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觀卦 活化經典,豐富人生 《易經》觀卦與設計思維 Observation 仰觀俯察,修己觀人 發明創造

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Presentation on theme: "觀卦 活化經典,豐富人生 《易經》觀卦與設計思維 Observation 仰觀俯察,修己觀人 發明創造"— Presentation transcript:

1 觀卦 活化經典,豐富人生 《易經》觀卦與設計思維 Observation 仰觀俯察,修己觀人 發明創造
Minder Chen, Ph‧D‧ Professor of Management Information Systems Martin V‧ Smith School of Business and Economics California State University Channel Islands Camarillo, CA 93012

2 觀卦

3 觀卦 卦辭:觀:盥而不薦,有孚顒若。 彖曰:大觀在上,順而巽,中正以觀天下。觀,盥而不薦,有孚顒若,下觀而化也。觀天之神道,而四時不忒,聖人以神道設教,而天下服矣。 象曰:風行地上,觀;先王以省方,觀民設教。 序卦傳:物大然後可觀,故受之以觀。 雜卦傳:臨觀之義,或與、或求。

4 觀卦 爻位 爻辭 小象辭 初六 童觀,小人无咎, 君子吝。 初六童觀,小人道也。 六二 窺觀,利女貞。 窺觀女貞,亦可醜也。 六三 觀我生,進退。 觀我生,進退﹔ 未失道也。 六四 觀國之光, 利用賓于王。 觀國之光,尚賓也。 九五 觀我生,君子无咎。 觀我生,觀民也。 上九 觀其生,君子无咎。 觀其生,志未平也。

5 觀卦簡介 觀卦的「觀」字在做為卦名時音貫。在爻辭中則讀為官。劉蕙孫曰:「上以觀設教,下以觀化成。」
觀卦是二陽四陰之卦,二陽在上,居此卦上、五之位,是大有可觀、以觀設教者,而為下之四陰所觀仰。故《序卦傳》曰: 「物大然後可觀,故受之以觀。」來觀者,在下之四陰也,四陰在下有求於上之二陽,象徵考察進步有成的國家、組織、或公司之制度與文化,以求取、硏究其治理之道,下四爻是以觀化成者。 〈雜卦傳〉曰:「臨、觀之義,或與?或求?」觀卦本身就有「與」及「求」兩義,在上者樹立榜樣以觀設教,在下者學習模仿以觀化成。 觀民者求也,設教者與也。觀卦中與求二義兼備,與臨卦同。

6 彖取上觀下之義 觀卦,下坤上巽。風行地上,徧觸乎物,有自上觀下之義,則爲去聲之觀。二陽在上,四陰所仰,有自下觀上之義,則爲平聲之觀。全彖取以上示下之義,故卦名取去聲之觀也。觀卦次臨。按,序卦,物大然後可觀,故受之以觀。觀所以次臨也。彖取上觀下之義。在上者致其潔清,不輕自用,民自信而仰之。此全彖之大旨也。六爻以四陰自下仰觀二陽。然上不得位,故以五爲觀之主。而下四陰則近者吉而遠者凶。四觀光而三進退,二利女而初則吝矣。蓋臨卦二陽在下,進而淩陰,故陰欲遠陽。觀卦二陽在上,陰自下仰,故陰欲近陽。此又扶陽抑陰之微意也。  陳夢雷《周易淺述》

7 觀字甲骨文和金文 甲骨文 金文 "雚"是"觀"的本字。 雚,甲骨文畫的是一隻大鳥,表示誇張醒目的"眉毛"下面睜著兩隻大眼睛,整個字形像類似貓頭鷹的大眼睛猛禽。 金文基本承續甲骨文字形。造字本義:貓頭鷹瞪大銳利的眼睛警覺察看。"雚"的"大眼睛猛禽瞪大眼睛察看"本義消失後,有的金文加"見"另造"觀(觀)"代替,強調猛禽誇張的大眼"無所不見"的洞察力。篆文承續金文字形。

8 觀出於京 《爾雅·釋宮》觀謂之闕。《註》宮門雙闕。《疏》雉門之旁名觀。又名闕。《白虎通》上懸法象,其狀巍巍然高大,謂之象魏。使人觀之,謂之觀也。 觀者乃京之双聲轉語…其曰京觀者,則為音變之雙聲連語,可徵觀出於京。 --《文字析義》 -- 《康熙字典》 艮為門闕

9 《易程傳》 《序卦》:「臨者大也,物大然後可觀,故受之以觀。(可觀而後有所合,故受之以噬嗑。)」觀所以次臨也。 凡觀視於物則為觀(音官),為觀於下則為觀(音貫) 。 如樓觀謂之觀者,為觀於下也。 人君上觀天道,下觀民俗,則為觀。 修德行政,為民瞻仰,則為觀。 風行地上,遍觸萬類,周觀之象也。 二陽在上,四陰在下,陽剛居尊,為群下所觀仰,觀之義也。在諸爻則唯取觀見,隨時為義也。 臨卦二陽在下即見其大,乃履霜堅冰之意。 可觀而後有所合(噬嗑),觀者與被觀者適合 (fit)、磨合也。

10 《用心法則(Mindfulness)》 能夠開創新類別:要能對所觀察到事物,不斷地做出「物以類聚、方以群分」的分門別類的功夫,於各類別之間,能識别其異同之處。故能利用既有的分類,做為認知事物之用,但又能不完全受既有分類的限制,要時時跳脫出傳統的觀念,找到新的現象和類別,提出開創性的分類,以面對新的事物和環境。 歡迎新資訊:在一個穩定、重複、缺乏變化的環境中,我們的知覺系統會因為它常久沒有接受到任何新資訊,而索性停止運作,於是會開始過濾掉那些細微、不一致的訊息。一個用心的人會用心聆聽各方面的意見、仔細觀察世變,主動積極地去注意任何變動的訊息,故能識變而應變。事出異常必有詭詐 俱備多重觀點:樂於接受不同的觀點,才能以開放的態度接受分析新的訊息。社會心理學家早就觀察到「當局者的觀點」和「旁觀者的觀點」會有所不同。當局者迷,並且經常將錯誤歸咎於他人或環境,而將功績歸於自己。旁觀者「清」,常將錯誤的原因歸之於當局者,而忽略了大環境的影響。有幾個人來觀察同一件事,就會出現同樣多的觀點。用心的人能接受和具備多重觀點,故在為人處事上較能圓融。 相對於「分類思考」「自動行為」「單一觀點」 艾倫、南格(Ellen J. Langer)著,謝伯讓、高薏涵譯《用心法則(Mindfulness)》,木馬文化事業股份有限公司,2007年12月。Copyright © 1989 by Ellen Langer Ph.D.

11 境由心轉及心為境轉 一個匹茲堡的老修道院里,朗格教授和學生精心搭建了一個「時空膠囊」,這個地方被布置得與20年前一模一樣。他們邀請了16位老人,年齡都在七八十歲,8人一組,讓他們在這裡生活一個星期。這一個星期里,這些老人都沉浸在1959年的環境里,他們聽上世紀50年代的音樂,看50年代的電影和情景喜劇,讀50年代的報紙和雜誌,討論卡斯特羅在古巴的軍事行動,美國第一次發射人造衛星。他們都被要求更加積極的生活,比如一起布置餐桌,收拾碗筷。沒有人幫他們穿衣服,或者扶著走路。唯一的區別是,實驗組的言行舉止必須遵循現在時——他們必須努力讓自己生活在1959年,而控制組用的是過去時——用懷舊的方式談論和回憶1959年發生的事情。實驗結果是,兩組老人的身體素質都有了明顯改善。他們剛出現在朗格的辦公室時,大都是家人陪著來的,老態龍鍾,步履蹣跚。一個星期後,他們的視力、聽力、記憶力都有了明顯的提高,血壓降低了,平均體重增加了3磅,步態、體力和握力也都有了明顯的改善。不過,相比之下,實驗組,即「生活在1959年」的老人進步更加驚人,他們的關節更加柔韌,手腳更加敏捷,在智力測試中得分更高,有幾個老人甚至玩起了橄欖球。局外人被請來看他們實驗前後的照片,幾乎不敢相信自己的眼睛。這麼多年來,關於這個實驗的質疑從來沒有停止過。畢竟,這是一個田野實驗,因為缺乏實驗室的控制,一個結果可以有很多不同的解釋。事實上,直到今天,朗格教授仍然難以解釋,那一個星期里,這些老人的大腦和身體之間到底發生了怎樣的交互。唯一可以肯定的是,這些老人在心理上相信自己年輕了20歲,於是身體做出了相應的配合。為了維持時間感,那些「活在1959年」的老人必須付出更多的「專注力」,即更有意識的「活在當下」,因此他們的改善更明顯。雖然不至於「返老還童」,但這個實驗至少證明了,我們生命最後階段的衰老並非是不可逆轉的。 </p><p><br /></p><p>「衰老是一個被灌輸的概念。」她接著說,「老年人的虛弱、無助、多病,常常是一種習得性無助,而不是必然的生理過程。」關於衰老的很多思維定式是經不起推敲的。比如人老了,記憶一定會衰退嗎?</p><p><br /></p><p>腦神經科學的證據顯示,一半以上的老年人,其大腦活躍程度與20多歲的年輕人並沒有區別。他們在短期記憶力、抽象推理能力以及信息處理速度等方面的能力都不應差於年輕人。那麼,到底是什麼抑制了他們真實的潛能?</p><p><br /></p><p>根據朗格教授的分析,這是因為我們身處一個崇拜青春而厭棄老年的社會。年輕的時候,我們想當然地以為自己永遠不會老。與此同時,我們固執而輕率地認定衰老和能力減弱有著必然的聯繫。某天早上我們醒來,驚恐地發現自己已步入老年,這種思維定式往往極具殺傷力。當我們發現自己記性越來越差時,最現成的解釋似乎就是——我們老了,而很少再去尋找其他的可能性,比如也許是我們失去了記憶的動機和意圖?</p><p><br /></p><p>事實上,很多心理實驗都證實,一個人衰老的速度與環境暗示很有關係。與一個比自己年輕的人結婚,往往長壽;相反,與一個比自己年老的人結婚,往往短壽。社會經常規定了,什麼樣的年齡應該穿什麼樣的衣服,否則就是為老不尊。因此一個經常穿制服的人往往不容易顯老,因為制服沒有老少之分,沒有年齡暗示。</p><p><br /></p><p>「如果我們不是將『變老』看成是一種時間的遺失,一條單向的下坡路,而是一個時間的過程,一種自然的變化,我們會發現年老的許多好處。」</p><p><br /></p><p>在20多年前的一個養老院的實驗中,她發現,當一個老年人對自己的生活有更多的控制權時,比如他能決定在哪裡招待客人,玩什麼娛樂節目,自己照顧房間里的植物,他會比那些被全方位照顧的老人更加快樂,更愛社交,記性更好,而且活得更久。</p><p><br /></p><p>有人問朗格教授,是否想過讓自己回到30年前?</p><p><br /></p><p>她笑著說:「如果你是一個懂得專註力的人,年齡從來不是問題。無論你20歲,30歲,或者60歲,你都是在體驗當下,你在自己的時間裡加入生命的體驗。這是一種生活的藝術。」

12 系統動力學觀之層次 屠益民、張良政、吳定芳, 《系統動力學理論與應用》, unpublished manuscript, 2007。

13 觀察之層次 不觀:凡事莫不關心,掉以輕心。 外觀:看到事物、事件表面,而不深究其理。只知救火,不會防災。
警觀:看趨勢和變化,處承平之時仍有「事出異常,必有詭詐(或機會)」的警覺性,能「於不疑處起疑(以初心視之)」,但又不是處處疑神疑鬼。 深觀:深入研究,了解所研究系統內部的結構,能從根本上解決問題。 中觀:看正面、看反面;順著去想、反向思考;結合兩端,而用其中道。將此默識於心中,形成吾人的心智模式,隨時指導我們的言行,然而心智模式仍須不斷地藉助新的訊息來修正更新。

14 Systems Thinking Tools
“What do we mean when we say ‘systems thinking?'” We can use the phrase to refer to a set of tools – such as causal loop diagrams, stock and flow diagrams and simulation models – that help us map and explore dynamic complexity. We can also use it to mean a unique perspective on reality – a perspective that sharpens our awareness of whole and of how the parts within those wholes interrelate. Finally, systems thinking can refer to a special vocabulary with which we express our understanding of dynamic complexity. For example, systems thinkers often describe the world in terms of reinforcing and balancing processes, limits, delays, patterns of behavior over time, and so forth.” – Barry Richmond, isee systems, inc.

15 透視問題、事件之表面 事件之一端有如 冰山之一角 歷時觀察其行為 找出可尋之軌跡 探賾索隱 了解系統結構以 鉤深致遠 掌握其樞機之處
stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, and time delay delays. 探賾索隱 鉤深致遠 了解系統結構以 掌握其樞機之處 感觀影響信念,信念影響行為

16 系統性思考 的習慣 (link) 考慮行為所造成的短期與長期影響 深思熟慮, 三思而後行 提出假設, 並加以測試 以改變觀點來 增進瞭解
能辨識因果關係的交互影響 思考心智模型 如何影響現狀與未來 能看出系統結構對行為產生的影響 系統性思考 的習慣 了解系統的架構並找出更好的施力點 願意從大局著眼 觀察系統裡的元素如何隨時間改變,其模式和趨勢是如何形成 考慮行為所造成的短期與長期影響 找出預期之外的影響可能在何處發生 檢查結果,有需要時就加以修正: 逐步漸進法 分析因果關係時, 練習看出作用時間差的重要性 (link) Source: 《未來教育新焦點》and 辛玉蘭教授

17 文化研究觀察 人類學大師 Ray Birdwhistell 不斷提醒跨文化的研究者,觀察時不只要看出有什麼,還要看出沒有什麼;最終不但必須忠實描述自己的觀察,更要不斷挑戰自己的觀點(point of view);否則會落入一廂情願的陷阱,構建出扭曲的「真實」。後之視今、必如今之視昔。 原文網址: 雷倩/想我被消失的中華民國 | ETtoday論壇新聞 | ETtoday 新聞雲 http://www.ettoday.net/news/ / htm#ixzz49lt45eQ6 

18 十二消息卦與月份 復 臨 泰 大壯 夬 乾 姤 遯 否 觀 剝 坤 周 商 夏 卦形 卦名 節氣 冬至 大寒 雨水 春分 穀雨 小滿 夏至
大暑 處暑 秋分 霜降 小雪 小寒 立冬 驚蟄 清明 立夏 芒種 小暑 立秋 白露 寒露 大雪 月建 夏暦 11月 12月 1月 2月 3月 4月 5月 6月 7月 8月 9月 10月 https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/十二消息卦

19 觀卦取象示意圖 雲捲晴空之卦 春花競發之象 判曰:觀者,觀也。觀國之光,風在地上,萬物榮昌,財不破散,爵祿加彰。 《卜筮全書》

20 彖辭 卦辭:觀:盥而不薦,有孚顒若。 彖曰:大觀在上,順而巽,中正以觀天下。觀,盥而不薦,有孚顒若,下觀而化也。觀天之神道,而四時不忒,聖人以神道設教,而天下服矣。 盥,祭祀前淨手的儀式。 薦,祭品、進獻祭品。 顒,仰也、大也,嚴正之貌。音庸、二聲。 忒,音特,訓為差錯、失誤。

21 盥而不薦 觀者,以中正示人,爲人所仰也。盥者,將祭而潔手。薦,奉酒食以祭也。顒若,尊敬之貌。盥者无不薦,盥時誠意精專,薦亦未至于懈。今云盥而不薦者,風行地上,萬物肅清,然无形可見,有盥而不薦之象。然氣之所至,自然鼓動萬物,有孚而顒若之象。聖人潔清自治,恭己无爲。不待政教號令之行,而羣下信而仰之,莫不整肅。猶祭者方盥手于洗,誠意精專。不待牲牢酒食之陳,而精誠使人皆肅然生敬也。又按,大壯則取四陽之盛,觀則不言四陰之盛,反取二陽在上爲四陰所仰,則又聖人扶陽抑陰之意也。

