16 Near Field Communication (NFC) 屬於無線射頻識別（Radio Frequency Identification,RFID）技術的一種。NFC 是一項結合了非接觸識別(Contactless Identification)與互聯(Interconnection)的技術。NFC技術是由Philips 、NOKIA和Sony共同開發制定的通訊方式，目前已經在ISO18092內進行國際標準化。NFC 是從非接觸式智慧卡(Contactless Smart Card, CSC)技術演變而來，能夠向下相容Sony 的FeliCa 與Philips的Mifare 以及符合ISO/IEC14443 type A 的非接觸式智慧卡。
17 Near Field Communication (NFC) Short Range Wireless Communication Technology工作RFID頻段 MHz典型的工作距離為10 cm完全相容於目前通行的RFID技術Pear-to-pearBased on RFID technology at 13,56 MHzOperating distance typical up to 10 cmCompatible with today’s field proven contactless RFID technologyData exchange rate today up to 424 kilobits/s13,56MHz RF LinkNFCRFID objectNFC
27 RFID之發展RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)起源於1901年，義大利人Marconi製作無線電機之實驗。1932年英軍在二次世界大戰時首先應用RFID於「敵我識別(identification friend or fee)」，來識別盟軍或敵軍的飛機。美國國防部(DoD)在1970年代為了能有效管理軍事系統，進行RFID研發製作。RFID之應用已有60多年了，主要是在軍事用途。1999年MIT成立Auto-ID中心，研發RFID於日常生活之應用，開啟RFID之熱潮。2003年以後的商業市場的需求，例如美國最大的零售商Wal-Mart，及德國的Metro公司。
42 Animal Identification RFID的類型(以頻率分類)TicketISO 14443Animal IdentificationItem ManagementItem ManagementItem ManagementItem ManagementISO 11784ISO 15693ISO 18000(part 7)ISO 18000(part 6)ISO 18000(part 4)ISO 11785ISO 18000(part 3)EPC UHF0ISO 14223EPC HF1EPC UHF1此處參考來源：Heiko Knospe and Hartmut Pohl, “RFID Security”, Information Security Technical Report. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2004.ISO 11784, ISO and ISO specify tags for animal identification in the frequency band below 135 kHz. The original standards defined only a fixed unique 64 bit identifier, but with the more recent ISO standard further read/write and write-protected data blocks are allowed. The communication protocol of ISO is closely related to ISO part 2.Vicinity cards (ISO 15693) have a range of up to 1 meter. They usually incorporate inexpensive state machines instead of microprocessors. These cards can be used for identification and simple applications like access control. The standard describes the air interface, anticollision and the transmission (link layer) protocol.ISO (RFID for item management) defines the air interface, collision detection mechanisms and the communication protocol for item tags in different frequency bands. Part 1 describes the reference architecture and parts 2 to 6 specify the characteristics of the different frequencies. Specifically, part 2 specifies low frequency (<135 kHz) tags. Part 3-1 for HF systems (13,56 MHz) is compatible with ISO (but with more flexibility in tag design), and part 3-2 specifies a next generation RFID system in the same frequency band with higher bandwidth (up to 848 kBit/s) and faster scanning of multiple tags.Part 4 specifies 2,45 GHz systems: in mode 1 a passive backscatter system and in mode 2 a long range, high-data rates system with active tags. Part 5 for the 5,8 GHz band iscurrently withdrawn. Part 6 defines a passive backscatter system around 900 MHz (the band is only partly available in Europe). Part 7 specifies a RFID system with active transponders and long range in the 433 MHz band.Proximity cards (ISO 14443) operate at approx. 