him in conversation. be engaged to somebody 已订婚 They are engaged (to each other). arrive at 达成，得出 arrive at an agreement 达成协议 arrive at a conclusion 得出结论
A significant factor influencing how consumer decisions are made is the consumer’s level of involvement or the amount of effort that is expended in satisfying a need. 影响消费者怎样决策的一个重要因素是 消费者参与决策程度或者说是为满足需 求所付出的努力的大小。
high-involvement decisions Involvement tends to be greater under any of the following conditions: The consumer lacks information about alternatives for satisfying the need. The consumer considers the amount of money involved to be large. The product has considerable social importance. The product is seen as having a potential for providing significant benefits.
low-involvement decisions These are low-involvement situations, in which the consumer either skips or moves very quickly through stages 2 and 3 of the decision process-identification of alternatives and evaluation of alternatives. 这些便属于低介入度购买的情形，消费 者在鉴定选择和评价选择两个步骤中， 要么跨越过去要么很快经过。
Impulse buying, or purchasing with little or no advance planning, is a form of low- involvement decision making. 冲动型购买或事先无计划的购买是低参 与度决策的一种形式。
Recognition of an Unsatisfied Need internal stimulus(hungry, cold, thirsty) external stimulus(ad, promotion) depletion of an existing product dissatisfaction with a product being used.
Identification of alternatives Product and brand identification may range from a simple memory scan of previous experiences to an extensive external search. range from （ to ）：范围从 ( 到 ) These goods prices range from 2 yuan to 5 yuan. The children’ages ranged from 2 to 6.
Evaluation of Alternatives The evaluation may involve a single criterion, or several criteria, against which each alternative is compared. e.g. frozen dinner: criterion:price criteria:price, taste, ease of preparation
Purchase and Related Decision Thus the first outcome is the decision to purchase or not to purchase the alternative evaluated as most desirable. 因此，首先需要决策的就是是否要购买被评价 为最佳的可选商品。 If the decision is to buy, a series of related decisions must be made regarding features, where and when to make the actual transaction, how to take delivery or possession, the method of payment, and other issues.
The most common source is a retail store, and the reasons a consumer chooses to shop at a certain store are called patronage- buying motives. 惠顾性购买动机 Please specify some common patronage motives.
Postpurchase Behavior What you were experiencing is postpurchase cognitive dissonance—a state of anxiety brought on by the difficulty of choosing from among several alternatives. postpurchase cognitive dissonance 购后认 知失调：难以从几个商品中进行选择， 由此带来的焦虑状态。
bring on =bring about, lead to 使出现，引起，导致 Mounting tensions were certain to bring on conflict. 日益紧张的局势势必导致冲突。 =promote, make progress 促进，使进步 He has brought on some promising young swimmers. 他已经培养一批年轻而有前途 的游泳运动员。
Sellers can reduce the likelihood of dissonance with reassuring messages in their advertising and personal selling, and with high-quality follow-up and postsale service programs. 卖方可以通过广告中的确认信息、人员 销售、高质量的跟踪和售后服务计划来 减少购后失调发生的可能性。
The Business Market and Its Buying Behavior The business market consists of organizations that buy goods and services: –To make other goods and services. –To resell to other business users or to consumers. –To conduct the organization’s operations.
Each buyer within the business market is termed a business user. 组织用户 Business marketing is the marketing of goods and services to business user. 组织营销 Every retailer and wholesaler is a business user. Every bus company, airline, and railroad is part of this market. So is every hotel, restaurant, bank, insurance company, hospital, theater, and school. The total sales volume in the business market far surpasses total sales to consumers.
Business Market Demand –derived demand 衍生需求 –inelastic demand 需求缺乏弹性 –widely fluctuating 需求波动大 –well informed buyers 采购者知识丰富 –buying more and making less 购买量大、购买次数少 –developing long-term partnering relationships with suppliers 供需双方关系密切 –direct purchases (without middlemen) 直接采购 –reciprocity arrangements 互购 – leasing (rather than product ownership) 租赁取代直接 购买
The buying decision process in business markets may involve as many as five stages as same as that in consumer markets. The actual number of stages in a given purchase decision depends largely on the buying situation which is classified into three classes: straight rebuy 直接再采购：采购部门根据惯 例订购产品。 modified rebuy 修正再采购：购买者购买以 前购买过的商品，但修改供应商或订单中 其他条件的购买情况。 new-task 新任务：首次采购某一产品。
buying center 采购中心 Everyone within an organization who participates in a buying decision is called buying center. In a typical buying center are people playing the roles of users, influencers, deciders, gatekeepers, and buyers. gatekeeper 守门者 : people within organizations who can control the flow of information to members of the buying center. 能够控制信息与 采购中心成员接触的人。
Market Segmentation Market Segment Market Segment Market Segmentation Market Segmentation People or organizations with needs or wants and the ability and willingness to buy A subgroup of people or organizations sharing one or more characteristics that cause them to have similar product needs. The process of dividing a market into meaningful, relatively similar, identifiable segments or groups.
Market Segmentation 市场细分 Market segmentation is a strategy that involves dividing a larger market into subsets of consumers who have common needs for the goods and services offered in the market. 市场细分是把某一 市场整体划分为若干消费者群的战略活动，每 一个消费者群对市场提供的产品和服务具有类 似需求倾向。 market segment 细分市场
segmentation bases Segmentation basis for consumer market –Geographic segmentation –Demographic segmentation –Psychological segmentation –Behavioral segmentation Segmentation basis for business market –Location –Customer type –Transaction conditions
Target Market A group of people or organizations for which an organization designs, implements, and maintains a marketing mix intended to meet the needs of that group, resulting in mutually satisfying exchanges.
Undifferentiated Targeting Strategy Marketing approach that using one marketing mix to reach a mass, undifferentiated market. 整体市场战略指将一种营销组 合运用到一个整体的、未划分 的市场中去营销方法
Undifferentiated Targeting Strategy Advantages Advantages : Potential savings on production and marketing costs Disadvantages Disadvantages: Unimaginative product offerings Company more susceptible to competition
Concentrated Targeting Strategy 集中目标战略 With a single-segment strategy, a company still uses only one marketing mix, but it is directed at only one segment of the total market. 即单一细分战略，公司仍然仅 有一种营销组合，但它只用在 整个市场的一个细分块中。
Concentrated Targeting Strategy Advantages Advantages: Concentration of resources Meets narrowly defined segment Small firms can compete Strong positioning Disadvantages Disadvantages: Segments too small, or changing Large competitors may market to niche segment
Multisegment Targeting Strategy A multiple-segment strategy entails selecting two or more segments and developing a separate marketing mix to reach each segment. 多重细分策略需要选择两个或 更多的细分市场，并且每个细 分市场分别采用一种单独的营 销组合。