22 〈繫辭傳〉富有之謂大業,日新之謂盛德。生生之謂易,成象之謂乾,效法之為坤,極數知來之謂占,通變之謂事,陰陽不測之謂神。…子曰:「知變化之道者,其知神之所為乎。」… 是故,夫象,聖人有以見天下之賾(音則,幽深難見),而擬諸其形容,象其物宜,是故謂之象。聖人有以見天下之動,而觀其會通,以行其典禮,繫辭焉,以斷其吉凶,是故謂之爻。極天下之賾者,存乎卦;鼓天下之動者,存乎辭;化而裁之,存乎變;推而行之,存乎通;神而明之,存乎其人;默而成之,不言而信,存乎德行。 〈說卦傳〉神也者、妙萬物而為言者也。 神者,无形與聲,而妙不可測。天運自然,四時不忒。天之所以爲觀,神道也。聖人亦不俟號令政教之煩,使天下自服。聖人之所以爲觀,以天之神道設教也。不薦之孚,聖人之神道也。猶中庸之篤恭而天下平,上天之載无聲无臭也。此因卦辭而極言之。-- 陳夢雷《周易淺述》

23 觀民設敎 【大象】 風行地上,觀。 先王以省方,觀民設敎。 草木從上之風而偃也。故先王察其方所,觀其俗性,不易其素履,則民自行其道也。
【大象】 風行地上,觀。 先王以省方,觀民設敎。 草木從上之風而偃也。故先王察其方所,觀其俗性,不易其素履,則民自行其道也。 -- 《子夏易傳》

24 Richard Wilhelm/Baynes Translation
THE JUDGMENTCONTEMPLATION. The ablution has been made, But not yet the offering. Full of trust they look up to him THE IMAGE The wind blows over the earth: The image of CONTEMPLATION. Thus the kings of old visited the regions of the world, Contemplated the people, And gave them instruction. 卦辭:觀:盥而不薦,有孚顒若。 【大象】風行地上,觀。 先王以省方,觀民設敎。

25 《子夏易傳》 觀上、觀下也。 下順上巽,觀上之風,從而化之。 上巽下坤,觀下之情,而設敎也。
剛德上行,為天下之大。觀得其中正大順,而巽以從之也。 古者先王之治天下,為風之首者,非他也。禮之謂歟。 敬,其禮之本歟;宗廟,其敬之大歟; 盥,其祭之首歟,取諸潔敬者也。禮也者,物得其履,而不謬也。措之天下無所不行,本於其敬也。敬發乎情者也。盡則誠信,誠積中而容作於外,施於人而人順也。敬之盡者,莫大於孝,莫大於尊,親愛之,故貴之,貴之故尊之。

26 臨觀之義,或與或求。 臨 〈雜卦傳〉 大壯 觀 韓康伯注云:以我臨物,故曰與; 物來觀我,故曰求。 互錯 互綜
《法華文句》釋方便品題。其義有三。初約字訓釋。方者法也。便者用也。… -- 幽溪傳燈《維摩詰所說經無我疏》 大壯 互錯 互綜 韓康伯注云:以我臨物,故曰與; 物來觀我,故曰求。 以約字訓釋的方式解釋「方便」之三義為:方者法也,便者用也;方便 者門也,如開方便門示真實相;方者秘也,便者玅也。而《法華經》中 「方便」之義,即屬第三義「方者秘也,便者玅也」,這是因為經中所 說貧窮者內衣裏所繫的無價寶珠,與王頂上之珠無二無別,但是,此甚 深微妙法卻唯有佛陀與十方佛得知,是其「玅」與「秘」之處。 朱熹注︰以我臨物曰與,物來觀我曰求。或曰:「二卦互有與求之義」。 荀爽曰:臨者,教思无窮,故爲與。觀者,觀民設教,故爲求也。   《子夏易傳》:剛以臨觀,行其道也。巽說與衆,求其治也。

27 君 臣 民 臨 或與或求 觀 誰與?誰求? 與何?求何? 何與?何求? 陳夢雷《周易淺述》:以我臨物曰與,物來觀我曰求。
互綜  陳夢雷《周易淺述》:以我臨物曰與,物來觀我曰求。 臨卦以二陽在下徧臨四陰,而六五、上六又若以上臨下。觀卦九五觀示乎下,而四陰又相率以觀乎上, 互有求與之意。或者,疑詞。无求與而若有求與。 見爲與又疑于求,見爲求又疑于與也。

28 中爻之象 交互卦剝 抽絲剝繭 艮為門闕 山山相雜錯 卦體大象之象:艮(靜止)止觀 觀風之漸 觀卦中有坤、漸之象 — 劉君祖 初至四 三至上

29 錯綜複雜 表裏視之相綜一體 天地翻覆否泰共存 陰陽顛倒相錯互補 資始資生乾坤道器 上下相雜交互中爻 取兩用中鼎革生生

30 老子之觀 道可道,非常道。名可名,非常名。無名天地之始;有名萬物之母。故常無欲,以觀其妙(妙,要也) ;常有欲,以觀其徼(徼,歸也) 。此兩者,同出而異名,同謂之玄。玄之又玄,衆妙之門。… 致虛極,守靜篤。萬物並作,吾以觀復。 夫物芸芸,各復歸其根。歸根曰靜,是謂復命。 復命曰常,知常曰明。不知常,妄作凶。知常容,容乃公,公乃王,王乃天,天乃道,道乃久,沒身不殆。… 善建不拔,善抱者不脫,子孫以祭祀不輟。修之於身,其德乃真;修之於家,其德乃餘;修之於鄉,其德乃長;修之於國,其德乃豐;修之於天下,其德乃普。 故以身觀身,以家觀家,以鄉觀鄉,以國觀國,以天下觀天下。吾何以知天下然哉?以此。

31 《易》道--深觀群變,領導群眾 讀《易》當深悟吾人於不同之時、位應如何自處,「與時偕行、素位而行」乃其不二法門也。 然熊十力所謂「深觀群變」(觀卦)者, 乃教有心於治道者,深察群眾處於 不同之時位(即環境),其心境變化與外在反應。 其機甚微、其變甚速; 能見幾而作,方可與言領導群眾(臨卦)也。 《易》之內聖外王一貫之道,當由此入手。 --- 愛新覺羅毓鋆

32 定靜觀心者內聖之功夫 深觀群變者外王之修行 觀卦貫通內聖外王之道
觀卦通內聖外王之道 定靜觀心者內聖之功夫 深觀群變者外王之修行 觀卦貫通內聖外王之道 上以觀設教,下以觀化成。

33 觀卦象數圖 觀國光之圖 【卦辭】盥而不薦,有孚顒若。 爻位 爻辭 上九 觀其生,君子无咎。 九五 觀我生,君子无咎。 六四 觀國之光,
利用賓于王。 六三 觀我生,進退。 六二 窺觀,利女貞。 初六 童觀,小人无咎, 君子吝。

34 【爻辭】初六,童觀,小人无咎,君子吝。 【小象】「初六,童觀」,小人道也。
【爻辭】初六,童觀,小人无咎,君子吝。 【小象】「初六,童觀」,小人道也。 初六「童觀」,觀察的眼界太小,沒有宏偉的視野,就能力不足的小人來說還不算有什麼過錯,但對於有潛能的君子,若不能有宏觀開擴的眼界則就令人惋惜。故初六爻辭曰:「童觀,小人无咎,君子吝。」小象曰:「初六童觀,小人道也。」 老甘迺迪與擦鞋童 《安徒生童話》國王的新衣 《莊子‧徐無鬼》黃帝問路於馬童 *

35 黃帝問道於馬童 黃帝將見大隗乎具茨之山,方明為御,昌宇驂乘,張若、謵朋前馬,昆閽、滑稽後車。至於襄城之野,七聖皆迷,無所問塗。適遇牧馬童子,問塗焉,曰:「若知具茨之山乎?」曰:「然。」…黃帝曰:「夫為天下者,則誠非吾子之事。雖然,請問為天下。」小童曰:「夫為天下者,亦奚以異乎牧馬者哉?亦去其害馬者而已矣。」黃帝再拜稽首,稱天師而退。

36 童觀 「大人者,不失其赤子之心。」 -《孟子》 「不忘初心,方得始終。」 -《華嚴經》
「不忘初心,方得始終。」 《華嚴經》 https://sites.google.com/site/waldenpond28/stevejobs Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind by Suzuki-roshi’s statement, “In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities, in the expert’s mind there are few.” 

37 六二,窺觀,利女貞。 【爻辭】六二,窺觀,利女貞。 【小象】「窺觀,女貞」,亦可醜也。 *
六二是偷偷地觀察,如果是女子保持其「貞」正的矜持,不便大大方方地去考察自己喜歡的對象,則還說得過去,故六二爻辭曰:「窺觀,利女貞。」。然而正人君子若不依正道去考察,而偷偷摸摸地去偷看、偷學東西,這就是見不得人的醜事。故小象曰:「窺觀女貞,亦可醜也。」 坐井窺天,則曰天小; 以管窺豹,只見一斑; 見樹,不見林(Fail to see the forest for the trees) 乃窺觀之失也。 韓愈,〈原道〉:「坐井而觀天,曰天小者,非天小也。」 *

38 《冰鑒》〈神骨章〉第一 語云:「脫穀為糠,其髓斯存。」神之謂也。「山騫不崩,惟石為鎮。」骨之謂也。 一身精神,具乎兩目;一身神骨,具乎面部。他家兼論形骸,文人先觀神骨。開門見山,此為第一。 相家論神,有清濁之辨。清濁易辨,邪正難辨。欲辨邪正,先觀動靜。靜若含珠,動若水發;靜若無人,動若赴敵:此為澄清到底。靜若螢光,動若流水,尖巧喜淫;靜若半睡,動若鹿駭,別才而深思:一為敗器,一為隱流,均之托跡二清,不可不辨。 凡精神,抖擻處易見,斷續處難見。斷者出處斷,續者閉處續。道家所謂「收拾入門」之說,不了處,看其脫略;做了處,看其針線。小心者,從其做不了處看之,疏節闊目,若不經意,所謂脫略也。大膽者,從其做了處看之,慎重周密,無有苟且,所謂針線也。二者實看向內處,稍移外便落情態矣,情態易見。…

39 曾國藩相術口訣 邪正看眼鼻,真假看嘴唇; 功名看氣宇,富貴看精神; 主意看指爪,風波看腳筋; 若要看條理,全在語言中。 端莊厚重是貴相,謙卑涵容是貴相, 事有歸著是富相,心存濟物是富相。

40 曾國藩夫人選女婿 曾國藩共有五個女兒,前四個女婿都沒選好,所以他也很愧咎。他反省後認為這是因為「過去選女婿,其實不是選女婿本人,而是選父親。父親好,並不能保證兒子就一定好。還有,過去選婿是在他們還是小孩子,沒有長大成人前就選定了。小時後聰明可愛的小男孩,長大後不一定能有所成就,而有成就者又未必是個好丈夫。」 曾國藩欲將小女曾紀芬許配給其老友聶亦峰的兒子,即當時正在江南機器製造局當委員的聶仲方。曾國藩的夫人歐陽氏堅持這次要親自與女兒親自觀察、考察這位可能的女婿人選。

41 林家花園女婿窗 這個窗格是女婿窗的設計,重點就是要木格要夠厚、間隙要窄、內暗外亮,女子可窺視來訪的未來可能之夫婿。

42 眼見不足以為憑 孔子厄於陳、蔡,從者七日不食。子貢以所齎貨,竊犯圍而出,告糴於野人,得米一石焉。顏回、仲由炊之於壞屋之下,有埃墨墮飯中,顏回取而食之。子貢自井望見之,不悅,以為竊食也,入問孔子曰:「仁人廉士窮,改節乎?」孔子曰:「改節即何稱於仁廉哉?」子貢曰:「若回也,其不改節乎?」子曰:「然。」子貢以所飯告孔子,子曰:「吾信回之為仁久矣。雖汝有云,弗以疑也,其或者必有故乎?汝止,吾將問之。」召顏回曰:「疇昔予夢見先人,豈或啟祐我哉。子炊而進飯,吾將進焉。」對曰:「向有埃墨墮飯中,欲置之,則不潔;欲棄之,則可惜。回即食之,不可祭也。」孔子曰:「然乎!吾亦食之。」顏回出。孔子顧謂二三子曰:「吾之信回也,非待今日也。」二三子由此乃服之。 --《孔子家語‧在厄》

43 《韓非子‧內儲說上》挾智而問 主之所用也七術,所察也六微。七術:一曰、眾端參觀,二曰、必罰明威,三曰、信賞盡能,四曰、一聽責下,五曰、疑詔詭使,六曰、挾知而問,七曰、倒言反事。此七者,主之所用也。… 挾智(知)而問,則不智者至;深智一物,眾隱皆變。其說在昭侯之握一爪也。故必南門而三鄉得。周主索曲杖而群臣懼,卜皮事庶子,西門豹詳遺轄。… 說六…韓昭侯使騎於縣,使者報,昭侯問曰:「何見也?」對曰:「無所見也。」昭侯曰:「雖然何見?」曰:「南門之外,有黃犢食苗道左者。」昭侯謂使者「毋敢洩吾所問於女」,乃下令曰:「當苗時,禁牛馬入人田中固有令,而吏不以為事,牛馬甚多入人田中,亟舉其數上之,不得,將重其罪。」於是三鄉舉而上之,昭侯曰:「未盡也。」復往審之,乃得南門之外黃犢,吏以昭侯為明察,皆悚懼其所而不敢為非。

44 學之義甚廣,不當作效字解 子曰:「學而時習之。」朱子註謂:「學之為言效也。」余竊謂,學之義甚廣,不當作效字解,使後之為學者只求其當然,而不求其所以然,所謂依樣畫葫蘆者是也。猶憶中國乾嘉間,初弛海禁,有一西人身服之衣敝,當時又無西人為衣匠者。無已,招華成衣至,問:「汝能制西式衣否?」成衣曰:「有樣式即可以代辦。」西人檢舊衣付之,成衣領去。越數日,將新制衣送來,西人展視,剪制一切均無差,惟衣背後剪去一塊,復又補綴一塊。西人駭然問故,成衣答曰:「我是照你的樣式做耳。」今中國銳意圖新,事事效法西人,不求其所以然,而但行其所當然,與此西人所剪之成衣又何以異與,噫! –來源: 辜鴻銘. 《辜鴻銘講論語》,北京理工大學出版社, 學習觀摹時要知其然(what),更要知其所以然(why)! 背悟問用

45 非明理之為難,知所以用理之為難 張文襄嘗對客論餘曰:「某也知經而不知權。」余謂文襄實不知所謂權者。蓋凡所以運行天地間之物,惟理與勢耳。《易傳》曰:「形而上者謂之道,形而下者謂之器。」道者,理之全體也;器者,勢之總名也。小人重勢不重理,君子重理不重勢。小人重勢,故常以勢滅理;君子重理,而能以理制勢。欲以理制勢,要必知所以用理。權也者,知所以用理之謂也。孔子曰:「可與共學,未可與適道;可與適道,未可與立;可與立,未可與權。」所謂可與適道者,明理也;可與立者,明理之全體而有以自信也;可與權者,知所以用理也。 蓋天下事非明理之為難,知所以用理之為難。權之為義,大矣哉!譬如治水,知土能克水,此理也。然但執此理以治水患,則必徒為堵禦之防。如此,水愈積愈不可防,一旦決堤而溢,其害尤烈於無防也。此治水者之知經而不知權也。知權者,必察其地勢之高下,水力之大小,或不與水爭地而疏通之,或別開溝渠河道而引導之,隨時立制,因地制宜,無拘拘一定成見,此之謂知所以用理也。… 張文襄幕府紀聞 (民國)辜鴻銘 張文襄嘗對客論餘曰:「某也知經而不知權。」余謂文襄實不知所謂權者。蓋凡所以運行天地間之物,惟理與勢耳。《易傳》曰:「形而上者謂之道,形而下者謂之器。」道者,理之全體也;器者,勢之總名也。小人重勢不重理,君子重理不重勢。小人重勢,故常以勢滅理;君子重理,而能以理制勢。欲以理制勢,要必知所以用理。權也者,知所以用理之謂也。孔子曰:「可與共學,未可與適道;可與適道,未可與立;可與立,未可與權。」所謂可與適道者,明理也;可與立者,明理之全體而有以自信也;可與權者,知所以用理也。蓋天下事非明理之為難,知所以用理之為難。權之為義,大矣哉!譬如治水,知土能克水,此理也。然但執此理以治水患,則必徒為堵禦之防。如此,水愈積愈不可防,一旦決堤而溢,其害尤烈於無防也。此治水者之知經而不知權也。知權者,必察其地勢之高下,水力之大小,或不與水爭地而疏通之,或別開溝渠河道而引導之,隨時立制,因地制宜,無拘拘一定成見,此之謂知所以用理也。竊謂用理得其正為權,不得其正為術。若張文襄之所謂權,是乃術也,非權也。何言之?夫理之用謂之德,勢之用謂之力。忠信篤敬,德也,此中國之所長也;大艦巨炮,力也,此西洋各國之所長也。當甲申一股,清流党諸賢但知德足以勝力,以為中國有此德必可以制勝於朝廷,遂欲以忠信篤敬敵大艦巨炮。而不知忠信篤敬,乃無形之物也;大艦巨炮,乃有形之物也。以無形之物,攻有形之物,而欲以是奏效於疆場也,有是理乎?此知有理而不知用理以制勢也。甲申以後,文襄有鑑於此,遂欲舍理而言勢。然舍理而言勢,則入於小人之道,文襄又患之。於是,躊躇滿志,而得一兩全之策,曰為國則舍理而言勢,為人則舍勢而言理。故有公利私利之說。吾故曰:文襄不知權。文襄之所謂權者,乃術也,非權也。 因此在採納他民族的文明成果之前,不僅要瞭解這種文明成果本身,還務必要弄清其意圖和由來,即「知其然而又知其所以然」。

