13 人們如何作決策 如前所述，經濟學家研 究人們如何作決策，因 此，我們就先介紹四個 關於個人決策的原理。 如前所述，經濟學家研 究人們如何作決策，因 此，我們就先介紹四個 關於個人決策的原理。Decision-making is at the heart of economics. The individual must decide how much to save for retirement, how much to spend on different goods and services, how many hours a week to work. The firm must decide how much to produce, what kind of labor to hire. Society as a whole must decide how much to spend on national defense (“guns”) versus how much to spend on consumer goods (“butter”).13
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