Unit 4 Discovering useful structures Making the News
Read the sentences in the text. Never will Zhou Yang forget his assignment at the office of China Daily. Only when you have seen what he or she does, can you cover a story by yourself. Not only am I interested in photography, but I (also) took a course at university. Only if you ask many different questions will you acquire all the information you need to know. Here comes my list of “dos” and “don’ts”.
一、概述： 英语句子的基本语序 (the natural order) 是 主语在前、谓语动词在后，当语序颠倒时 就成了倒装结构 (the inverted order) 。把 谓语的全部放在主语之前称为完全倒装； 而只把助动词或情态动词放在主语之前， 则称为部分倒装。
I love English. 基本语序 (natural order) subject ( 主 )+ predicate ( 谓 )+object ( 宾 )
倒装的分类 1. 部分倒装：主语与助动词 / 情态动词 / 系动词 倒装 结构：助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语 + 谓语动词 Never have I heard such a thing. = I have never heard such a thing. 倒装结构 (inverted order)
2. 全部倒装： 主语与谓语动词倒装 结构：谓语动词 + 主语 Down fell the rain. = The rain fell down.
1.here, there, now, then, thus ， out ， away, up, down 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run 等。当其主语为名词 时，通常要使用倒装。例如： There goes the bell. Then came the chairman. Here is your letter. Away went the boy to the school. Off goes the woman. 全部倒装句
注意： 上述全部倒装句型结构中的主语必须是名词， 如果主语是人称代词则不能倒装。 Here he comes. Away they went.
--- Here ____! Where is Xiao Liu? --- There ____. A. comes the bus ； is he B. comes the bus ； he is C. the bus comes ； is he D. the bus comes ； he is [ 小试身手 ] B
2. 以引导词 there 开头的句子，须使用倒 装结构，除 there be 外还有 there live / stand / lie / exist 等。例如： There are three books on the desk ． There lived an old fisherman near the sea. There stands a tall building in the centre of the town.
3.so, neither, nor 表示前面所述一件事也适 合另一个人或物时。 so 用于肯定句, neither / nor 用于否定句。 Tom can speak French. So can Jack. If you don't go, neither will I.
注意： 1) 当 so 引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或 肯定，意为 “ 的确如此 ” 时，不可用倒装结构。 Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. --- It’s raining hard. --- So it is.
--- Your father is very strict with you. --- ____. He never lets off a single mistake of ours. A. So he is B. So is he C. He is so D. So does he A [ 小试身手 ]
2) 但如果上文所述两件事也适合另一个人或 物，就用 So it is / was with sb. 或 It is / was the same with sb. 。 Marx was born in Germany and German was his native language. So it was with Engels.
4. 介词短语做地点状语放在句首时 In the cottage lives a family of six. Near the bridge was an old cottage. In front of the house sat a little boy.
At the meeting place of the Yangtze River and the Jialing River______, one of the ten largest cities in China. （ 2010 重庆） A. lies Chongqing B. Chongqing lies C. does lie Chongqing D. does Chongqing lie 解析：表示方位的地点状语提前，句子完 全倒装，所以选 A 项。 A [ 高考真题 ]
部分倒装句 1. 疑问句 a. Have you seen the film? b. When are we going to drink to your happiness? 注意：如疑问词在句中做主语，则用自然 语序。 c. Who is your sister? d. What is our work?
2. so / such...that 的 so / such 位于句首时 a. So loudly did the students read that people could hear them out in the street. b. So small were the words that he could hardly see them. c. Such a famous man he is that everyone wants to take a photo with him.
3. 否定意义的副词或短语位于句首时，常见 的有： in no way, not only…but also, never, little, rarely, seldom, hardly... When, no sooner…than, scarcely…when, in no case, not until ( 当 Not until 引出主从复合句，主句 倒装，从句不倒装 ) 等。
Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. Hardly can I follow you. Seldom do I visit USA. Never have I seen such a performance.
1). Not until he left his home ______ to know how important the family was for him. （ 2010 江西） A. did he begin B. had he begun C. he began D. he had begun 解析： not until 放在句首要用部分倒装, 翻译为直到, 所以 begin 发生在 left 之后 或同时发生。 A [ 高考真题 ]
2). We laugh at jokes, but seldom _____ about how they work. （ 2010 四川） A. we think B. think we C. we do think D. do we think 解析： seldom 为否定副词放句首，用部 分倒装，故选 D 。句意为 “ 我们因笑话 而笑，但很少去思考笑话怎样让我们 笑。 ” D
3). --- It’s nice. Never before _____ such a special drink! --- I’m glad you like it. (2011 福建 ) A. I have had B. I had C. have I had D. had I C
注意： 如否定词不在句首则不倒装。 I have never seen such a performance. The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.