46 六三,觀我生,進退。 * 【爻辭】六三,觀我生,進退。 【小象】「觀我生,進退」,未失道也。 王弼注曰:「生,猶動出也。」 孔穎達疏曰:「或動、或出,是生長之義。」 也就要觀察自己的舉動和出處,是否一直有所成長和進步,且合於道。 有乾卦九三,「反復道也」之意。 與上九相應,觀卦上九乃「天命之謂性」也。 六三,乃「率性之謂道」也。

47 止觀、內觀之修行之道 佛教天臺宗修行有「止觀」之法,道家有觀復之道和「內視反聽」之方。儒家有「在明明德」的《大學》之道,《中庸》提倡君子應有慎其靈明之性的「慎獨」修為,和「反身而誠」的「自誠明」之功夫,此皆「觀我生」也。 《心經》中觀自在菩薩反觀而觀自性,返求其放逸之心,以得其本來面目。 六字大明咒「唵嘛呢叭咪吽(oom-ma-net-beh-meh-hong)」其音有如英文的“Is anybody home?”其義有如襌宗參話頭之時,常要人自問「主人翁何在?」,這是個巧合嗎? 《莊子·馬蹄》成玄英疏:「極耳之所聽而反聽無聲,恣目之能視而內視無色。」 日僧永平道元:佛法的目的在認識自己,認識自己的目的在忘卻自己。

48 六四,觀國之光,利用賓于王。 * 【爻辭】六四,觀國之光,利用賓于王。 【小象】「觀國之光」,尚「賓」也。
【爻辭】六四,觀國之光,利用賓于王。 【小象】「觀國之光」,尚「賓」也。 六四鄰近九五,九五是觀卦之主。六四為其上賓,能就近深入體察學習。欲觀者必慎選前往考察的人選,才能體會到所觀事物之精義。而被參訪的組織也應妥善接待來觀訪者,冀望其將來可為兩個組織之間溝通的橋樑。故六四爻辭曰:「觀國之光,利用賓于王。」小象曰:「觀國之光,尚賓也。」企業間互相觀摩,雖有顯示實力以謀求合作伙伴的動機,也必須防著對方竊取商業機密,故曰:「良賈深藏若虛」。 「利用賓于王」是「尚賓」之義,賓是賓客、客卿,指的是外籍、外來的人才。觀他國之光,效法其所長,方法之一就是引進外來人才。在戰國時代,尚賓之風盛行,亦見其功效,如秦孝公用魏國之商鞅變法而強。然而大量引用外來人才容易引起本土、內部人才之反彈。秦王嬴政因故下令驅逐外籍賓客,李斯上書〈諫逐客書〉以「泰山不讓土壤,故能成其大;河海不擇細流,故能就其深。」強調能包容各方人才,才是強國之道。

49 Benchmarking 基準化分析法(英語:Benchmarking)又作標竿測試、標竿管理,指的是將自己企業的表現指標與業界最佳做比較。常見的指標包括品質、時間、花費。Benchmarking 找出業界中最佳的幾個公司或產品,與自己作比較,藉由這個過程,了解目標公司的表現,並且試圖解釋他者成功的原因。 Source: Wikipedia

50 走馬看花:曾到此一遊(I have been here!) 深度旅遊:文化體驗之旅(See beneath the surface.)
觀光旅遊三部曲--嚴長壽 走馬看花:曾到此一遊(I have been here!) 深度旅遊:文化體驗之旅(See beneath the surface.) 無期無為:完全放鬆,體驗在地人的生活。(Go somewhere, do nothing.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H4A-yxaBMfc

51 【爻辭】九五,觀我生,君子无咎。 【小象】「觀我生」,觀民也。
* 【爻辭】九五,觀我生,君子无咎。 【小象】「觀我生」,觀民也。 朱註曰:「觀者,有以示人,而為人所仰也。」 王弼注曰:「居於尊位,為觀之主,宣弘大化,光于四表,觀之極者也。上之化下,猶風之靡草。故觀民之俗以察己道。百姓有罪,在予一人。『君子』風著,己乃『无咎』。上為化主,將欲自觀,乃『觀民』也。」 孔穎達疏曰:「四海之內由我而化,我教化善,則天下有君子之風。教化不善,則天下著小人之俗。」

52 風俗之厚薄繫於一二人之心耳 孔子說:「草上之風必偃」清朝的曾國藩於〈原才〉一文中說:「風俗之厚薄奚自乎?自乎一二人之心之所嚮而已。先王之治天下,使賢者皆當路在勢,其風民也皆以義,故道一而俗同。」即是取觀化之意。在九五之尊的人,要看自己管理、治理是否得當,應當觀察其人民或部屬之風氣和習俗,在下者若是有做不對的地方,則應該反省,是不是組織之規章沒有界定清楚行事之準則,或是平日的教育訓練不足,還是領導人自己的言行不足以為模範。自己修行而有道,行君子之行,才能夠沒有過錯。 故九五爻辭曰:「觀我生,君子无咎。」 小象曰:「觀我生,觀民也。」 孔穎達疏曰:「觀民以觀我,故觀我即觀民也。」

53 【爻辭】上九,觀其生,君子无咎。 【小象】「觀其生」,志未平也。
* 【爻辭】上九,觀其生,君子无咎。 【小象】「觀其生」,志未平也。 上九雖然不在九五之中位,但因為居九五尊位之上,故仍為在下之四陰所觀仰。占者不因處觀卦上九之終位,而意志消沈,而能行君子之道,慎始誠終,進則更能以其剛健之性,而生貞下啟元之志。上九言「觀其生」而不言「觀我生」,是因為居觀卦之上,已超脫於物外,回顧自己的一生,此時已經沒有太強的自我意識,只是探尋有沒有什麼其他理想和志向,是值得用此餘生繼續去努力。 正義曰:「小畜玉鉉」者,玉者,堅剛而有潤者也。上九居小畜之終,小畜道之成,體剛處柔,則是用玉鉉以自舉者也,故曰小畜玉鉉也。「大吉,无不利」者,應不在一,即靡所不舉,故得大吉而无不利。 《象》曰「剛柔節」者,以剛履柔,雖復在上,不為乾之亢龍,故曰剛柔節也。

54 《中庸》 子曰:「吾說夏禮,杞不足徵也。吾學殷禮,有宋存焉;吾學周禮,今用之,吾從周。」王天下有三重焉,其寡過矣乎!上焉者雖善無徵,無徵不信,不信民弗從;下焉者雖善不尊,不尊不信,不信民弗從。故君子之道本諸身,徵諸庶民,考諸三王而不繆,建諸天地而不悖,質諸鬼神而無疑,百世以俟聖人而不惑。質諸鬼神而無疑,知天也;百世以俟聖人而不惑,知人也。是故君子動而世為天下道,行而世為天下法,言而世為天下則。遠之則有望,近之則不厭。《詩》曰:「在彼無惡,在此無射;庶幾夙夜,以永終譽!」君子未有不如此而蚤有譽於天下者也。

55 上九有盛大之德,為天下之觀仰, 然處于无位之地,而權不在己, 又其責望既重,夕思晝行, 常欲興天下利,除天下害, 知其心志之未平也。
胡瑗《周易口義》 上九有盛大之德,為天下之觀仰, 然處于无位之地,而權不在己, 又其責望既重,夕思晝行, 常欲興天下利,除天下害, 知其心志之未平也。

56 「無我相、無人相、無眾生相、無壽者相。」
四無相 《金剛經》云: 「無我相、無人相、無眾生相、無壽者相。」 無我相:不要有貢高我慢,不要有為自己打算的心。  無人相:不要妨礙或障礙他人,凡對人不利的事都不要做。  無眾生相:視萬物為一體。(無緣大慈、同體大悲)  無壽者相:大家都應該有要求生命存在的權利,不應該奪取別人或其它眾生之性命。  -- 宣化上人

57 應作如是觀 《金剛經》 一切有為法,如夢幻泡影,如露亦如電,應作如是觀。 是故須菩提,諸菩薩摩訶薩應如是生清淨心,不應住色生心,不應住聲香味觸法生心,應無所住而生其心。」 聖嚴法師:這句話是不是叫我們不要執著,但也不要因無所執著而冷漠消極,應該提起智慧心、慈悲心、菩提心? 《莊子‧應帝王》 至人之用心若鏡,不將不迎,應而不藏, 故能勝物而不傷。

58 觀察人事物之法 觀卦認為我們觀察人事物時: 存赤子心 暗中考察 觀我反省 取法於上 觀民之生 憂民興國 眼界要高 視野要廣 察得仔細
看得長遠 抓注重點 探其無形 設身處地 保持客觀 爻位 爻辭 初六 童觀,小人无咎,君子吝。 六二 窺觀,利女貞。 六三 觀我生,進退。 六四 觀國之光,利用賓于王。 九五 觀我生,君子无咎。 上九 觀其生,君子无咎。

59 觀卦與大學之道 觀卦有六三爻的「觀我生」,九五爻的「觀我生」,和上九爻的「觀其生」。不易解讀。實則觀卦此三爻的「三觀」之「觀生」與《大學》的「大學之道,在明明德,在親民,在止於至善。」的「三在」相應。六三爻「觀我生,進退,未失道也。」,此「在明明德」也;九五爻「觀我生,觀民也。」,此「在親民」也; 上九爻「觀其生,至未平也。」,此「在止於至善」也。 至於「九四觀國之光,尚賓也。」則是君子珍惜參觀上國之光的機會,以學習謀求治國、平天下之道。此觀卦由六三至九五的必經歷程。熊十力云:「《易》之觀卦,對於人生之觀察、深微至極。…《易經》包含萬有,而反己是其骨髓。觀之三爻,皆反己也,其可忽諸。」「反己」是反觀於己、反求諸己,是觀卦的精髓。 熊十力,《明心篇》,台灣學生書局,1976年。

60 觀摹與觀化 觀可以是由下向上的觀摹和學習(如初六到六四這四個爻),也可以是上對下的觀化和教導(如九五和上九)。 觀者可從由內向外「觀其生」的外觀,更應有自我反省的修為,由外向內「觀我生」的內觀;進而內外參觀達到「內聖外王一也」的境界。

61 水至清則無魚,人至察則無徒 故君子南面臨官:貴而不驕,富恭有本能圖,脩業居久而譚;情邇暢而及乎遠,察一而關於多。一物治而萬物不亂者,以身為本也。故君子蒞民,不可以不知民之性,達諸民之情;既知其以生有習,然後民特從命也。故世舉則民親之,政均則民無怨。故君子蒞民,不臨以高,不道以遠,不責民之所不能。今臨之明王之成功,而民嚴而不迎也;道以數年之業,則民疾,疾者辟矣。故古者冕而前旒,所以蔽明也;統絖塞耳,所以弇聰也。故水至清則無魚,人至察則無徒。 -- 《大戴禮記‧子張問入官》

62 蔽明塞聰,無求備於一人 傳曰:『天不為人之惡寒而輟其冬,地不為人之惡險而輟其廣,君子不為小人之匈匈而易其行。』『天有常度,地有常形,君子有常行;君子道其常,小人計其功。』《詩》云:『禮義之不愆,何恤人之言?』故曰:『水至清則無魚,人至察則無徒,冕而前旒,所以蔽明;黈纊充耳,所以塞聰。』明有所不見,聰有所不聞,舉大德,赦小過,無求備於一人之義也。枉而直之,使自得之;優而柔之,使自求之;揆而度之,使自索之。蓋聖人教化如此,欲自得之;自得之,則敏且廣矣。 -- 《漢書‧東方朔傳》

63 水清無大魚,察政不得下和 初,超被徵,以戊己校尉任尚為都護。與超交代。尚謂超曰:「君侯在外國三十餘年,而小人猥承君後,任重慮淺,宜有以誨之。」超曰:「年老失智,任君數當大位,豈班超所能及哉!必不得已,願進愚言。塞外吏士,本非孝子順孫,皆以罪過徙補邊屯。而蠻夷懷鳥獸之心,難養易敗。今君性嚴急,水清無大魚,察政不得下和。宜蕩佚簡易,寬小過,總大綱而已。」超去後,尚私謂所親曰:「我以班君當有奇策,今所言平平耳。」尚至數年,而西域反亂,以罪被徵,如超所戒。 -- 《後漢書 ‧ 班梁列傳》

64 總論 觀爲陰盛之卦。而九五陽剛得位,故有可以觀示下民之象。然高位爲衆所仰,非可易居,而陰盛亦多戒懼,故五僅无咎而上志未平也。四陰觀在上之陽。位高則所觀者大,卑下則所觀者狹。此四觀光,三進退,而初二則羞吝也。 -- 陳夢雷《周易淺述》

65

66 象 意念 文字 活動內涵 概念 從不同觀點看人與事 具體與抽象思維 個體(dots)與整體(connecting the dots) 觀點
弱肉強食(抽象) 母愛(抽象) 母鳥餵小鳥(具象) 小鳥說我餓了(個禮) 鳥兒可防蟲害(整體) 文字

