Presentation on theme: "Rotary Club of SUNGCHIANG"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rotary Club of SUNGCHIANG 萬聖節主講人：Rtn. Kelly松江扶輪社Rotary Club of SUNGCHIANG圓山大飯店大廳 金梅齋93年10月30日（星期六）上午10:00-11:30
2 October 31st is Halloween 萬聖節是世界上最老的節日之一，在10 月31日這天，有許多國家，如：美國,加拿大,英格蘭,愛爾蘭,蘇格蘭,墨西哥,拉丁美洲,西班牙等，都會慶祝萬聖節的來臨。Halloween is one of the world’s oldest holidays, celebrated in several countries around the globe including the USA, Canada, England, Ireland, Scotland, Mexico, Latin America, and Spain.
3 在2000多年前的愛爾蘭地區及法國北部，住著一群塞爾特人，而萬聖節就是起源於古塞爾特人的一個叫做Samhain的節慶。 Halloween’s origins date back to the ancientCeltic festival of Samhain (pronounced sow-in).The Celtic peoples lived over 2,000 years agoIn the area that is now Ireland, the UnitedKingdom, and Northern France.
4 塞爾特人選在每年11月1日慶祝新年，正值夏天結束，冬天剛開始的時節多半讓人聯想到黑暗的死亡。 For the Celtic peoples, the New Year was celebrated on November 1st of every year. This date marked the end of Summer and the beginning of Winter.This time of year was often associated with human death.For the Celtic peoples, the New Year was celebrated onNovember 1st of every year. This date marked the end ofSummer and the beginning of Winter.塞爾特人選在每年11月1日慶祝新年，正值夏天結束，冬天剛開始的時節多半讓人聯想到黑暗的死亡。
5 The Celts believed that on the night before the new year, the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead became blurred as the dead searched for the afterlife.Thus, on the night of October 31st, they celebrated Samhain, when it was believed that the ghosts of the dead returned to Earth to cause mischief and trouble.塞爾特人相信在新年的前一晚，陰間和陽間的大門不再門禁森嚴，此時陰間的鬼魂會趁機跑出來，為陽間的人們帶來厄運。所以，在十月三十一日晚上，塞特爾人會慶祝Samhain這個節日，以趨魔避邪。
6 塞爾特人藉著神聖的營火，燃燒獻祭的動物和屍體，以趕走可怕的鬼魂並祈求神的保護。同時，塞爾特人也會假扮成鬼的樣子，企圖混淆跑到陽間的鬼魂。 To commemorate the event, people built huge sacred bonfires where animals and crops were sacrificed to the Gods for protection, and to help scare ghosts away.The Celts also wore costumes to disguise themselves, in an attempt to confuse the spirits roaming the Earth.塞爾特人藉著神聖的營火，燃燒獻祭的動物和屍體，以趕走可怕的鬼魂並祈求神的保護。同時，塞爾特人也會假扮成鬼的樣子，企圖混淆跑到陽間的鬼魂。
7 The Impact of Christianity By the A.D. 800’s, the influence of Christianity had spread intoCeltic lands.Pope Boniface IV designated November 1stAll Saints Day, a time to honor Saints andMartyrs. It was known as All Hallowmas.Thus, October 31st became known asAll Hallows Eve, and eventually wasshortened to the current day title,Halloween.西元八百年時，基督教傳入塞爾特人居住的區域。當時的教宗明訂十一月一日為萬聖節All Saints Day，又稱 All Hallowmas，來紀念所有的聖人和騎士。因此，十月三十一日就成了萬聖節前夕，英文稱之All Hallows Eve，而後來人們便簡稱十月三十一日為Halloween。
8 Even later, in A.D. 1000, the Christian church made November 2nd All Soul’s Day, a day to honor the dead.It was celebrated with big bonfires, parades, and dressing up incostumes as saints, angels, and devils.Together, the three celebrations, All Hallows Eve, All Saints’ Day and All Souls’ Day, were called Hallowmas.西元一千年左右，基督教訂定十一月二日為All Souls’ Day ( 萬靈節 )來紀念所有的死去的靈魂。藉著大型營火，遊行和變裝打扮成聖人，天使或惡靈的方式來慶祝。綜合這三個節日All Hallows Eve (萬聖節前夕)，All Saints’ Day (萬聖節) 和 All Souls’ Day (萬靈節)，就叫做Hallowmas.
9 Becoming an American Tradition Halloween arrived in North America courtesy of Irish andScottish emigrants who brought stories of Samhain andHallowmas, as well as tales of ghosts and spirits with themin the 1840’s, during the Irish Potato Famine. The holidayflourished into what is now modern day Halloween.1840年代，愛爾蘭區發生了飢荒，一些愛爾蘭及蘇格蘭人移民到北美洲，也把這些習俗和鬼故事帶到了北美洲，漸漸地，北美洲人也開始慶祝Halloween(萬聖節)。
10 Traditions of Halloween 許多關於Halloween(萬聖節)習俗，包括變裝打扮，不搗蛋就給糖的遊戲，咬蘋果的遊戲，刻南瓜燈籠，和點燃大營火等習俗，都可以追溯到塞特爾人Samhain節，或是Hallowmas這些節日。Many of the traditions associated with Halloween can be traced back to the ancient festivals of Samhain and Hallowmas. Traditions include costuming, trick-or-treating, bobbing for apples, pumpkin carving, and the lighting of bonfires.