4. 由 as 或 though 引导的让步壮语从句 表语十 as ＋主语十系动词 be ； 动词原形＋ as ＋主语十助动词。例如： Young as he is, he knows some of the family. Try as I might, I could not lift the stone. 注意：当单数名词位于句首时，名词前无冠 词。 Child as he is, he knows good English.
Try ______ she might, Sue couldn’t get the door open. (2011 全国 I 卷 ) A. if B. when C. since D. as 解析： Try as she might 是让步状语从 句，表示 “ 尽管她尝试了 ” ，这里采用 部分倒装结构，把原形动词提到句首。 D [ 高考真题 ]
5. 省略连词 if 的条件副词分句 Were I you, I would not do such a thing. = If I were you, I would not do such a thing. Would the machine break down again, send it back to us. = If the machine would break down again, send it back to us.
Had you worked harder, you would have passed. = If you had worked harder, you would have passed.
6. 有些表示 “ 感叹、祝愿 ” 等语气的句子， 也可使用倒装结构。 Isn’t it cold! 天气真冷！ May both be happy! 祝你们两位幸福！ May God bless you. 愿上帝赐福于你。 Long live the king! 国王万岁！
7. only 位于句首、强调句子的状语时 Only then did I fully understand what my father said. Only when I left school did I realize how important study is. 注意 : 如果 only 强调的是句子主语时，句子不 倒装。 Only he can help us.
Only when he reached the tea-house _______ it was the same place he’d been in last year. (2011 全国 I 卷 ) A. he realized B. he did realize C. realized he D. did he realize 解析： only 修饰的状语从句位于句首时， 主句采用部分倒装语序。 D [ 高考真题 ]
8. 在 “such + be+ 主语 ” 的结构中 Such was the story he told me. = The story he told me was such. Such was what Peter spoke at the meeting. =What Peter spoke at the meeting was such.
Rewrite these sentence using normal word order. (P 29) 1. I did not know how to use that recorder. Neither did he. Neither he or I knew how to use that recorder.
2. Only then did I begin my work on designing a new bridge. I only began my work on designing a new bridge then. 3. Not only was there a Christmas tree, but also exciting presents under it. There was not only a Christmas tree but also exciting presents under it.
4. “Is everything ready yet?” asked Hu Xin to the photographer. Hu Xin asked the photographer, “Is everything ready yet?”
Rewrite these sentences using inversion. First, find the phrase to begin with. Then change the word order of the sentence. Use the words or phrases underlined to rewrite these sentences. (P 29)
1.You will see so many seats only at a stadium in Beijing. Only at a stadium in Beijing will you see so many seats. 2. I have seldom seen a situation which made me so angry. Seldom have I seen a situation which made me so angry.
3. You will be able to write a good report only after you have acquired the information you need. Only after you have acquired the information you need will you be able to write a good report. 4. He gave a lot of presents to his friends, but he has never given one to me. Never has he given a present to me though he gave a lot (of presents) to his friends.
5. She is not only good at languages, but also at history and geography. Not only is she good at language, but she is also good at history and geography.
6. I have never read such an exciting report before. Never before have I read such an exciting report. 7. She took part in a horse riding competition, and did not miss a jump once. Not once did she miss a jump when she took part in the horse riding competition.
Certain expressions can introduce an inverted sentence. Now complete the following sentences that begin with these expressions. (P 29) 1)Only after _________________ did ____________________________ __________. 2) Not once did ___________________ ______________________________. my operation my neighbours come round to offer me support you come to say you were sorry after breaking the vase
3. Seldom have I ___________________ _____________________________. 4. Only by doing ___________________ could ___________________________ _____. 5. Only in a ____ can ________________ _________________________. been so happy as when my son graduated from university her exercise every day Jane hope to run professionally again film people get hit and never seem to feel the pain
6. Not once did __________________ ________________________________ _______________________________ ________________. 7.Only then did __________________ ______________. Zhou Jie receive an admission notice to Beijing university, but he also won a scholarship to study in America. she remember what her aunt told her
Complete the sentences. 1. Only with a proper key, __________________. ( 你才能打开门 ) can you open the door 2. Only when you’ve done your homework, ____________________________. ( 你才可以去玩篮球 ) may/can you go to play basketball 3. Only after he had done some reading, __________________________. ( 他才去洗衣服 ) did he go to do some washing
1.______ to rain tomorrow, they would put off the meeting. A. If it should B. If were it C. Should it D. were it 2. ______ got into the room ______ the telephone rang. A. No sooner had he, when B. He hardly had, then C. Hardly had he, when D. He hardly had, then D C Choose the best answers.