67 意象文言 《易經‧繫辭上》子曰:「書不盡言,言不盡意。然則聖人之意,其不可見乎?」子曰:「聖人立象以盡意,設卦以盡情偽,繫辭以盡其言,變而通之以盡利,鼓之舞之以盡神。」 《周易略例注‧明象》言生於象,故可尋言以觀象。象生於意,故可尋象以觀意。意以象盡,象以言著。故言者所以明象,得象而忘言。象者所以存意,得意而忘象。 《莊子‧外物》筌者所以在魚,得魚而忘筌;蹄者所以在兔,得兔而忘蹄;言者所以在意,得意而忘言。吾安得忘言之人而與之言哉? 《金剛經》汝等比丘,知我說法,如筏喻者,法尚應舍。何況非法。 《周易略例注》〈明象〉 from 夫象者,出意者也。言者,明象者也。 〔注〕立象所以表出其意。作其言者,顯明其象。若乾能變化,龍是變物,欲明乾象,假龍以明乾。欲明龍者,假言以象龍。龍則象之意也。 盡意莫若象,盡象莫若言。 〔注〕象以表意,言以盡象。 言生於象,故可尋言以觀象。 〔注〕若言能生龍,尋言可以觀龍。 象生於意,故可尋象以觀意。 〔注〕乾能明意,尋乾以觀其意。 〔音義〕觀意,一本作見意。 意以象盡,象以言著。 〔注〕意之盡也,象以盡之;象之著也,言以著之。 故言者所以明象,得象而忘言。象者所以存意,得意而忘象。 〔注〕既得龍象,其言可忘;既得乾意,其龍可捨。 猶蹄者所以在兔,得兔而忘蹄; 〔注〕蹄以喻言,兔以喻象,存蹄得兔,得兔忘蹄。 〔音義〕蹄,音啼。兔,他故反,又作菟。 筌者所以在魚,得魚而忘筌也。 〔注〕求魚在筌,得魚棄筌。 〔音義〕筌,七全反。筌蹄,事見《莊子》。 然則言者象之蹄也,象者意之筌也。 〔注〕蹄以喻言,筌以比象。 是故存言者非得象者也,存象者非得意者也。 〔注〕未得象者存言,言則非象;未得意者存象,象則非意。 象生於意而存象焉,則所存者乃非其象也。 〔注〕所存者在意也。 言生於象而存言焉,則所存者乃非其言也。 〔注〕所存者在象也。 然則忘象者乃得意者也,忘言者乃得象者也。 〔注〕忘象得意,忘言得象。 得意在忘象,得象在忘言。 〔注〕棄執而後得之。 故立象以盡意,而象可忘也。重畫以盡情,而畫可忘也。 〔注〕盡意可遺象,盡情可遺畫。若盡和同之意,忘其天火之象,得同志之心,拔茅之畫盡可棄也。 〔音義〕重,直龍反。畫,胡麥反。下同。 是故觸類可為其象,合義可為其徵。 〔注〕徵,驗也。觸逢事類則為象,魚、龍、牛、馬、鹿、狐、鼠之類。大人、君子,義同為驗也。 義苟在健,何必馬乎?類苟在順,何必牛乎? 〔注〕大壯九三有乾,亦云「羝羊」。坤卦无乾,彖亦云「牝馬」。 爻苟合順,何必坤乃為牛?義苟應健,何必乾乃為馬? 〔注〕遯无坤,六二亦稱牛。明夷无乾,六二亦稱馬。〔音義〕應,音鷹。 而或者定馬於乾, 〔注〕唯執乾為馬,其象未弘也。 案文責卦,有馬无乾,則偽說滋漫,難可紀矣。互體不足,遂及卦變,變又不足,推致五行。 〔注〕廣推金、木、水、火、土為象也。 一失其原,巧喻彌甚*。 〔注〕一失聖人之原旨,廣為譬喻,失之甚也。 *喻或作愈。 縱復或值,而義无所取。蓋存象忘意之由也。 〔注〕失魚兔則空守筌蹄,遺健順則空說龍馬。 〔音義〕復,扶又反。 忘象以求其意,義斯見矣。

68 有獎爭答 請推算出這部車是停在幾號停車位?

69 答案  87號,你要從停車的人的角度(轉180度)去看。

70 這是八卦中的那一卦? 令學員說出此為何卦? 教師左邊學員說是震卦(動) 教師右邊學員說是艮卦(靜、止) 八卦相綜的觀念: 震動 艮止

71 見仁見智:公說公有理、婆說婆有理 福 禍 否極泰來

72 泰卦之綜卦為否卦 地天泰卦 天地否卦 將本卦旋轉180度即是其綜卦,代表從對方的角度、客觀地來綜觀同一問題。

73 機:危機或轉機 杯水半滿或半空 三十輻,共一轂,當其無,有車之用。 埏(shān)埴以為器,當其無,有器之用。
鑿戶牖以為室,當其無,有室之用。 故有之以為利,無之以為用。 《老子》第十一章 三十輻,共一轂,當其無,有車之用。 轂所以能統三十輻者,無也,以其無能受物之故,故能以實統眾也。 埏埴以為器,當其無,有器之用。鑿戶牖以為室,當其無,有室之用。故有之以為利,無之以為用。 木埴,壁之所以成,三者而皆以無為用也。言無者,有之所以為利,皆賴無以為用也。 輻: 車輪中連接車轂和輪圈的直木 轂: 車輪中心的圓木。 用水和泥來製作陶器。荀子˙性惡:故陶人埏埴而為器。漢˙桓寬˙鹽鐵論˙通有:鑄金為鉏,埏埴為器。 ㄕㄢ ㄓˊ 牖,穿壁以木为交窗也。——《说文》。段注:“交窗者,以木横直为之,即今之窗也。在墙曰牖,在屋曰窗。” 機:危機或轉機

74 有市場?沒市場? Market Assessment
非洲賣鞋: No market vs. Great Market 台商燦坤 vs. 永樂電器 Pros: 商品低價促銷策略、商品包退概念、退貨服務方式 Cons: 動線凌亂、走道擁擠、品牌區隔不清 統一 vs. 鼎新-康師傅方便麵 (link) 1995年,馬雲在訪美時首次接觸到網際網路Search beer and no Chinese beer; search China, and there was no China. 於1995年4月創辦網站「中國黃頁」 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bU5ze-EwFg8 4m-5m; 7:50m- Official Documentary about Jack Ma 马云《Dream Maker》 Alibaba Group “追梦者阿里巴巴” 案例: “康师傅”方便面火爆京城      康师傅方便面在中国大陆早已是家喻户晓,其市 场占有率已近半壁江山。近些年,康师傅又发展了茶 饮料、果汁、休闲食品等产品线,开始了相关多元化 经营。     1988 年大陆向台湾开放。一直想把父亲留下的 鼎新油坊 做大做强的魏氏四兄弟,推荐老小魏应行 到大陆考察市场。他走了大半个中国。一天,在北京 至深圳的火车上,肚子饿得咕咕叫,他便拿出一包方 便面充饥。这时周围的几个乘客问: 这方便面在哪 儿买的 ? 并用一种好奇的眼光打量着他手中的方便 面。 方便面有市场,为何不做方便面 他脑子里灵 光一闪。 回到台湾后, 这个 发现 很快就变成了现实, 四兄弟开始改行做起了方便面。当时,台湾方便面市 场是统一集团的天下,而鼎新企业小而无名,生产出 来的方便面无人问津。怎么办 于是他们决定到大陆 去闯一闯。     1990 年,通过市场调查,他们发现,大陆约有上 百家方便面生产厂,其中仅北京就有十几家,但生产 的都是低档方便面。价格在 5 元/包左右,口味 单一,质量不高,包装差劲。这些方便面销售情况大 都不太好。而在机场等处卖的进口方便面,价格在 3 元~ 元/袋,超出了人们当时的支付能力。经过细 致的市场分析,他们发现价格在 1 N2 元/袋的中 档方便面是一个空档,于是决定占领这个细分市场。     1991 年天津经济技术开发区招商。 魏氏兄弟来到 天津,注册了顶益食品公司,投资 800 万美元,开始 生产方便面。 生产什么样的方便面呢 他们决定按照北方人的 偏好, 开发口味丰富、 经济实惠、 包装精美的方便面。 开发小组带着开发出来的方便面样品进行市场调查。 他们到京津地区的工厂、学校、机关请人品尝,同时 请他们填写调查问卷,然后用计算机处理大量调查数 据, 并根据分析得到的信息, 对佐料进行调配。 最终, 开发出来的方便面, 开水一冲, 香喷喷, 好吃又好看, 真正符合北方人要求汤浓、味重、稍辣的口味。而方 便面的两包调料竟含有 100 多种佐料。 产品有了,该给它起个什么名字呢 顶新 ! 在台湾就没名气。 顶益 也不能用,在大陆都败 过两次了。应该用一个通俗易记,非常贴近老百姓的 名字。用 康师傅 理由是:在大陆北方人喜欢把比自 己水平高的人叫师傅;在南方的企业里,一般称年长 者为师傅。 师傅 既通俗又专业,还受人尊敬。 该姓什么呢 让他姓健康的 因为顶益的方

75 可攻?不可攻?《呂氏春秋》第二十五篇「似順」
事多似倒而順,多似順而倒。 有知順之為倒、倒之為順者,則可與言化矣。 至長反短,至短反長,天之道也。 荊莊王欲伐陳,使人視之。使者曰:『陳不可伐也。』莊王曰: 『何故?』對曰:『城郭高,溝洫深,蓄積多也。』寧國曰:『陳可 伐也。夫陳,小國也,而蓄積多,賦斂重也,則民怨上矣;城郭高, 溝洫深,則民力罷矣。興兵伐之,陳可取也。』莊王聽之,遂取陳焉。

76 橫看成嶺側成峰, 遠近高低各不同。 不識廬山真面目, 只緣身在此山中。 心態決定一切 角度(典範的轉移)影響你的視野
Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way. 橫看成嶺側成峰, 遠近高低各不同。 不識廬山真面目, 只緣身在此山中。 Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way. 不同的角度看見不同的事物  很多事情均有它的多角度  多尊重身旁的人的想法與聲音 不是只看您的思考模式! 因為無論是誰,都沒有永遠與絕對! 一隻青蛙和一匹馬... 請您仔細看,其實二幅是同一張圖,  只因為一幅是橫放的,一幅是豎擺的! By Amy GreenSoda 角度決定視野,視野決定格局, 格局決定策略,策略決定結局。 心態決定一切

77 位置、角度、觀點、時間、趨勢、心態不同,對人、事、物的看法就會不同。 請學員舉實例印証此站在別人立場看人和事的問題的道理。
子所不欲勿施於人 討論為何有此不同的認知? 位置、角度、觀點、時間、趨勢、心態不同,對人、事、物的看法就會不同。 請學員舉實例印証此站在別人立場看人和事的問題的道理。 孔子的恕道﹕子所不欲勿施於人。 假如我是你,我希望如何被你對待?(同理心)

78 很多事情都可從不同的角度去看、去分析多尊重身旁的人的想法、感受、與聲音不要只顧自己的利益和感覺!
不同的角度看見不同的事物  很多事情都可從不同的角度去看、去分析多尊重身旁的人的想法、感受、與聲音不要只顧自己的利益和感覺! 因為無論你再聰明,都不可能是永遠對的!

79 觀卦示意圖 天地自然之道 可觀、被觀者 參觀、受教化者 修德行政,為民瞻仰。 君、國、企業 上立觀而設教 人君 言行風範 法令規章及政策
上觀天道 可觀、被觀者 君、國、企業 修德行政,為民瞻仰。 人君 下觀民俗 言行風範 法令規章及政策 硬體、軟體 風俗、文化 民風 民意 觀光 觀摹 賓客 風行地上, 遍觸萬類, 周觀之象也。 上立觀而設教 下由觀而化成 人君上觀天道,下觀民俗,則為觀。修德行政,為民瞻仰,則為觀。風行地上,遍觸萬類,周觀之象也。 《易程傳》 參觀、受教化者 (合作、競爭者) 民(顧客)、國、企業

80 問「觀」之法 觀什麼? 為何觀? 如何觀? 觀太極陰陽、大小、消長、… 系統組成元素、靜態及動態結構、外在環境、利害相關者
觀易(交易、變易、簡易、不易)、兩端(利弊得失)及中道 人(才和德、情和性)、事(本未、先後、理法)、物、時、地 現象、狀態、趨勢、因果、吉凶悔吝、貞正、體和用(無和有) 為何觀? 鑑往知來,預測未來 資料(data)、資訊(information)、知識(knowledge)、智慧(wisdom) 如何觀? 直接、間接;客觀、主觀;質化、量化;被動、主動 內觀、外觀;微觀、巨觀;靜觀、止觀(定慧)、觀照 隨時、隨地;由顯之隱、由隱之顯;多重觀點;感觀、觀感

81 易者交易也 易者交易也,有「用變、體不變」之義。 水在不同器物中,其用(形)變, 而水之體不變。 -- 龍思明
易者交易也,有「用變、體不變」之義。 水在不同器物中,其用(形)變, 而水之體不變。 -- 龍思明 徐中舒《新编甲骨文字典》

82 體用不二 熊十力先生常以大海水和海漚來比喻體和用。例如熊氏在其所著《乾坤衍》一書中,他有如下二則議論:
「孔子作易,廢除天帝,於流行而洞澈其元,於萬有而認識其體。譬之於翻騰活躍的眾漚,而明了其本身即是大海水也。是故即萬有即實體,即流行即真元。一言以蔽之,曰體用不二。」 p. 167. 「大易決定體用不二,是其根本原理。不可搖奪。實體非固定性,元是變動不居。即從其變動不居,名之為功用。現象者,功用之別一稱(別一稱,猶云別名)。不是由實體變動了,又別造出一種世界,名為現象也。故說現象是功用之別一稱。(譬如大海水是騰躍不已的,即從其騰躍,說為眾漚。而眾漚的本身,原是大海水,豈是離於大海水而別為一世界乎?)」 pp. 251. Source: 熊十力《乾坤衍》, 學生書局, 1976.

83 威廉.布萊克(William Blake, 1757-1827)
To see a world in a grain of sand 一沙見世界 And a heaven in a wild flower, 一花現天堂 Hold infinity in the palm of your hand 掌中握無限 And eternity in an hour. 刹時存恆常 是海浪?還是海洋? – 陳明德 "You're not a wave, you're water (the ocean)." 今是海浪,昔為海洋,浪盡歸海,即用悟體; 化為海水,乘波再來,海動浪起,本體生用; 汝是海波,亦是海洋,波既歡喜,洋亦無憂; 沙見世界,波顯汪洋,緣事明理,煩惱菩提。 理事無礙

84 《大佛頂如來密因修證了義諸菩薩萬行首楞嚴經》
不動道場,遍十方界; 身含十方,無盡虛空; 於一毛端,現寶王剎; 坐微塵裏,轉大法輪。 滅塵合覺,故發真如,妙覺明性。 自覺,覺他,覺行圓滿。

85 仁按: 《毓老師周易筆記》 乾元性海,其生萬物如大海水之與众漚也, 各具其全德也。亦即乾元性體。 性者生義,生之謂性。
各正乾元性海之全,故曰 宇宙為一大天地,人為一小天地。(可知其貴也) 各得乾道之大正,其貴可知也。 故與天地合德。 p. 2~3.