11 Costumes were worn by the Celts for Samhain and the Christians for All Hallows’ Eve as a disguise to confuse and/or scare away the spirits/ghosts they believed were freely roaming the Earth from possessing their souls.Today, although we no longer believe that spirits are flying freely, modernized costumes are worn at Halloween by children going trick-or-treating and by adults seeking fun and amusement.過去，變裝打扮是為了讓鬼魂們搞不清楚，免得惹禍上身。現在，雖然人們不再相信鬼魂們會在陽間跑來跑去，但是小孩子還是會裝扮自己到處玩不給糖就搗蛋的遊戲﹔而大人則是覺得裝扮自己有趣又好玩。Costuming
12 Trick-or-treating不給糖就搗蛋的遊戲起源於要靈魂餅乾的習俗，所謂的靈魂餅乾就是將烤好的餅乾祭祀過世的人。後來，基督教會鼓勵貧窮的人在收獲的季節裡挨家挨戶地乞求食物，若是得到食物，這些窮人就會幫這家庭中過世的人祈禱以謝謝他們。The modern day custom of Trick-or-Treating originated from the very old custom of “Going-a-souling” or begging for soul cakes.Soul cakes were baked goods offered to souls of the departed.The Christian Church encouraged the practice of the needy going from home to home gathering food (Going-a-souling) at Harvest time. Prayers for the recently deceased from the needy were exchanged with the giving family.
13 而窮人們對那些吝嗇不給食物的人通常會以惡作劇來懲罰他們，或是詛咒他們下一年都會厄運纏身。大部分人都認為不給糖就搗蛋是起源於惡作劇之夜和要靈魂餅乾 (going-a-souling) 的習俗。 Those not offering goods were usually punished with a trick on Halloween night or hexed with misfortune for the next year. The term “trick-or-treat” is thought to have first originated in Britain where Halloween was known as “Mischief Night” and the practice of “going-a-souling” was common.
14 Pumpkin Carving眾人皆知的傑克南瓜燈是刻在南瓜上，但人們一開始是在蘿蔔，馬鈴薯或甜菜上刻燈籠，然後挖空並點燃蠟燭在裡面，形成燈籠。這些燈籠代表著過世的親友，並被放置在窗邊或門廊上，以歡迎他們回來。他們也被視為可趨魔避邪的象徵。在北美洲，蘿蔔，馬鈴薯和甜菜很罕見，因此常見的南瓜就成了非常適合的代替品。Carved pumpkins are traditionally known as “Jack-o-lanterns.”Traditionally, the jack-o-lantern was carved from a turnip, potato, or beet and lit with a burning candle. These lanterns represented the souls of departed loved ones and were placed in windows or set on porches to welcome the deceased.They also served as protection from evil spirits freed from the dead on Halloween night.In North America, turnips, potatoes, and beets were not as readily available, so the pumpkin was used and found to be a suitable replacement.
15 Jack-o-lanternsPeople have been making Jack-o-lanterns at Halloween for centuries. The practice originated from an Irish myth about a man known as “Stingy Jack.”Stingy Jack one day invited the Devil to have a drink with him. Not wanting to pay for the drink, he tricked the Devil into turning himself into a coin, and then put the Devil into his pocket next to a cross that prevented the Devil from changing back into his original form.Jack freed the Devil after the Devil promised not to bother Jack or, should he die, claim his soul.萬聖節刻傑克南瓜燈的習俗已經有幾世紀的歷史了。為什麼要取名為傑克呢？在愛爾蘭人的傳說中有個有名的小氣傑克。有一天小氣傑克請魔鬼喝酒，喝完後，小氣傑克卻小氣地不想付錢，所以他就騙魔鬼，要魔鬼把自己變成一枚硬幣，魔鬼變成硬幣後，小氣傑克迅速地把硬幣放在口袋裡，和十字架放在一起，以防魔鬼變回原形。之後，魔鬼對小氣傑克發誓，他絕對不會對小氣傑克報仇，也保證傑克死了也不會讓他下地獄。這時，小氣傑克才讓魔鬼變回原形。
16 Eventually, when Jack did die, God would not take him into Heaven, and the Devil, who had promised not to claim Jack’ssoul, could not take him into Hell.Thus, the Devil sent Jack’s spirit into the night with only a burning candle to light his way. Jack put the candle into a carved out turnip and has been roaming the Earth ever since.The Irish began to refer to this ghostly figure as “Jack of the Lantern,” and then simply as “Jack-o-lantern.”到小器傑克死掉後，上帝不允許他進入天堂，而魔鬼曾答應過他不會讓他下地獄，所以傑克死後哪都去不了。因此，魔鬼就讓他的靈魂漂泊在黑夜裡，只留給他一根燃燒的蠟燭來指引他．從此以後，傑克就把蠟燭放在挖空刻好的蘿蔔裡，並且一直留在人間嚇人。愛爾蘭人一開始稱之為傑克的南瓜燈籠( Jack of the Lantern)，後來簡稱為傑克南瓜燈( Jack-o-lantern)。
17 Symbols of Halloween 現代人用許多東西來慶祝萬聖節，讓這個節日變得更有趣。你知道 是哪些東西嗎？ Modern day Halloween celebrations use many symbols to help make the holiday more festive………Some of these include…………現代人用許多東西來慶祝萬聖節，讓這個節日變得更有趣。你知道是哪些東西嗎？
18 蝙蝠是其中一項，因為蝙蝠只住在墳墓，洞穴和廢棄的教堂或建築物中，又因為蝙蝠常令人聯想到女巫或吸血鬼，因此他們被視為邪惡的象徵。在傳說中，女巫和吸血鬼可以化身成蝙蝠，又因為吸血蝙蝠是唯一一種飲血維生的哺乳類動物，因此蝙蝠常讓人聯想到死亡或邪惡的儀式。BATSBecause bats only fly at night and live in tombs, caves, and abandoned churches and buildings, they are believed to be omens of evil.They are commonly associated with witches and vampires.It is superstition that witches and vampires can take the form of a bat.Since the vampire bat is the only mammal that feeds on blood, they are often linked to death and occult rituals.
