* Do not brush your child’s teeth more than 2 times a day with a flu oride toothpaste * Apply no more than a pea-sized amount of toothpaste to the toot hbrush * Supervise your child’s tooth brushing, encouraging the child to spi t out toothpaste rather than swallowing * If your child’s pediatrician or dentist prescribes a fluoride supple ment (or vitamin supplement that contains fluoride), ask him or h er about any risk factors your child has for decay and the potentia l for dental fluorosis. If you live in an area with fluoridated water, fluoride supplements are not recommended. * You can use fluoridated water for preparing infant formula. Howe ver, if your baby is exclusively consuming infant formula reconstit uted with fluoridated water, there is an increased potential for mi ld dental fluorosis.
* “Children younger than 6 years have a poor swa llowing reflex and tend to swallow much of the toothpaste on their brush” U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
References * Fluoride Alert Network (http://fluoridealert.org/)http://fluoridealert.org/ * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoride_poisoning http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoride_poisoning * Journal of Orthodontic (http://jorthod.maneyjournals.org/content/26/3/242.full.pdf+html)http://jorthod.maneyjournals.org/content/26/3/242.full.pdf+html * Fluoride Alert Network (http://fluoridealert.org/studies/acute03/)http://fluoridealert.org/studies/acute03/ * Medscape Fluoride Toxicity (http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/814774-overview#aw2aab 6b2b3)http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/814774-overview#aw2aab 6b2b3 * Skeletal Fluorosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeletal_fluorosis)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeletal_fluorosis * 氟化物对健康的影响, 刘瑶，刘璐， FOREIGN MEDICAL SCIENCES(SECTION OF MEDGEOGRAPHY), 2 006, 27(4) * Orthodontic Updates Fluoride Mouthrinses, Esher, Surrey, U.K. BJO September 1999, Vol 26 N o.3 * Public Health (http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/opinions_layman/fluoridatio n/en/l-2/3.htm)http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/opinions_layman/fluoridatio n/en/l-2/3.htm * Fluoride Alert Network (http://fluoridealert.org/studies/caries04/)http://fluoridealert.org/studies/caries04/ * http://answers.hhs.gov/questions/8100 http://answers.hhs.gov/questions/8100 * http://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/fluoride_products/ http://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/fluoride_products/ * 氟化物 (Fluoride) 概況, California Dental Association, 2010 * Fluoride: Benefits and Risks of Exposure, Laurence S. Kaminsky, Martin C. Mahoney, James Leac h, James Melius and Mary Jo Miller, International and American Association of Dental Research. Jan 1, 1990. * Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis. Pamela DenBesten, Wu Li, NIH Public Access Author Manuscript. Monogr Oral Sci. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 September 04. * Physiology and Toxicity of Fluoride, Dhar, Vineet; Bhatnagar, Maheep, Indian Journal of Dental R esearch. 2009.
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