86 故常無欲,以觀其妙;妙,要也。人常能無欲,則可以觀道之要,要謂一也。一出布名道,讚敘明是非。
《老子河上公章句·第一章體道》 故常無欲,以觀其妙;妙,要也。人常能無欲,則可以觀道之要,要謂一也。一出布名道,讚敘明是非。 常有欲,以觀其徼。徼,歸也。常有欲之人,可以觀世俗之所歸趣也。 此兩者,同出而異名,兩者,謂有欲無欲也。同出者,同出人心也。而異名者,所名各異也。名無欲者長存,名有欲者亡身也。 王弼注故常無欲,以觀其妙;妙者,微之極也。萬物始於微而後成,始於無而後生。故常無欲空虛,可以觀其始物之妙。常有欲,以觀其徼。徼,歸終也。凡有之為利,必以無為用。欲之所本,適道而後濟。故常有欲,可以觀其終物之徼也。此兩者同出而異名,同謂之玄,玄之又玄,眾妙之門。

87 三公尺內遍地是靈感 宮崎駿認為「三公尺內遍地是靈感」,他經常從不經意的對話中得到靈感。
鈴木舉例,「神隱少女」獲奧斯卡獎後,宮崎駿有天突然跟他說「一切是源於鈴木兄關於酒店的那番話」,鈴木不知所措,因為他早已忘了自己說過什麼。 原來是他曾跟宮崎駿說,在酒店工作的女孩,肯定是內向害羞的居多,她們在為了錢接待男人的過程中,慢慢學會原本不拿手的人際溝通;上酒店花錢的男人也有同樣情形,也就是說,酒店是學習溝通的場所。這段話成為宮崎駿創作「神隱少女」動機。 鈴木說,「神隱少女」主角千尋被扔進一個荒謬世界,被迫不得不和身邊的人來往,過程中她的溝通能力愈來愈好。而另一個重要角色無臉男,因不懂得該如何表達自己內心的情感而發飆,與千尋成為對照組。宮崎駿覺得鈴木在酒店那番話很有趣,引發一連串的聯想。

88 觀的層次 Source:

89 DIKW (Information) Hierarchy
Wisdom Know why Integrating: Connect the dots Knowledge Know how Learning: Derive rules/policies through experiences & patterns Information Know what Analyzing: To support decision making 1934 Eliot wrote in "The Rock"[3]: Where is the Life we have lost in living? Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? The Origin of the Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Hierarchy By Nikhil Sharma [Updated: 11/01/2004] Source: "Information as a Resource", Harlan Cleveland The Hierarchy The Data Information Knowledge and Wisdom Hierarchy (DIKW) is commonly referred to by many names. In most of the "Knowledge Management" literature the hierarchy is referred to as the "Knowledge Hierarchy", while the information science domain refers to the same hierarchy as "Information Hierarchy" for obvious reasons. Sometimes it is also referred to as the "Knowledge Pyramid". There is a lot of literature on the hierarchy, but this page is devoted to the origin of that hierarchy. To read more about the hierarchy please refer to some of the References. The Domains While the domains of Information Science and Knowledge Management (KM) both refer to DIKW, they usually do not cross-reference. Thus there are two separate threads that lead to the origin of the hierarchy. In the domain of KM, Prof. Russell Ackoff is often cited as the initiator of the DIKW hierarchy. His 1988 Presidential Address to ISGSR is widely considered to be the earliest to mention the hierarchy in the KM literature. This address was printed in a 1989 article "From Data to Wisdom" [2]. It does not cite any earlier sources of the hierarchy. However in response to this webpage I was made aware of an article by Milan Zeleny [7] which details out the DIKW hierarchy in Zeleny builds the DIKW hierarchy by equating Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom to “know-nothing”, “know-what”, “know-how” and “know-why” respectively. Zeleny’s 1987 mention of the hierarchy is earlier than Ackoff’s 1989 address, and he does not cite any earlier sources of the hierarchy. It can thus be argued that Zeleny was the first to mention the hierarchy in the field of KM. But the “Information Science” domain mentions the hierarchy as early as 1982, when Harlan Cleveland [2] wrote about it in a Futurist article. The article mentions the Information-Knowledge-Wisdom hierarchy in detail giving an example (see figure above). This article itself is not the origin of the hierarchy, but points to the origin. The Origin Interestingly the first ever mention of the hierarchy came from neither the KM field, nor the Information Science domain, but in poetry. In his Futurist article, Cleveland cites T.S. Eliot as the person who suggested the hierarchy in the first place- calling it "the T.S. Eliot hierarchy". The poet T.S. Eliot was the first to mention the "information hierarchy" without even calling it by that name. In 1934 Eliot wrote in "The Rock"[3]: This is the first vague mention of the hierarchy that was expanded by Cleveland, and later by others to add a layer of "Data". Beyond DIKW- Building on the Hierarchy In his futurist article [2], Harlan Cleveland concedes that information scientists are “still struggling with the definitions of basic terms”. He uses Elliot’s hierarchy as a starting point to explain the basic terms. He also agrees that there are many ways in which the elements of the hierarchy may be defined, but there is no need for universal agreement on them. While Cleveland himself doesn’t add ‘Data’ to Eliot’s hierarchy he mentions Yi-Fu Tuan’s and Daniel Bell’s version of the hierarchy in the article which includes data. Regarding ‘data’, Tuan says that data to become useful “they have to be linked to another rung or category of data” [2]. In the information field others like Lucky [5] have detailed out their own versions of the hierarchy. Russell Ackoff’s version of the hierarchy has another category of “Understanding” built in. Thus Ackoff’s hierarchy is Data-Information-Knowledge-Understanding & Wisdom. According to him, understanding “requires diagnosis and prescription”. The DIKW hierarchy can also have many dimensions. One dimension of Ackoff’s hierarchy is temporal. He says that while information “ages rapidly”, knowledge “has a longer life-span” and only understanding “has an aura of permanence”. It is wisdom that he considers to be “permanent”. Zeleny himself proposes to add “enlightenment” on top of the familiar DIKW framework [7]. Enlightenment, according to Zeleny (personal communication, October 29, 2004) “is not only answering or understanding why (wisdom), but attaining the sense of truth, the sense of right and wrong, and having it socially accepted, respected and sanctioned.” References 1. Ackoff, R.L. "From Data to Wisdom", Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, Volume 16, 1989 p 3-9. 2. Cleveland H. "Information as Resource", The Futurist, December 1982 p 3. Eliot, T.S. "The Rock", Faber & Faber 1934. 4. Cleveland Harland, “The Knowledge Executive: Leadership in an Information Society” (New York: Truman Talley Books, 1985) 21-23; 5. Robert W. Lucky, Silicon Dreams: Information, Man and Machine (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989) 6. Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony Mills: Data, Information, Knowledge, & Wisdom, 7. Zeleny, M. "Management Support Systems: Towards Integrated Knowledge Management," Human Systems Management, 7(1987)1, pp Contact me for comments & suggestions Nikhil Sharma, Doctoral Student, School Of Information, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Know nothing Data Observing: Description of events Happening/Doing Event

90 爻位互視相對論(換位思考) 研究《易經》時應特別注意「從他人的觀點來看問題 (Put yourself in other people’s shoes.)」的道理,這是硏究 《易》理的一個關鍵之處。 《易》六畫成卦,其有深義焉。六爻各有其時位,故由六爻視全卦則或有六義焉,君子小人不一而是,在乎其修德如何耳! 如大過 之初六,其自視也,則為至潔之茅,而可以柔克四陽之時艱。至於九四隆棟之時,則視己為棟樑之材,而以初六為它吝焉! 又如乾之上九,亢龍有悔,其自悔過也。而由他爻視之,則欲殛滅之矣! 由爻位不同,故其自視、視人、(人視)者皆大異也。 《易》道神妙變化,其在此乎? 學會 角色互換而生同理之心。 「初六,藉用白茅,无咎。」子曰:「苟錯諸地而可矣。藉之用茅,何咎之有?慎之至也。夫茅之為物薄,而用可重也。慎斯術也以往,其无所失矣。」 混元禪師開示---我們學易,文章要讀,再看現象,然後,將心比心,交換立場,叫做易。易就是交換立場,易、易經的易,交易、互易,互相交心叫做易,http://www.cjs.org.tw/Fongshui/FengShui/FengShuiDetail.aspx?Detail_Id=D 上善若水 在上海的一家餐館裡,負責為我們上萊的那位女侍,年輕得像是樹上的一片嫩葉。 她捧上蒸魚時,盤子傾斜。腥膻的魚汁魯魯莽莽地直淋而下,潑灑在我擱於椅子的皮包上。我本能地跳了起來,陰霾的臉,變成欲雨的天。 可是,我還沒有發作,我親愛的女兒便以旋風般的速度站了起來,快步走到女侍身旁,露出了極為溫柔的笑臉,拍了拍她的肩膀,說:“不礙事,沒關係。” 女侍如受驚的小犬,手足無措地看著我的皮包,囁嚅地說:“我,我去拿布來抹……” 萬萬想不到,女兒居然說道:“沒事,回家洗洗就乾淨了。你去做事吧,真的,沒關係的,不必放在心上。” 女兒的口氣是那麼的柔和,倒好似做錯事的人是她。 我瞪著女兒,覺得自己像一隻氣球,氣裝得過滿,要爆炸卻又爆不了,不免辛苦。 女兒平靜地看著我,在餐館明亮的燈火下,我清清楚楚地看到,她大大的眸子裡,竟然鍍著一層薄薄的淚光。 當天晚上,返回旅館之後,母女倆齊齊躺在床上,她這才亮出了葫蘆裡所賣的藥。 負笈倫敦三年,為了訓練她的獨立性,我和先生在大學的假期裡不讓她回家,我們要她自行策劃背包旅行,也希望她在英國試試兼職打工的滋味兒。 活潑外向的女兒,在家裡十指不沾陽春水。粗工細活都輪不到她,然而來到人生地不熟的英國,卻選擇當女侍來體驗生活。 第一天上工,便闖禍了。 她被分配到廚房去清洗酒杯,那些透亮細緻的高腳玻璃杯,一隻只薄如蟬翼,只要力道稍稍重一點,便會分崩離析,化成一堆晶亮的碎片。 女兒戰戰兢兢,如履薄冰,好不容易將那一大堆好似一輩子也洗不完的酒杯洗乾淨了,正松了一口氣時,沒有想到身子一歪,一個踉蹌,撞倒了杯子,杯子應聲倒地,“哐啷、哐啷”連續不斷的一串串清脆響聲過後,酒杯全化成了地上閃閃爍爍的玻璃碎片。 “媽媽,那一刻,我真有墮入地獄的感覺。”女兒的聲音還殘存著些許驚悸。 “可是,您知道領班有什麼反應嗎?她不慌不忙地走了過來,摟住了我。說:親愛的,你沒事吧? 接著,又轉過頭去吩咐其他員工:趕快把碎片打掃乾淨吧! 對我,她連一字半句責備的話都沒有!” 又有一次,女兒在倒酒時,不小心把鮮紅如血的葡萄酒倒在顧客乳白色的衣裙上,好似刻意為她在衣裙上栽種了一季殘缺的九重葛。 原以為顧客會大發雷霆,沒想到她反而倒過來安慰女兒,說:“沒關係,酒漬嘛,不難洗。” 說著,站起來,輕輕拍拍女兒的肩膀,便靜悄悄地走進了洗手間,不張揚,更不叫囂,把眼前這只驚弓之鳥安撫成梁上的小燕子。 女兒的聲音,充滿了感情:“媽媽,既然別人能原諒我的過失,您就把其他犯錯的人當成是您的女兒,原諒她們吧!” 此刻,在這靜謐的夜裡,我眼眶全濕。 原諒別人便是放過自己。 這個故事,讀了一遍眼角有淚,再讀一遍,依然有淚珠滑落...... 我想此刻,你的內心也無法平靜吧...... 檢視一下自己平日的言行,哇,原來有這麼大的上升空間......原來,善意可以如此美妙......原來,善意可以如此接力般地傳遞...... 親愛的朋友,既然我們有幸讀到這篇文章,既然我們感動著對方的感動,讓我們從當下改變自己的言行吧,把這份善意長長久久地傳遞下去...... 上善若水,原諒別人錯,心似蓮花開。 生活,原來如此美好! -- 毓鋆師《易經》講義

91 大過卦 九四:棟隆,吉;有它吝。 象曰:棟隆之吉,不橈乎下也。 初六:藉用白茅,无咎。 象曰:藉用白茅,柔在下也。
九四:棟隆,吉;有它吝。 象曰:棟隆之吉,不橈乎下也。 初六:藉用白茅,无咎。 象曰:藉用白茅,柔在下也。 來註:隆者,隆然而高起也。它者,初也。三四皆棟,四居外卦,陰虛在上,非如三之陰虛在下也。上虛下實,則有所承載。故有棟隆之象。占者固吉矣。然下應乎初,若以柔濟之,則過于柔矣。其棟決不能隆,吝之道也。故又戒占者以此。

92 人 己 天 知彼 知己 同胞物與 自視人視與知己知彼 自視:由己觀人 自視:由己觀己 (empathy) 人視:由人觀人 換位思考 同理之心
競爭者、顧客、 人民、部屬 知彼 《中庸》君子以人治人,改而止。 張載《正蒙》以眾人望人則易從。 《中庸》自誠明,謂之性 ;慎獨 《大學》在明明德, 誠其意 《大學》絜矩之道 自視:由己觀人 (empathy) 自視:由己觀己 人視:由人觀人 同胞物與 換位思考 同理之心 天地萬物 泯人我障 From SHU MBA program宋俊杰 《论语·述而》中的一段话是这样说的, “子曰:"三人行,必有我师焉。择其善者而从之,其不善者而改之。” 这段是记录孔夫子的一段话。原意是:有任意三个人走在路上,其中必定有人可以在某些方面成为我学习的读对象。对于他们的优点我们需要学习并遵从。而他们的缺点也可以成为我们的反面教材,避免犯相同的错误。 而在《论语·里仁》中有另一段话有类似的意思:“子曰:“见贤思齐焉,见不贤而内自省也。” 这段话是说,看见贤能的人,要向他们学习,并想办法向他们看齐。看见不贤能的人,要自我反省,检讨自己是否有相同或者类似的问题。 以上两段文字都是从自己的角度出发看待问题,强调由外而内,通过对别人的言行举止,进而参照自己的所作所为,来进行自我修养的约束和提升。 在孔子注重自我修养的基础上,又有《孟子》中提到,“穷则独善其身,达则兼济天下。” 这段话前半段和孔夫子有相通之处,讲自我修养:如果穷困或者能力不足,则需要不断的完善自身修养和提升自身能力。 但是这段话整体上,更注重的后半段:在显达或者能力足够的情况下,更应该发挥自己的能力,让整个天下变得更加美好。 而现代的管理理念中,也提倡“学习型组织”。即希望组织中的每一个成员都努力提高自己,不断进步。而且不但要提升自己,还要帮助组织内的其他成员一起进步。甚至需要帮助组织外的其他人也进步。只有每个人都进步了,才能进而提升整个社会的整体水平。 这也是中国传统文化不但没有过时,反而能在新时代的背景下发挥进一步作用的一个证明。 == 一、“楚王失弓”故事開拓的境界: “楚王失弓”故事體現了境界構成的時空屬性,今流傳有三個版本,可謂相得益彰,現一一予以分解之。 1、《孔子家語•好生》曰:“楚王出遊,亡弓,左右請求之。王曰:“止,楚王失弓,楚人得之,又何求之!”孔子聞之,惜乎其不大也,不曰人遺弓,人得之而已,何必楚也”,儒家所展現的境界是: 楚王打獵時丟失了一張弓,手下們想去尋找,他阻止道:“失弓的是楚國人,得弓的也是楚國人,何必去尋找弓呢?”這事從楚王角度體現了人、財、物與國土的一體觀,在國人的眼裏,顯示楚王的寬廣胸襟。而孔子則不以為然,認為楚王的心胸尚不夠寬廣,他説:“失弓的是人,得弓的也是人,何必計較是不是楚國人得弓呢?”在孔子的心目中,每個人與天下的任何人一樣,都是平等者。 2、《呂氏春秋•孟春紀•貴公》曰:“荊人有遺弓者,而不肯索,曰:‘荊人遺之,荊人得之,又何索焉?’孔子聞之曰:‘去其[荊]而可矣。’老聃聞之曰:‘去其[人]而可矣。’故老聃則至公矣。”,道家所展現的境界是: 楚王去打獵,把一張心愛的弓弄丟了。其左右之人十分著急,要去尋找。楚王卻坦然道:“楚人失之,楚人得之,何必再去找呢?”。孔子聽説這件事後,很不以為然地説:“何必要一‘楚’字,‘人失之,人得之,又何索焉,’豈不更好?”。而老子聽到這件事後,更進一步説道:“何必再要一‘人’字,‘失之,得之,又何索焉’,故老子為至公矣。”。 孔子體現天下人人平等思想,老子體現天下人與萬物平等思想。 上文後面由此總結:“故老聃則至公矣。天地大矣,生而弗子,成而弗有,萬物皆被其澤、得其利,而莫知其所由始,此三皇、五帝之德也”,是專門讚嘆老子博大胸懷與三皇五帝齊德也。 3、明末高僧蓮池大師《竹窗隨筆》雲:“楚王失弓,左右欲求之。王曰:‘楚人失弓,楚人得之,何必求也。’仲尼曰:‘惜乎其不廣也。胡不曰:人遺弓,人得之,何必楚也。’大矣哉!楚王固滄海之胸襟,而仲尼實乾坤之度量也。雖然,仲尼姑就楚王言之,而未盡其所欲言也。何也?尚不能忘情于弓也。進之則王失弓,王猶故也,無失也;假令王復得弓,王猶故也,無得也。雖然,猶未也,尚不能忘情于我也。又進之,求其所謂我者不可得,安求其所謂弓也、人也、楚也。”,佛家所展現的境界是: 蓮池大師對楚王的“滄海之胸襟”和孔子的“乾坤之度量”都很嘉許,但他意猶未盡。雖然孔子的境界高於楚王,卻還“不能忘情于弓”。楚王失弓或得弓,他本身猶如故往,無所謂失得。這還不夠,因為還“不能忘情于我”,連求所謂“我”都不可得,又如何求“弓、人、楚”呢? 這番理論是佛家四大皆空境界的寫照,但因孔子去“楚”言“人”,便得“乾坤之度量”桂冠,則是一種小“乾坤”觀。 蓮池大師在此處未提及老子的言辭及境界,看來其佛的境界最多是與道並駕齊驅而已。 二、境界何為? 境界是指人的思想覺悟和精神修養相對於認識世界所處的水準與廣度。 它是天地萬物本性在人的精神世界的昇華。 境無苦樂,以意為先,自心所起;界有闊狹,達者為先,投者意和。 人之本來,真凈明虛,靈徹通眇,無異同,無分別,悟之則菩提岸,迷之則生死海。 小兒未識父母謂之“樸”,能識父母謂之“癡”。癡者,心病也,由是而生分別是謂“識”;領納在心是謂“受”。思念在情是謂“想”,貪著是謂“行”,汗噓體動是謂“色”。見識一長是病,知此病者幾人?如若降伏識神,莫如變識為智,何哉?識常逐境而忘返,智慧了境而不著。逐境不了,何智非知?了境不著,何識非智?眇要而言,止此一心,放去是識,收伏是智,但有分別,即墮情識,稍有攀緣,執迷境界。 三界無別法,惟是一心動念而生一切境也;念不自生,境無自了;窮究念巢,欲神不死也。人戀境,境弄人,人失其正而發狂;情逐物,物引情;神離乎舍而成癡。念因境起,借心觀境,見物生心;如此,雖居莽林孤島都是塵勞。 同一岳陽樓,先天下之憂者憂!窮千里目者,更上層樓!神仙無別法,只生歡喜不生愁。非道德深厚者,難達此境界。 故,俗理去失存得,儒理去非存是,禪理是非不著,道理是非兩清。 (作者:古越中興 原題:《境界之度》 本文由國學復興文化論壇供稿 刊載本文只為傳播資訊,不代表本站認同其觀點) 知己 人視:由人觀己 仰則觀象於天,俯則觀法於地, 觀鳥獸之文,與地之宜,近取諸身,遠取諸物,於是始作八卦,以通神明之德,以類萬物之情。 〈繫辭傳〉 觀卦九五爻小象: 觀我生,觀民也。 個人、組織 (眾人)、企業