3. ______ find out what had happened. A. Until he woke up did he B. Until he woke up to C. Not until did he wake up he D. Not until he woke up did he 4. Little ______ about his own health though he was very ill. A. he cared B. he cares C. does he care D. did he care D D
5. Early in the day ______ the news ______ the enemy were gone. A. come, that B. came, that C. comes, that D. came, what 6. Not only ______ strict with us, but also ______ for us. A. was the teacher; did he care B. was the teacher; he cared C. the teacher was; did he care D. the teacher was; did he care B B
7. ______, he knows a lot of English. A. Child as he is B. As he is a child C. A child as he is D. Child though he was 8. ______ the cat, she has to give it to the neighbor. A. As she likes much B. As she much likes C. Much as she likes D. As much she likes C A
9. Be quick! ______. A. Here comes the bus B. The bus here comes C. The bus come here D. Here the bus comes 10. If you want to go there, ______. A. so will I B. so I will C. I will so D. so do I A A
11. In front of the farmhouse _____. A. does a small boy sit B. did a small boy sit C. sit a small boy D. sat a small boy 12. Scarcely _____ down when _____ a knock at the door. A. had he sat; did he hear B. he had sat; did he hear C. he had sat; he heard D. had he sat; he heard D D
13. Here ______. A. does he come B. he comes C. comes he D. he come 14. Only ______ that. A. can a doctor do B. a doctor can do C. can do a doctor D. can a doctor does 15. Not even once ______ a lie. A. has Mike told B. Mike has told C. had Mike told D. Mike had told 16. Up ______ into the air. A. went the arrow B. the arrow went C. did the arrow go D. does the arrow go B B A A
17. Not for a moment ______ what he said. A. I believed B. did I believe C. I would believe D. I believe 18. In ______ and the students stood up. A. the teacher comes B. the teacher coming C. came the teacher D. did the teacher come 19. No sooner ______ begun to speak than I realized that something was wrong. A. he has B. he had C. had he D. did he B C C
20. —Why can’t I smoke here? —Well, didn’t you read the notice saying that at no time ______ in the meeting-room? A. is smoking permitted B. smoking is permitted C. smoking permits D. does smoking permit 21. Not until several years ago _________ how serious the pollution was. A. people did realize B. people realize C. didn’t people realize D. did people realize A D
22. No sooner______ than it began to rain heavily. A. the football match began B. has the football match begun C. the football match has begun D. had the football match begun 23. —Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother? —I don’t, ______. A. nor don’t I care B. nor do I care C. I don’t care neither D. I don’t care also D B
24. ______ bread and drinks, they also brought a guitar for entertainment. A. Not only they brought B. Not only brought they C. Not only did they bring D. Not only they would bring 25. ______ on her head while Jane was playing in the square with her cousin. A. Fell a bird down B. Down a bird fell C. Down fell a bird D. Fell down a bird C C
Translate the sentences using inversion. 1. 三年前她很少考虑父母的感受。 2. 直到 20 世纪 50 年代人们才开始制造这种机 器。 3. 我们班里的男同学不仅对篮球感兴趣, 而且 对足球也感兴趣。 Not only are the boys in our class interested in basketball, but also they’re interested in football. Seldom did she consider how her parents felt three years ago. Not until the 1950s did such machines begin to be made.
4. 一遇到她的朋友, 李丽就开始抱怨自己的 工作。 5. 只有通过努力工作, 你才有望加薪。 6. 我永远不会忘记和父母在一起生活的那 些日子。 Hardly had she encountered her friends when Li Li started to complain about her work. Only by working hard can you expect to get a pay raise. Never shall I forget the days when I lived with my parents.
1.Review the grammar focus and finish the exercises on Page 64. 2.Preview the reading passage on Page 30. Homework