10 centimetres distance from the reader. They usually possess a microprocessor and may be considered as high-end RFID transponder. These cards can implement more sophisticated applications such as ticketing. There exist two different standards (type A and type B) for the air interface, initialisation and anti-collision. Part 4 of the standard describes the link layer protocol (T=CL) which allows to exchange Application Data Units (APDUs) similar to ISO (T=1 protocol) for contact smartcards. There also exist alternative proprietary application level protocols, e.g. for the widespread MIFARE® systems.NFC evolved from the RFID technology and is designed for interactions between tags and electronic devices in close proximity (<10 cm). The standards ETSI TS , ISO and ECMA 340 define identically the Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1). They describe the air interface, initialisation, collision avoidance, a frame format and a block oriented data exchange protocol with error handling. There is an active communication mode (both devices use their own RF field) and a passive communication mode (the initiator is generating an RF field and the target uses a load modulation scheme). NFC is not designed for full networking or transmission of large amounts of data, but should allow a convenient data exchange between cheap tags (e.g. smart labels) and electronic devices (e.g. PDAs). Another application is communication between computer peripherals (e.g. for configuration purposes).The Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol -2 (NFCIP-2) specifies the communication mode selection mechanism (ECMA 352). This protocol deals with the situation that NFCIP-1, ISO and ISO devices all operate at 13,56 MHz, but with different protocols. It is specified that NFCIP-2 compliant devices can enter each of these three communication modes and are designed not to disturb other RF fields at 13,56 MHz.EPC was developed by the AutoID (Automatic Identification) Centre of the MIT. The standardisation is now within the responsibility of EPCglobal which is a joint venture between EAN International and the Uniform Code Council (UCC). The so-called EPC network is composed of five functional elements:• The Electronic Product Code is a 96 Bit number identifying the EPC version number, domains, object classes and individual instances. EPC evolved from the widely used EANUCC (European Article Numbering/Universal Code Council) barcodes which identify products but not individual objects.• An Identification System which consists of RFID tags and readers. Class 0 tags offer only a factory programmed EPC and higher class tags provide additional functionality, e.g. security functions. The AutoID Centre published a protocol specification for Class 1 tags in the HF band (compatible with ISO and ISO ), and Class 0 and 1 tags in the UHF band. There are ongoing discussions about harmonisation of the EPC UHF band specifications and the ISO standard.• The Savant Middleware offers “Processing Modules or Services” to reduce load and network traffic within the back-end systems. It can perform various tasks related to the acquired tag information.• The Object Naming Service (ONS) is a networking service similar to the Domain Name Service (DNS). With ONS, the Electronic Product Code can be linked to detailed object information. The ONS servers return the IP address of the EPC information service which stores the associated information.• The Physical Markup Language (PML) is XML-based and provides a standardised representation of information from the EPC network.Item ManagementNear FieldCommunicationISO 18000(part 2)ISO 18092100KHz1MHz400MHz1GHzHeiko Knospe and Hartmut Pohl, “RFID Security”, Information Security Technical Report. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2004.
57 Auto-ID Center Founded at MIT in October, 1999 Currently has over 100 members and new Centers in England, Switzerland, Australia, China and JapanGlobal benefits of an integrated Smart Item network estimated to be over U.S.$240 billion annually.Over 550 billion different items pass through the members’ supply chains every year.