93 責己、責人、愛人 -- 張載《正蒙·中正篇第八》 以責人之心責己則盡道, 所謂「君子之道四,丘未能一焉」者也; 以愛己之心愛人則盡仁,
所謂「施諸己而不願,亦勿施於人」者也; 以眾人望人則易從,所謂「以人治人改而止」者也; 此君子所以責己、責人、愛人之三術也。 -- 張載《正蒙·中正篇第八》 來源:https://zh.wikisource.org/zh-hant/張載集

94 毓老師說:「六爻發揮,旁通情也。」〈繫辭傳〉 《易經》談情比談性多,因人多用情,少用性。 遇事要仔細推敲推敲。
〈繫辭下〉八卦以象告,爻彖以情言,剛柔雜居,而吉凶可見矣。變動以利言,吉凶以情遷。是故愛惡(情也)相攻而吉凶生,遠近相取而悔吝生,情偽相感而利害生。凡易(平易)之情,近而不相得則凶,或害之,悔且吝。  毓老師說:要特別注意《易經》的「情」字,喜怒衰怒必得發,即是「情」,中節了,性即情,情即性。「情」字特別重要。 島初赴舉,在京師。一日于驢上得句云:“鳥宿池邊樹,僧敲月下門。”又欲“推”字,煉之未定,于驢上吟哦,引手作推敲之勢,觀者訝之。時韓退之權京兆尹,車騎方出,島不覺得止第三節,尚為手勢未已。俄為左右擁止尹前。島具對所得詩句,“推”字與“敲”字未定,神游象外,不知回避。退之立馬久之,謂島曰:“‘敲’字佳。”遂并轡而歸,共論詩道,留連累日,因與島為布衣之交。 為什么敲比推好呢?因為李凝是幽隱之士,與外界絕少交游,作者(也就是詩中的“僧”)深知其為人,一定在家,所以帶有自信,徑直敲門。另外,既是夜間,怎能知道“鳥宿池邊樹”呢?想必是敲門聲驚起了宿鳥,引起噪動。如果用“推”字,這一句也就無根了。韓愈不愧是一位鑒賞力非常高明的作家,他與賈島的詩風雖不相同,但提出的意見卻是內行之言。

95 《易》,无思也,无為也,寂然不動,感而遂(才)通天下之故(所以)。
感而遂通天下之故 《易》,无思也,无為也,寂然不動,感而遂(才)通天下之故(所以)。 毓老師說:要類情,所以要感,沒有感焉有情?故曰「感情」。…有情才生生不息,情不是用嘴說的,而是「體萬物而不可遺也」。…感、就通天下之所以。 程顥 〈秋日偶成〉 閒來無事不從容,睡覺東窗日已紅。[身忙心閒] 萬物靜觀皆自得,四時佳興與人同。[靜觀自得] 道通天地有形外,思入風雲變態中。[道通天地] 富貴不淫貧能樂,男兒到此是豪雄。[富貴不淫]

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97 《易經》中的創新思維:生、造、新、行 乾卦彖辭:「至哉乾元,萬物資始。」 乾卦九五爻辭:「飛龍在天,大人造也。」
坤卦彖辭:「至哉坤元,萬物資生。」 咸卦彖辭:「天地感而萬物化生。」    益卦彖辭:「天施地生,其益无方。凡益之道,與時偕行。」 〈繫辭傳〉 :「生生之謂易。」「夫乾,其靜也專,其動也直,是以大生焉。夫坤,其靜也翕,其動也闢,是以廣生焉。」 《易經‧繫辭傳〉:富有之謂大業,日新之謂盛德。生生之謂易,成象之謂乾,效法之為坤,極數知來之謂占,通變之謂事,陰陽不測之謂神。 《易經‧雜卦傳》革,去故也;鼎,取新也。

98 預測未來、創造未來 The best way to predict the future is to invent it.
“Don’t worry about what anybody else is going to do…  The best way to predict the future is to invent it.  Really smart people with reasonable funding can do just about anything that doesn’t violate too many of Newton’s Laws!” — Alan Kay in (link) Prediction Logic vs. Creation Logic* What entrepreneurial firms follow the Creation Logic (action followed by analysis), when dealing with “unknown Unknowns” “They know that the Future is somewhat different from the Past. They know that they don’t have historical data to predict the past.” Observe what is going on and wonder how to occupy the space and test where there could be opportunities. The only way I am going to learn [about the unknowns] is by taking action”. Therefore “You think big, set-out in a direction but you start small and you start several projects” “See which of these are providing you some data or a proof of concept about what you think the Future may hold for you” Design your prototype and…fail fast, smart and cheap and learn quickly about the variables and unknowns of this environment.  And don’t throw in more resources until you find your proof of concept”

99 大學之道,在明明德,在親民,在止於至善。(朱註:程子曰:「親,當作新。」,按古字親、新通訓。)
《大學》 大學之道,在明明德,在親民,在止於至善。(朱註:程子曰:「親,當作新。」,按古字親、新通訓。) 湯之盤銘曰:「茍日新,日日新,又日新。」《康誥》曰:「作新民。」《詩》曰:「周雖舊邦,其命惟新。」是故君子無所不用其極。 (朱注:自新、新民,皆欲止於至善也。)

100 故君子尊德性而道問學, 致廣大而盡精微,極高明而中庸。 溫故而知新,敦厚以崇禮。 -- 《中庸》
溫故知新 故君子尊德性而道問學, 致廣大而盡精微,極高明而中庸。 溫故而知新,敦厚以崇禮。 -- 《中庸》

101 因故創新 有子曰:「信近於義,言可復也; 恭近於禮,遠恥辱也; 因不失其親,亦可宗也。」 -- 《論語‧學而》
舊注,「因,親也」,說是我們親近一個人,不失掉我們所應該親近的,這不是廢話嗎?《尚書》的「親」和「新」二字是不分,這章從上下可看出「親」應解釋為「新」字。「因」是大本,大經; 「新」是大法,為什麼要因呢?因為因是大本、大經,不能變,必得因。然而法是不離時的,所以大法必得變,雖然根據大經,卻不能失去時,此即「時之義」。 參照

102 師法六書的產品設計程序示意圖 (林榮泰整理)

103

104 文創產品 專訪設計師曹小蘭:博物館文創產品是怎樣誕生的? https://read01.com/5OmePP.html

105 法藍瓷 法藍瓷的理念是:以人為本,用科技求真,以人文求善,用藝術求美!訴諸天地人、道法自然的和諧關係。對法藍瓷而言,瓷器是載體,乘載文化、乘載創意,它是表現情感與文化的載具。而一件好的法藍瓷作品,背後都應該有一個故事。 宋 汝窯 唐 五瓣葵口秘色瓷盤 

106 法藍瓷:雋永長春 雋永長春 郎世寧(虞美人與蝴蝶花) 清代宮廷畫家郎世寧工筆細膩為乾隆所繪之「仙萼長春圖冊」皆以寓意吉祥之花鳥為創作主題 【虞美人與蝴蝶花】為「仙萼長春圖冊」其中一幅 虞美人為罌粟,蝴蝶花則代表鳶尾嬌柔花朵巧妙安置於「雋永長春」瓷品上猶如天庭仙萼飄滿人間,傳遞長春長青之喜意。

107 子曰:「夫《易》何為者也?夫《易》開物成務,冒天下之道,如斯而已者也。」
制器尚象,開物成務 《易》有聖人之道四焉: 以言者尚其辭, 以動者尚其變, 以制器者尚其象, 以卜筮尚其占。 子曰:「夫《易》何為者也?夫《易》開物成務,冒天下之道,如斯而已者也。」 毓老師說:「開物」,發明、創立;「成務」,完成,不是虎頭蛇尾。

108 來百工,利其器,天工人代,財用足 《論語》子曰:「工欲善其事,必先利其器。」
《尚書‧皋陶謨》「百僚師師,百工惟時。撫于五辰,庶績其凝。無教逸欲。有邦兢兢業業,一日二日萬幾。無曠庶官,天工人其代之。」 《中庸》「凡為天下國家有九經,曰:修身也,尊賢也,親親也,敬大臣也,體群臣也,子庶民也,來百工也,柔遠人也,懷諸侯也。… 來百工則財用足 …」 《考工記》最早收錄入《周禮》作為〈冬官〉篇,原不屬《周禮》。在漢代《周禮》原來的《冬官》篇遺失不存,把《考工記》補入作為《冬官》篇。東漢經學家鄭玄註解《周禮》,最早註解《考工記》。 明代宋應星的《天工開物》 李約瑟博士《中國科學技術史》「Science and Civilization In China」。

109 中國四大發明 指南針 造紙術 活字印刷術 火藥

110 《易經》出於觀:仰觀俯察,取諸身物,通德類情
〈繫辭傳〉曰: 「古者包犧氏之王天下也, 仰則觀象於天,俯則觀法於地, 觀鳥獸之文,與地之宜, 近取諸身,遠取諸物,於是始作八卦, 以通神明之德,以類萬物之情。」

111 仰則觀象於天,俯則觀法於地,觀鳥獸之文,與地之宜, 近取諸身,遠取諸物, 於是始作八卦。
古者包羲氏之王天下也, 仰則觀象於天,俯則觀法於地,觀鳥獸之文,與地之宜, 近取諸身,遠取諸物, 於是始作八卦。

112 Observation: Learning From Nature
尼龍搭扣,也稱「魔術粘」、「魔鬼沾」、「魔鬼氈」、「魔術貼」、「黏扣帶」,是一種纖維緊固物,發明公司為「維可牢」(Velcro) Burs of Burdock 牛蒡毛刺 Velcro is a company that produces the first commercially marketed fabric hook-and-loop fastener, invented in 1948 by the Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral. 平時就有這些準備的心(prepared mind),一碰到機會就有聯想的能力,把「無」化為「有」,有「創造」的能力。他還能從自然界的生態,推廣「鉤」和「圈」的連接理論假設,用實驗去證明而對應了實際生活的「需要」。 (https://scitechvista.nat.gov.tw/zh-tw/articles/c/0/8/10/1/1214.htm )

113 《老子》曲則全,枉則直,窪則盈,弊則新,少則得,多則惑。是以聖人抱一為天下式。不自見,故明;不自是,故彰。
知其所弊,可以創新 《老子》曲則全,枉則直,窪則盈,弊則新,少則得,多則惑。是以聖人抱一為天下式。不自見,故明;不自是,故彰。 《尚書‧盤庚上》人惟求舊,器非求舊,惟新。

114 痛人之所痛:Frictions & Pains:3M Masking Tapes
Drew wanted to test a new batch of sandpaper, so he visited an auto body shop in St. Paul, Minn. When he entered the shop, he heard a group of workers cursing vehemently. He asked about the problem. Two-tone cars were popular then, but the effect required workers to mask certain parts of the auto body using a combination of heavy adhesive tape and butcher paper. After the paint dried, workers removed the tape – and often peeled away part of the new paint. Their labor was undone, and costs mounted for the customer. 3M gives employees 15% of their time to work on their personal projects.

115 將錯就錯,因需要而發明 3M Post-it “I keep losing my place in my music!”
One Sunday in 1974, Art Fry, a new-products developer at 3M, was singing in his church choir. “I found that the little piece of paper I used to mark the music had fallen out, making me fumble about trying to find the right page. “This was followed by a dull sermon. My mind was wandering back to the music problem when I had one of those ‘flashes of insight.’ Eureka! By using a recently invented adhesive, I could make a bookmark that could be stuck on, and removed, without damaging the book.” What Was This New Adhesive? In 1970 Spencer Silver, a chemist at 3M, was trying to develop a strong glue. But his new adhesive was super-weak instead of super-strong. It stuck to objects but could be easily peeled off. No one knew what to do with it, but Silver didn’t discard his new glue. What happened after Fry realized this new adhesive could make a great bookmark? “The next day at work, I prepared some samples of the bookmark. My colleagues started using their bookmark samples as notes and soon were at my desk saying that they were instant addicts and demanding more samples. As the circle of addiction quickly spread within our product development laboratory, I came to the very exciting and satisfying realization that those little, self-attaching notes were a very useful product. “We realized that what we had was not just a bookmark, but a new way to communicate or organize information. ” The Post-it® Note was born. “This of course was just the beginning of the innovation process. Samples had to be tested for every [possible] application we could think of. We had many tough problems to solve in manufacturing, quality, packaging, and sales. It took a lot of us to solve those problems, and we all feel good about what we did.” “My satisfaction has always been in making things that people really need, but cannot make for themselves. When those things [are still] used after I am gone, it will be as if part of me will live on forever.” IDEO  https://scitechvista.nat.gov.tw/zh-tw/Articles/C/0/8/10/2/1505.htm

116 作結繩而為罔罟(音古,網也),以佃以漁,蓋取諸離。
上古發明史 古者包犧(伏犧)氏之王天下也,仰則觀象於天,俯則觀法於地,觀鳥獸之文,與[天]地之宜,近取諸身,遠取諸物,於是始作八卦,以通神明之德,以類萬物之情。 作結繩而為罔罟(音古,網也),以佃以漁,蓋取諸離。 包犧氏沒,神農氏作,斲(音琢)木為耜(音似),揉木為耒(音磊),耒耨之利,以教天下,蓋取諸益。 師法自然 抽象、類比思考 Hunter-Gatherer狩獵採集 《釋文》取獸曰罔,取魚曰罟。 漁獵時代 農業時代 粒食(榖物) 耨,乃豆切,鋤草的農具。耕耘也。

117 耘,除田草也。 宋應星《天工開物》

118 日中為市,致天下之民,聚天下 之貨,交易而退,各得其所,蓋 取諸噬嗑(音義市合)。
上古發明史 日中為市,致天下之民,聚天下 之貨,交易而退,各得其所,蓋 取諸噬嗑(音義市合)。 神農氏沒,黃帝、堯、舜氏作, 通其變,使民不倦,神而化之, 使民宜之。易窮則變,變則通, 通則久。是以自天祐之,吉无不 利,黃帝、堯、舜垂衣裳而天下 治,蓋取諸乾坤。(毓註:唯天為大 ,唯堯則之。) 商業交易時代 日久生厭 人文化成時代 無為而治 参考《史記‧五帝本紀》及 《尚書》〈堯典〉、〈舜典〉