19 女巫因為會算命又會下好咒語和壞咒語，人們相信女巫們的能力在10月31日這天會最強，所以讓很多人很害怕她們。幾世紀以來，女巫的形象改變許多，以前人們認為，女巫都是綠皮膚，長的很老，臉上佈滿皺紋。現在則很多人認為女巫的能力可以是邪惡或具有智慧的。 WITCHESWitches were thought to be tellers of fortune and to cast spells, both good and bad. This frightened many because it was believed that these powers were strongest on Halloween night.The image of a witch has greatly changed over the centuries.Once thought of as old, wrinkled, green skinned hags, many people associate witchcraft to either evil or as being wise.
20 女巫和掃把形影不離已有幾世紀之久，通常女巫會騎著掃把在夜晚飛行，而她們的同伴黑貓會坐在掃把的另一端陪著她們飛行．會什麼女巫會和掃把形影不離呢？因為在萬聖節那天，通常會下著雨，而女巫們需要用掃把掃掉地上的大水坑，或地上的積水以便行走。 BroomsticksWitches and broomsticks go hand in hand. They have been associated for centuries. Often, witches are depicted riding them across the night sky with a black cat on one end.It is believed that becauseHalloween occurred during therainy season, women used theirbroomsticks to vault over largepuddles and to sweep water outof their paths while walking.Thus, the two became associated.
21 Superstitions suggest that owls ate the souls of thedying by swooping to Earth.Owls screeches and theirglassy stare are an omen ofdeath and disaster.The owl is rarely seen duringthe day and is associated withnight behaviors.傳說中，貓頭鷹會從天空俯衝下來吃掉人的靈魂。貓頭鷹的叫聲和眼神讓人聯想到死亡和災難。再者，貓頭鷹很少在白天出現，也都讓人不得不認為他們是屬於黑暗和恐怖。OWLS
22 Cats, for centuries, have been considered to be spiritual animals that have the ability to sense good and bad spirits.Western superstitions detail that black cats are able to represent spirits or incarnated humans, thereby linking themto witchcraft.Black is also the color most commonly associated with evil.從幾世紀前，人們就認為貓是一種有靈性的動物，它們能感應到好或壞的靈魂。西方的傳說裡，有一種說法，黑貓是靈魂的化身。此外，黑色也是邪惡象徵。BLACK CATS
23 Ghosts & SkeletonsGhosts are universal symbols for the departed. Skeletons and bones are symbols of death and shortness of life.Since Halloween’s origins lie as the festival of the dead, it seems only fitting that ghosts and skeletons would be used.鬼魂是公認的死亡象徵﹔骷髏象徵死亡和短暫的生命。既然萬聖節一開始就是一個鬼節，當然鬼魂和骷髏就理所當然成了萬聖節必見的東西。
24 Spiders & Webs 很多文化都視蜘蛛和蜘蛛網為編織生命的象徵，但在萬聖節，他們卻象徵著黑暗，恐怖的地方或長久被遺忘的鬼屋。 While many cultures feel that the spider and web representthe weaving of life, in reference to Halloween, they represent dark, spooky places and haunted houses long forgotten.很多文化都視蜘蛛和蜘蛛網為編織生命的象徵，但在萬聖節，他們卻象徵著黑暗，恐怖的地方或長久被遺忘的鬼屋。
25 Other Symbols 其他還包括了黑色和橘色，烏鴉，月亮，吸血鬼，狼人和面具。 Other symbols related to Halloweeninclude the colors black and orange,scarecrows, the moon, vampires,werewolves, and the wearing ofmasks.其他還包括了黑色和橘色，烏鴉，月亮，吸血鬼，狼人和面具。