62 EPCglobal 之宗旨 建立EPC的商業合作機制 全球性 免費且開放的標凖 跨多行業 跨平台(Interoperability) 滿足使用者的需求非營利性質並客觀的立場The importance of Global StandardsBusiness is increasingly multi national(多國)Multi national companies - generally the drivers of growthMulti national companies need:Global supply chain solutionsGlobal systems and processesGlobal standards = focused effort and resources1200 people contributing to current activitiesMulti sector, multi country, multi disciplineEPCglobal is developing global standards that are being created by usersRegional or country specific standards would mean:Increased costsIncreased complexityNegative impact on economics of the industryDelaying the date for implementing global standardsIncreased barriers to global competitivenessMissed opportunities to expand your businessKey customers may review sourcing optionsNo one wins from fragmentation
63 EPCglobal 之任務 1. 研發 – In collaboration with the 6 Auto-ID Labs 2. 制定標凖 1. 研發– In collaboration with the 6 Auto-ID Labs2. 制定標凖– Process for Hardware & Software standards3. 管理 EPCglobal Network– Numbering system– Object Name Service– Certification Services4. 推廣– Marketing, Awareness, Business Development, Implementation support
64 6 Auto-ID Labs 總部 – School of Engineering, MIT 英國 – Cambridge University, England瑞士 – St. Gallen University, Switzerland澳洲 – University of Adelaide日本 – 應慶大學中國 – 復旦大學
83 EPC Network Elements EPC – Electronic Product Code EPC Tags & readers ONS – Object Name ServicePML – Physical Markup LanguageSavantchipantennaIDreadercomputerstelemetryePC - electronic product codeONS - Object Name ServicePML - physical markup languagedataInternet
84 物件命名系統(ONS) 目錄服務“directory service” 類似網際網路之區域名稱伺服器(DNS, Domain Name Service)可傳達物件的產品電子碼之訊息給存放所在位址資訊的電腦系統，其功能為把實體之物件與其相關之資訊作一連結
85 物件標示語言(PML) PML是什麼？ What does PML look like? 為一組用來描述實體物件、實體流程和環境的語言 使用可延伸標示語言(XML)作為程式語言What does PML look like?Here is the sort of PML which might be output from the Savant:<?xml version="1.0"?><PML VERSION="0.10"><READ EPC=" B "> <DATE LABEL=”ADD"> </DATE> <EPC> A </EPC></READ><READ EPC=" B "> <DATE LABEL=”REMOVE"> </DATE> <EPC> A </EPC></PML>
109 隱私權風險 RFID影響隱私權風險因素有： 標簽存放有個人資訊。 附有標簽之物品關於個人隱私，如藥品、政治或宗教書籍等。 使用者攜帶之標簽適用於該處之讀取器 。影響讀取器之標簽為 “The Blocker Tag Selective Blocking of RFID Tags for Consumer Privacy, CCS’03, October 27–31, 2003, Washington, DC, U SA.Copyright 2003 ACM”所提出之機制，主要流程是利用讀取器取得標簽之識別碼都須跑一個防碰撞演算法，而此方法就是強制產生碰撞，讓讀取器無法取得標簽之識別碼。109109
110 RFID 的資訊安全 RFID 系統架構 後端資料庫 Data/Clock Energy Wire 電子標籤 讀取器 Wireless 110
118 RFID安全的對策The RFID tag itself: Some levels of security can be built into the tag, with obviousfeatures being the locking of data so that it is permanently encoded, and theinclusion of password matching before permitting subsequent transactions. The air interface protocol, which can support features in the command structureto the tag, such as passwords that can restrict unauthorised access, particularly towrite data to the tag. There is also the additional security aspect of unauthorisedreading, but most RFID applications (like those of bar code) tend to provide anopen access to the reading of data. The RFID interrogator (reader) which, with unauthorised emulation, mightprovide access to the network containing more sensitive data. The network itself, which some experts consider is fundamentally equivalent toany form of network security, while others argue that RFID data presents a specialcase. Our view is that it is really the new types of application that present networksecurity problems, especially if security features are implemented at lower levelsof the system.
120 RFID 的議題RFID的成長瓶頸RFID的技術問題RFID風險RFID安全控管RFID保護機制
121 RFID的成長瓶頸 目前影響RFID成長的四大因素 成本問題 國際標準的制定與推動 市場問題 安全與隱私問題 cost too high, needs to be < $0.1國際標準的制定與推動Lack of standards and protocols市場問題主要是需求不足：技術的供應商比較熱情，用戶則相對理智。RFID技術的應用存在著上游投資、下游受益的現象。安全與隱私問題Security concerns and privacy issue成本：被動式Tag晶片每個約需台幣數元，主動式的Tag晶片需台幣數十元。相對於條碼近乎不須成本，預估每個Tag晶片需降低生產成本至台幣一元以下才適合大量推行。標準不一：目前有五種的RFID標準，至今未有定論；迄今中國尚未決一標準。市場問題：主要是需求不足，技術的供應商比較熱情，用戶則相對理智。
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