119 上古發明史 刳木為舟,剡木為楫,舟楫之 利,以濟不通[,致遠以利天下(朱 註:疑衍)],蓋取諸渙。
服牛乘馬,引重致遠,以利天 下,蓋取諸隨。 重門擊柝,以待暴客,蓋取諸 豫。 斷木為杵,掘地為臼,臼杵之 利,萬民以濟,蓋取諸小過。 弦木為弧,剡木為矢,弧矢之 利,以威天下,蓋取諸睽。 交通工具及建設 遠程貿易的時代 地方治安 精美飲食的時代 國防建設

120

121

122 上古穴居而野處,後世聖人易 之以宮室,上棟下宇,以待風 雨,蓋取諸大壯。
上古發明史 上古穴居而野處,後世聖人易 之以宮室,上棟下宇,以待風 雨,蓋取諸大壯。 古之葬者,厚衣之以薪,葬之 中野,不封不樹,喪期无數。 後世聖人易之以棺槨,蓋取諸 大過。 上古結繩而治,後世聖人易之 以書契,百官以治,萬民以察 ,蓋取諸夬。 安土重遷的時代 禮治時代 文字發明、法治時代 知識的累積

123 《白虎通德論》三皇 三皇者,何謂也?謂伏羲、神農、燧人也。或曰伏羲、神農、祝融也。《禮》曰:「伏羲、神農、祝融,三皇也。」謂之伏羲者何。古之時未有三綱、六紀,民人但知其母,不知其父,能覆前而不能覆後,臥之言去言去,起之吁吁,飢即求食,飽即棄余,茹毛飲血而衣皮葦。於是伏羲仰觀象於天,俯察法於地,因夫婦正五行,始定人道,畫八卦以治下。治下伏而化之,故謂之伏羲也。謂之神農何?古之人民,皆食禽獸肉,至於神農,人民眾多,禽獸不足。於是神農因天之時,分地之利,制耒耜,教民農作。神而化之,使民宜之,故謂之神農也。謂之燧人何?鑽木燧取火,教民熟食,養人利性,避臭去毒,謂之燧人也。謂之祝融何?祝者,屬也;融者,續也。言能屬續三皇之道而行之,故謂祝融也。

124 制器尚象十三卦

125 來知德註 通章言制器尚象之事, 網罟耒耜,所以足民食。 交易舟車,所以通民財。 弦弓門柝,所以防民患。 杵臼以利其用,衣裳以華其身,宮室以安其居, 棺槨以送其死,所以為民利用安身, 養生送死無遺憾矣。 然百官以治,萬民以察,卒歸之夬之書契者,蓋器利用便則巧偽生,聖人憂之,故終之以夬之書契焉。 上古雖未有易之書,然造化人事,本有易之理,故所作事暗合易書,正所謂畫前之易也。

126 新石器革命 The Neolithic Revolution or the Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, allowing the ability to handle an increasingly larger population. 新石器革命發生在七千至一萬年前。它是人類的第一次農業革命,指人類的生產方式從狩獵採集到農耕的巨大轉變。新石器革命代表著人類和自然界的關係從被動適應環境轉變為利用和改造環境。此革命對人類社會的發展具有極其重要的意義。 新石器時代革命意義遠遠不止於對農學(農耕技術)的影響,它更促進了人類的定居現象和其它社會現象的發生,這從根本上改變了人類對於自然的依賴,更提高了食物來源的穩定性與量化生產的可能。這些變化促進了人口聚集化,建造了複雜且完整的社會分工體系,經濟貿易體系,政治系統以及增加了知識與經驗的積累(例如私人產業制度和文字)。 https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/新石器革命

127 三創:Creativity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship
三創方法學 創業 Entrepreneurship 創意 Creativity 創新 Innovation Product/service/process Business model Social Innovation IT-enabled Individual Group Organization 創意的空間 創新的文化 創業的精神 Execution Team Growth Hacking Minimum Viable Product Prototyping Idea Product Customer Development & Lean Startup Business Model Canvas Creative Problem Solving Design Thinking

128 如何贏得創新 Not Seeing the Opportunities
Cannot see at its nascent stage Don’t take it seriously once seen Don’t understand when it has become successful Wait until it is too late 第一 第二 第三 第四 看不見 看不起  看不懂  來不及 馬雲:很多人一生輸就輸在對新生事物[的看法和反應]上 (link) 很多人一生輸就輸在對新生事物上  第一看不見; 第二看不起; 第三看不懂; 第四來不及! [一篇值得您關心的話題] 【老祝觀察】未來五年各行業將全面洗牌,你,會在哪裡?  SEC中研國際祝老師國內一位很著名的成功學大師說過:“趨勢就像一匹馬,如果在馬後面追,你永遠都追不上,你只有騎在馬上面,才能和馬一樣的快,這就叫馬上成功!” 一、移動互聯網的發展:   未來我們的生活會是什麼樣子呢?我們設想一下,晚上帶著家人去吃飯,拿出手機點擊附件餐廳,看完餐廳介紹,對比之後,挑一家評價好的、好吃又實惠的餐廳,在手機上領取一張會員卡,定好座位,等時間到了,點擊導航,直接去吃飯,不用排隊。   吃飯的時候,哪個好吃的就拍個照,放到微博或朋友圈,曬一曬,與朋友共用,因為以後朋友來這裡吃飯的時候,憑著你的分享,朋友可以優惠,商家還要給你返利,既能吃到好東西,分享又能賺錢,真的很愜意。   吃完飯,去商場購物,看到哪個產品喜歡的,拿起來掃一下二維碼,用手機比比價,放入網路購物車,逛完商場,在手機上點擊送貨時間和送貨地址,直接付款,不用拎東西,也不用排隊,然後去看電影,因為電影票在吃飯的時候已經用手機買好了。   這就是我們未來的生活,你覺得能實現嗎?我想很快! 二、巨人的倒下:   世界上曾經有一家世界500強的企業,名叫“柯達”KODAK,在1991年的時候,他的技術領先世界同行10年,但是2012年1月破產了,被做數碼的幹掉了。   當“索尼”SONY還沉浸在數碼領先的喜悅中時,突然發現,原來全世界賣照相機賣的最好的不是他,而是做手機的“諾基亞”,因為每部手機都是一部照相機,近幾年“索尼”相機部門業績大幅虧損,於今年倒閉。   然後呢?   然後原來做電腦的“蘋果”出來了,把手機世界老大的“諾基亞”給幹掉了,而且沒有還手之力,2013年9月,“諾基亞”被微軟收購了。 發展倒逼轉型升級,整合、創新引領時代發展:   一、360的出臺,直接把殺毒變成免費的,淘汰了金山毒霸;   二、淘寶電子商務2012年一萬億的銷量,逼得“蘇甯、國美”(類似燦坤、全國電子)這些傳統零售巨頭不得不轉型,逼得“李寧服裝”(大陸最著名的運動服飾品牌之一)關掉了全國1800多家專賣店,連天上發了衛星的“沃爾瑪”都難以招架,如果馬雲“菜鳥”行動成功的話,24小時內全國到貨的夢想實現,那麼這些零售巨頭的命運又將會是如何?   三、馬雲“餘額寶”的出臺,18天狂收57個億資金存款,開始強奪銀行的飯碗。    三馬(馬雲、馬化騰、馬明哲)的網上保險公司的啟動,預計未來五年將會有200萬保險人員失業,其他保險公司將何去何從?   騰訊微信的出臺,6個億的用戶還在增加,直接打劫了中國移動、電信和聯通的飯碗。   所以,如果有一天你隔壁開火鍋店的張三,賣手機賣得比你好的時候,你不用覺得驚訝,因為,這是一個跨界的時代,每一個行業都在整合,都在交叉,都在相互滲透,如果原來你一直獲利的產品或行業,在另外一個人手裡,突然變成一種免費的增值服務,你又如何競爭?如何生存? 未來五年各行業將全面洗牌   所以,未來的競爭,不再是產品的競爭、不再是管道的競爭,而是資源整合的競爭,是終端消費者的競爭,誰能夠持有資源,持有消費者用戶,不管他消費什麼產品、消費什麼服務,你都能夠盈利的時候,你才能夠保證你的利益,才能立於不敗之地。 引領時代的都是“騙子”: 30年前說下海能賺錢的人,被認為是騙子。 20年前說炒股能賺錢的人,被認為是騙子。 15年前說保險能幫到大家的,被認為是騙子。 10年前馬雲說互聯網能改變人們的生活,也被認為是騙子。 那些說別人是騙子的人,生活一成不変,生活品質一天比一天差!而那些當年所謂的“騙子”卻成了時代的標誌! “每一次新的機遇的到來,都會造就一批富翁!”    當別人不明白的時候,他明白他在做什麼;當別人不理解的時候,他理解他在做什麼;當別人明白了,他富有了;當別人理解了,他成功了。任何一次機遇的到來,都必將經歷四個階段:“看不見“、“看不起“、“看不懂”、“來不及”。 任何一次財富的締造必將經歷一個過程: “先知先覺經營者;後知後覺跟隨者 ;不知不覺消費者 !  反省一下,你有錯過嗎?人生比努力更重要的是選擇!與時俱進是財富的源泉哦! 發生在身邊的變化: 第一、當摩托羅拉還沉醉在V8088的時候, 不知道諾基亞已迎頭趕上。 第二、當諾基亞還注重低端機市場時,約伯斯的蘋果已經潛入。 第三、當蘋果成為街機的時候,三星已經傲視天下。 第四、當中國移動沾沾自喜為中國最大的通訊商時,渾然不覺微信客戶已突破4個億。  第五、當中國銀行業賺的盆滿缽滿高歌猛進時,阿里巴巴已經推出網路虛擬信用卡。  第六、當很多人還在想租個門面房開個小生意時,光棍節一天中國互聯網上創造天價成交額。 不要說停止學習,就是慢一點都有可能被淘汰出局。 未來十年拼什麼? 答: 整 ~借 ~學 ~變 一:整;資源整合! 你能整合多少資源,多少管道,你將來就會得到多少財富! 二:借;造船過河不如借船過河。 趨勢,無法阻擋;抉擇,要有智慧! 三:學;今天的企業家,贏在學習, 勝在改變! 柯達、諾基亞、李寧、索尼都輸在了不學習、不改變。古人雲:富不學富不長,窮不學窮不盡! 四:變;要想改變口袋,先要改變腦袋!    這個社會一直在淘汰有學歷的人,但是不會淘汰有學習力願意改變的人! 讀萬卷書不如行萬里路,行萬里路不如閱人無數,閱人無數不如名師指路,名師指路不如重疊成功人的腳步! 面對挑戰我該怎麼辦? 馬雲說:不要等到明天,明天太遙遠,今天就行動. 第一、改變一種行為不要拖到明天,否則它會變成你的習慣。 第二、拒絕一份誘惑不要拖到明天,否則它會造成你的傷害。 第三、抓住一次機會不要拖到明天,否則失去了就不會再來。 第四、不要讓今天的行動拖到明天,否則它無法帶來精彩。 第五、不要把今天的幸福拖到明天,否則它將一去不復返。 第六、不要把機會拖到明天,因機會是唯一的你還要等到明天 牛根生最後送上一句: 品牌的98%是文化,矛盾的98%來自誤會,資源的98%是靠整合。 I'm little...But I'm a Great Winner.  松鼠遇到突轚而來老鷹... *I have no idea how this was filmed, but it's sure great to watch  https://www.youtube.com/v/XBEyCr5AoIs      先見之明人棄我取摸透產業先人一著

129 設計為核心之文化 聚焦使用者之體驗,尤其是其情緒上之體驗。 建立模式以檢驗了解複雜的問題 使用芻型(prototype)來探索可能的解決方案。 鼓勵嘗試,容忍失敗 在各種限制條件下發揮最大創意 設計思維乃大道至簡和人文化成之基本工具和方法(Design thinking is an essential tool for simplifying and humanizing.) 接受如下的挑戰 接受極其模糊的情境 擁抱風險和危機 設定合理的期望 https://hbr.org/2015/09/design-thinking-comes-of-age

130 IDEO Shopping Cart Case Study
One doesn’t manage creativity [but nurtures] One manages for creativity (i.e., creative process) Tap ideas from all ranks (using multidisciplinary teams) Lone inventor myth  Encourage and enable collaboration Enlightened trial and error (of a creative team) succeeds over the planning of lone genius.* *http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M66ZU2PCIcM Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JkHOxyafGpE (1of 3)

131 腦力激盪術 IDEO Brainstorming Rules & Tips
拒絕批評 Defer judgment 越奇怪越好 Encourage wild ideas 量越多越好 Go for quantity 歡迎搭便車 Build on the ideas of others One conversation at a time Stay focused on the topic Be visual Number and record each idea – let’s try to get a hundred ideas, motivates participants Write the flow of ideas in a way that is visible to the group Make sketches, mind-maps, diagrams, . . . *ABC Nightline - IDEO Shopping Cart (video) (extended edition); see Catherine Fredman, IDEO Difference (link); Design Thinking by David Kelly on 60 Minutes (video)

132 Design Thinking Process and Methods
闔戶謂之坤;闢戶謂之乾;一闔一闢謂之變;往來不窮謂之通;見乃謂之象;形乃謂之器;制而用之,謂之法;利用出入,民咸用之,謂之神。

133 Left Brain vs. Right Brain
Imagination Knowledge Intuition Rational thought Analogical thinking Logical thinking Solving problem creatively Solving problem correctively Imagination is more important than knowledge - Albert Einstein

134 Left Brain vs. Right Brain
Left brain functions uses logic detail oriented facts rule words and language present and past math and science can comprehend knowing acknowledges order/pattern perception knows object name reality based forms strategies practical safe Right brain functions uses feeling "big picture" oriented imagination rules symbols and images present and future philosophy & religion can "get it" (i.e. meaning) believes appreciates spatial perception knows object function fantasy based presents possibilities impetuous risk taking LEFT BRAIN FUNCTIONS uses logic detail oriented facts rule words and language present and past math and science can comprehend knowing acknowledges order/pattern perception knows object name reality based forms strategies practical safe RIGHT BRAIN FUNCTIONS uses feeling "big picture" oriented imagination rules symbols and images present and future philosophy & religion can "get it" (i.e. meaning) believes appreciates spatial perception knows object function fantasy based presents possibilities impetuous risk taking

135 乾知大始,坤作成物。 Hexagram 1 (乾) Hexagram 2 (坤) Creative Receptive
乾坤兩卦的創新基因 Hexagram 1 (乾) Hexagram 2 (坤) Creative Receptive Creative talents Tolerance attitude (3Ts) Divergent thinking (open) Convergent thinking (close) Visioning and planning Implementation & execution Leader Follower Change Simplify Facing & taking risks Dealing with resistances Big pictures Small details Time Space 乾知大始,坤作成物。

136 SCAMPER Method for Brainstorming (Eberle, 1971)
取代Substitute What could be used instead of an existing component? 組合Combine What could be added to an existing product? 調適 Adapt How can it be adjusted to suit a condition or purpose? 改變、變大或小 Modify, Magnify, & Minify How can the color, shape, or form be changed? How can it be made larger, stronger, or thicker? How can it be made smaller, lighter, or shorter? 另謀他用 Put to other uses What else can it be used for? 除去 Eliminate What can be removed or taken away from it? 反向、重組Reverse & Rearrange How can it be placed opposite its original position? How can the pattern, sequence, or layout be changed?

137 除去 Eliminate(Simplify): 庖丁解牛,化繁為簡

138 組合Combine(Add): Suitcases on Wheels
Wheels on a suitcase? So convenient, they're an unremarkable essential for today's traveler. But in 1970, Bernard Sadow had trouble selling his rolling suitcase idea. "I showed it to every department store in New York City and a lot of buying offices, and everybody said I was crazy. 'Nobody's going to pull a piece of luggage with wheels on it.' People just didn't think in those terms," Sadow said. Macy’s ads began promoting “the Luggage That Glides.”

