From 1962 to 1970 the United States Army Corps of Engineers dredged the C-38 Canal down the Kissimmee valley for flood control, shortening the 166 km distance from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee to just 90 km. The Kissimmee River was cut and dredged into a 9.1-meter-deep straightaway: the C-38 canal. It has since been realized that this project damaged the river, with the faster water flow leading to major environmental problems in the Kissimmee Valley and Lake Okeechobee. Kissimmee River 截彎取直
After the river channel was straightened, 160 km² of floodplain dried out, reducing the quality of waterfowl habitat by 90 percent. Waterfowl numbers fell more than 90 percent. Catches of largemouth bass in the river were consistently worse after the channelization. Deteriorate water quality of Lake Okeechobee contributing about 25% of the nitrogen and 20% of the phosphorus flowing into the Lake. 渠道化之衝擊 Effects of Channelization
回復洪水又能控制洪水 Restoring Flooding while Controlling Floods After dramatic floods on the Kissimmee River in 1940s hurricanes, the river was given a deep-water flood control channel in the 1960s. But to answer environmental concerns, the old river are being restored. But is flood control is being eliminated? The restoration project itself has one major constraint, and that is a constraint to maintain existing levels of flood protection. We cannot restore the entire length of the channelized Kissimmee River. In fact we're only restoring about half of the historic river's length.
Backfilling( 回填 ) 18.5km of the C-38 canal. Reestablishing 64m of the meandering( 蜿蜒 ) Kissimmee River. Seasonal rains and flows now inundate( 淹沒 ) the floodplain in the restored area. Acquisition of 400km 2 lands needed to complete Kissimmee River Restoration. Kissimmee River Restoration
The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) The Comprehensive Plan is a framework and guide to restore, protect, and preserve the water resources of central and southern Florida. The Plan has been described as the world's largest ecosystem restoration effort and includes more than 60 major components. Because the region's environment and economy are integrally linked, the Plan provides important economic benefits. Thus, the Plan will result in a sustainable south Florida by restoring the ecosystem, ensuring clean and reliable water supplies, and providing flood protection.
The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, or "CERP", was submitted to Congress in April 1999 and was approved with overwhelming bipartisan support in December 2000. Implementation of the Plan began immediately. The Plan will take more than 30 years to construct, and will cost an estimated $7.8 billion (now $10.9billion), $3.9billion for land acquisition.
The projects will restore damaged wetlands, shellfish beds, coral reefs and reopen fish passages that boost the health and resiliency of our nation’s coastal and Great Lakes communities. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, $167 million was provided for marine and coastal habitat restoration.American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 These Recovery Act projects will put Americans to work while restoring our coasts and combating climate change. Commerce Announces 50 Coastal Restoration Projects ( June 30, 2009)
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