39 Permanent坚持 Driven 驱策 Learning 学习 Embedded嵌入 Assessed 评估 Relevant 相关 Networked交流First, make sure that professional development focuses on thesubject matter teachers will be teaching.Second, align teachers’ learning opportunities with their real workexperiences, using actual curriculum materials and assessments.Third, provide adequate time for professional development andensure that the extended opportunities to learn emphasize observingand analyzing students’ understanding of the subject matter.Fourth, ensure that school districts have reliable systems for evaluatingthe impact of professional development on teachers’ practicesand student learning.
41 2. 驱策 学生期望与实际成绩之间差距分析的驱策 This analysis defines what teachers need to learnTeachers can use the analyses to explore usefulness of different teaching strategiesMakes PD more accountable
42 3. 学习 遵循成年人学习的原则 让老师们参与制定有关自己学习的规划 Increases teacher motivation and commitment to learnDecreases cynicism and detachment
43 4. 嵌入 专业化学习应该“嵌入到工作中”，比如，成为教师日常工作的一部分 Most powerful learning opportunities are those linked to authentic and immediate problems in the classroomIncreases teacher motivation and engagementDoes not deny out-of-school learning too
44 5. 评估 应该对专业化学习方案进行评估 就未来学习规划的设计提供反馈 Use multiple sources of informationMust be non-threateningIdeally changes in teaching and student learning should be assessed
45 6. 相关 确保学习的重点与教师将要教授的课题相关 Focus on content students need to learn and problems they might encounterGeneral information about instructional strategies (e.g. cooperative learning) or unrelated content enrichment is not effective
46 7. 交流 专业化发展应该符合个人需求，但也要与其他教师协同合作 Collaborative cultures facilitate school improvementProblem solving teams can break down isolation, and create a shared understanding of good practice