139 Rollerboard But it was also a time of huge change in the culture of travel, as a growing number of people flew, airports became bigger and far more women began traveling alone, especially on business trips. It had taken a long time, but common sense and the quest for convenience prevailed. The suitcase acquired wheels; travelers no longer routinely needed porters and bellhops. The Rollaboard was invented in 1987 by Robert Plath, a Northwest Airlines 747 pilot and avid home workshop tinkerer, who affixed two wheels and a long handle to suitcases that rolled upright, rather than being towed flat like Mr. Sadow’s four-wheeled models.

140 When you think that there is nothing new we can create…

141 重組Rearrange: Making Novel Combination
六爻相雜,唯其時物也。 道有變動,故曰爻;爻有等,故曰物;物相雜,故曰文;文不當,故吉凶生焉。 

142 重組-Reverse/Rearrange: Different Types of Restaurants
Hotpot Teppanyaki-type Restaurant (i.e., Benihana) Source: Service Is Front Stage

143 另謀他用:大葫蘆與護手膏 另謀他用 Put to other uses.  Reverse Innovation
惠子謂莊子曰:「魏王貽(音遺)我大瓠(音護)之種,我樹之成而實五石,以盛水漿,其堅不能自舉也。剖之以為瓢,則瓠落無所容。非不呺(音消)然大也,吾為其無用而掊之。」莊子曰:「夫子固拙於用大矣。宋人有善為不龜(音均)手之藥者,世世以洴澼絖(音平譬況)為事。客聞之,請買其方百金。聚族而謀曰:『我世世為洴澼絖,不過數金;今一朝而鬻技百金,請與之。』客得之,以說吳王。越有難,吳王使之將。冬,與越人水戰,大敗越人,裂地而封之。能不龜手一也,或以封,或不免於洴澼絖,則所用之異也。今子有五石之瓠,何不慮以為大樽而浮乎江湖,而憂其瓠落無所容?則夫子猶有蓬之心也夫!」 《莊子‧逍遥游》

144 小大之有用與無用 無用 有用 來源:蔡志忠

145 護手膏的秘方 來源:蔡志忠

146 大葫蘆:無用?有用? 缺乏創意,忽小略大: 因所見不同故所用有異 夫小大雖殊, 而放於自得之場, 則物任其性,事稱其能,
《莊子‧逍遥遊》郭象注 夫小大雖殊, 而放於自得之場, 則物任其性,事稱其能, 各當其分,逍遙一也, 豈容勝負於其間哉! 無用 有用 來源:蔡志忠

147 設計思維的心態 以人為本 人文化成 利有攸往 行動爲先 見諸行事 不尚空言 化繁為簡 易知易行 跨界合作 雜然成章 程序導向 本末先後
如有所用 必有所試

148 Design Thinking Process at d.school (Stanford)
Design Theory (Process):

149 Oral B Kid Toothbrush by IDEO
Design Toothbrush for kid under age 5

150 實地考察 Do Observations in the Field
Use observations in the field to spot contradictions of what you see and what you expect.  Dig deeper Genchi Genbutsu (現地現物): “Going to the source to see for yourself.” (The Toyota Way, p. 40) Empathy means challenging preconceived ideas and setting aside your sense of what you think is true in order to learn what is true. “It’s not what you don’t know that get you into trouble. It is you know for sure that ain’t so.” Mark Twain.

151 Swiffer – P&G and Continuum
“There has got to be a better way to clean a floor. Current mops are the cleaning equivalent of the horse drawn carriage – where’s the car?” Procter & Gamble’s 2nd most popular consumer product.

152 AEIOU 觀察法 http://bobbsite.com/coffee.html

153 質性硏究 Qualitative Research
Observation; Shadowing; Self-documentation 1:1 Interviewing/Group Interviewing

154 Characteristics of Ethnographic Research
Takes place “in the field” Observation is primary data collection technique Interviews are used to clarify observations Attention is paid to context and artifacts Field notes coded and analyzed for themes and variables ** Ethnography produces fresh insights for design strategy. *** Leonard, D., and J. F. Rayport, "Sparking Innovation through Empathic Design,"  Harvard Business Review, November/December, 1997, pp. 102–13. (link)

155 Participant Observation Tips
Observation is at the core of design thinking Why: To identify needs, NOT solutions Focus on behaviors that reveal key design concepts Capture cases at opposite ends of scale Look for the unseen behavioral scaffolding Be the foreigner Follow the golden rule (Empathy) Product Development Process: Observation (video)

156 One of the Tools Used to Understand Potential Users
enough to inspire more creative thinking about how to engage them Qualitative vs. Quantitative Number of subjects studied: 36 Deep with small number vs. wide (shallow) with large number Find out stakeholder’s unarticulated needs Longer interview and messier data collected The study is not to prove that our idea is good. It is to inspire us to have better and more innovative ideas.

157 瞎子摸象:Blinds and Elephant  Multiple POVs

158 Design Thinking 的流程 觀察(Observe) 訪問(Engage) 身歷其境(Immerse)
體 Empathize  藉由觀察(Observe)、訪問(Engage)和身歷其境(Immerse),演一個什麼都不懂的人,拋開既有的成見,並且多觀察、多問一個為什麼,以了解使用者的需求,並發現真正的問題。 鍊 Define 過程中,會得到不同使用者的需求,而不同於Empathize的發散,Define強調的是聚焦與收斂。用「動詞描述需求」、「需求背後的原因(Insight)」來定義使用者真正面臨的問題。先定義了使用者後,我們才能針對該使用者的需求來發想創意。 創 Ideate  有了明確的目標後,便要大量地發想出解決的方法。在過程中,「不批評」、「不打斷」是非常重要的。IDEO的創辦人David Kelly曾說:「如果想要有好點子,你得先想出一大堆點子。」所以 Build on others' ideas 是這個步驟中不可或缺的關鍵。 塑 Prototype  用一些簡單的原料將想法付諸實現,做成粗糙的原型(Prototype)。讓點子實體化,使其方便於檢視和修正,這也將作為我們與使用者溝通的重要工具。 試 Test 利用原型(Prototype)說故事與情境模擬的方式讓使用者實際體驗產品,並回饋感想給設計者。透過使用者的反饋,我們可以更深入瞭解使用者,也能  得知產品對使用者的適用性。若有錯誤,也能在毋需耗費高成本的情況下,回到先前任一步驟作出修正。 來源:http://nccudthinking.wix.com/nccudthinking#!dthinking/c1b0d

159 Design Thinking Process by Stanford d.school / IDEO
“To create meaningful innovations, you need to know your users. Empathize and care about their lives.” “It’s not about coming up with the ‘right’ idea, it’s about generating the broadest range of possibilities.” “Build to think and test to learn.” “Framing the right problem is the only way to create the right solution.” IDEO: Inspiration  Ideation  Implementation “Testing is an opportunity to learn about your solution/assumptions and your user.” https://dschool.stanford.edu/groups/designresources/wiki/36873/attachments/8a846/ModeGuideBOOTCAMP2010.pdf

160 Quick (Low-Fidelity) Prototyping
Think with your hands. Building to think. Fail often to succeed sooner. Read the IDEO Difference (link)

161 Why Designers Should Never Go to a Meeting Without a Prototype
如何試? A project with Sesame Workshop to develop Elmo’s Monster Maker—an iPhone app that leads young children through the process of designing their own monster friend. They had an idea for a new dance feature in which kids could guide Elmo through different dance moves in sync with a simple music track.  Link

162

163 Design for Extreme Affordability
Problem: 15 M premature and underweight babies and many died. Reasons: Babies are so tiny they don’t have enough fat to regulate their own body temperature. Traditional incubators can also cost as much as $20,000—each. Goal: Design low-cost infant incubator for developing world Field research: Saw unused infant incubators in hospital in Nepal.  Changing design for hospitals and clinics to Rural mothers in their villages Heard mother is going to reduce temperature from 38oc to 30oc  Changing the indicator to just OK

164 Embrace 保溫袋的設計思考過程中尋找到 Insight 的例子

165 The Embrace Infant Warmer Is a Product with A Mission
$200 ABC News 20/20 Video Paraffin (石蠟) Video from Embrace

166 以人為本的設計 設計創新鐵三角 Human Value 人性價值 Technology Business 企業 技術
(Human-Centered Design) Human Value Desirability 人性價值 需求性 入手處 Technology Feasibility Business Viability 企業 存活性 技術 可行性 with a video

167 MRI (link)

168 Redesign MRI for Kids GE 18 billion Heathcare Division
Multimillion-dollar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines Problem: Children are frighten by the MRI machine and 80% has to be sedated before scanning. Action: Chief designer took “Human-Centered Design and Innovation” at Stanford d.school Solution: Designing MRI machine  Redesign and humanize the experience for kids (getting young patients safely and willingly through an MRI scan) What You Need to Know The machine is VERY loud, if they offer music-use it. Close your eyes BEFORE they slide you into the tube and keep them closed the entire time. Breathe normally. You will be at the imaging center minutes. If you are having a test “with contrast” they will do the test once then inject you with the contrast material and do the test again. It isn’t fun but it doesn’t hurt either You will survive 

169 GE’s “Adventure Series” MRI for Kids
Link GE's Adventure Series redesigns imaging equipment including MRIs, X-ray machines and CT scanners like the pirate-themed machine pictured here to make the procedures less scary for kids. (Link)

170 Different Themes

171 EatWell EATWELL won first place at the 2014 Stanford Design Challenge
台灣女孩姚彥慈為失智外婆設計的餐具,美國療養院也買單!

172 設計程序Analysis  Synthesis.
抽象 解讀 觸類旁通 抽象化 體現於 實際 Source: The Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model (link) 描敘 Problem/Needs/Context Solution/Response/Form 現在 未來

173 Source: The Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model (link)
principles Source: The Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model (link)

174 商業模式九宮格 顧客關係 顧客群 關鍵夥伴KP: Key Partners 關鍵活動KA: Key Activities
價值主張VP: Value Proposition 顧客關係 CR: Customer Relationships -招來新顧客 -留住老顧客 -增漲顧客購買 顧客群 CS: Customer Segments -行銷 -研發 -製造/服務作業 產品和服務 -功能性(Functional) -社交性(Social) -情緒性(Emotional) -待完成的工作 -顧客旅程圖 -人物誌Persona -痛點/快樂 -潛在需求 -消費者/企業 -巿場大小 TAM/SAM/TM -活動外包商 -產品供應商 -資源供應商 關鍵資源KR: Key Resources 行銷通路 CH: Channels -實體通路 -虛擬通路 -由虛至實O2O -人才 -技術 -創新文化 成本 C$: Costs Structures 盈收 R$: Revenue Streams -新顧客獲取成本 -技術/產品取、開發成本 -盈收模式 - 毛利率 -註冊人數 -口碑WOM -訂價策略/Freemium -活躍的使用者人數 -顧客終生價值(CLTV) -同期 留失/保留率

175 Rent the Runway Case Study
Rent the Runway 的不同做法是深刻觀察到現代女性時尚的需求及困擾,加上分享經濟(Shared Economy)已被廣受歡迎,才發展為成功的創新公司。創辦人在創業過中以一系列的實際試驗來驗証企業模式中的「假設」,以行動代替企業計劃書的撰寫。因觀而得創業之靈感,由試而悟商道之途,為觀卦及精實創業的最佳實例! Rent the Runway (*case *link - read the case and introduction chapter; website; about; Aanalytics; press coverage) *Rent the Runway: An inside look at the tech startup's success https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cyvfsi3MX-M *** The Business of Rentable Fashion https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZLYWDxDvQI ***The Supply & Demand of Rent the Runway https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JYFWpJvq6DU (about testing business ideas) ***Working with Venture Capitalists as a Fashion Company https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlL32GUOqmI

176 價值主張 Value Proposition

177 Quirky Pivot Power Strip
https://www.quirky.com/shop/44-pivot-power-a-creative-outlet

178 Drivers for Innovation
Necessity is the mother of invention. Where there is a friction (frustration), there is an opportunity. Zappos’ founder Nick Swinmurn Dropbox file sharing: Drew Houston reportedly conceived the idea for Dropbox after repeatedly forgetting his USB drive  Chinapages.com by Jack Ma Zappos He typed 'beer' in the Yahoo! search and got a number of results. Then he typed 'China' but this gave no results. This made him decide to start a company to bring information regarding Chinese companies on to the Internet. After arriving back to Hangzhou, Ma resigned his teaching job, borrowed US$ 2,000 and started chinapages.com, China's first commercial website which contained a list of companies operating in China...

179 市場大小與定位 灘頭堡

180 Customer Relationship (Web/Mobile)

181 Revenue Streams

182 Customer Value Canvas Customer Profile Value Map

183 雇用奶昔 They were winning out over doughnuts, bagels, bananas, and boredom. If a company can discover a job-defined market, it will generally be much larger than one defined by product category. Milkshakes met their needs better than anything else. Bagels were dry; with cream cheese or jam, they resulted in sticky fingers. Doughnuts didn’t carry people past the 10 a.m. hunger attack. Bananas didn’t last long enough to solve the boring-commute problem. But it took 20 minutes to suck a viscous milkshake through a thin straw, hands remained clean and stomachs were satisfied until lunch. “Finding the Right Job for Your Product.” MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2007, pp. 38–47

184 Job-to-Be-Done Analysis
“People don’t want to buy a quarter-inch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole!” Theodore Levitt, Professor of Marketing, Harvard Business School “Jobs-to-be-done"--addressing the basic problem a customer is facing and providing a product that can deliver the necessary result. Each job has functional, emotional, and social dimensions. The jobs-to-be-done point of view causes you to go with your customer as she goes about her day, always asking the question as she does something ask: “Why did you do it that way?” Source: "Marketing Malpractice: The Cause and the Cure," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 83, No. 12, December 2005.

185 Value Proposition Canvas
Value Map Customer Profile

186 僱用奶昔是為了解決什麼問題: 奶昔Job-to-Be-Done
哈佛大學教授克里斯汀生有一次被麥當勞聘僱去提昇奶昔的銷量。他坐在餐廳裡觀察後發現,奶昔每天的購買高峰皆在早上八點以前,而且買的多半是隻身來店的男性上班族,買了上車就走。於是他跑去問這些消費者:「你僱用奶昔是為了解決什麼問題?」「若不是僱用奶昔,你會僱用誰?」 https://shanghong.wordpress.com/2015/06/13/

187 雇用奶昔:奶昔的價值地圖 https://shanghong.wordpress.com/2015/06/13/
產品與服務創造的價值不是絕對的,價值端視顧客對任務、痛點和獲益的重要性而定。你不該嘗試面面俱到、處理所有的問題,專注在對顧客重要、特別有感的部分就好。當你回應顧客認為重要的任務、消除椎心之痛點、創造顧客重視的必要獲益,就達到了價值適配。 https://shanghong.wordpress.com/2015/06/13/

188 我們的產品 X 不同於 Y 能夠幫助 Z https://shanghong.wordpress.com/2015/06/13/

189 Architecture of Innovation
Intersection & Integration Science/Technology Humanity/Art Business Model Innovation Consumer Process Innovation End product/ service & Component Experience Innovation Service Innovation Product Innovation Technology Innovation Creativity & Imagination Business

190 Innovation Types Knowledge sources driving “service” innovations…
Business Administration and Management Technology Innovation Business Innovation Science & Engineering TQM Reengineering Laser, seminconductor Medicine: Bloodless surgery, laser healing, surgical treatment, kidney stone treatment, eye treatment, dentistry Industry: Cutting, welding, material heat treatment, marking parts, non-contact measurement of parts Military: Marking targets, guiding munitions, missile defence, electro-optical countermeasures (EOCM), alternative to radar, blinding troops. Law enforcement: used for latent fingerprint detection in the forensic identification field[31][32] Research: Spectroscopy, laser ablation, laser annealing, laser scattering, laser interferometry, LIDAR, laser capture microdissection, fluorescence microscopy Product development/commercial: laser printers, optical discs (e.g. CDs and the like), barcode scanners, thermometers, laser pointers, holograms, bubblegrams. Laser lighting displays: Laser light shows Cosmetic skin treatments: acne treatment, cellulite and striae reduction, and hair removal. Social-Organizational Innovation Demand Innovation Global Economy & Markets Social Sciences Groupon Gang-run printing 合版印刷  Grameen Bank (Bank of the poor, Micro lending) SSME = Service Sciences, Management, and Engineering

191 創新被採用的五大因素 5 Factors of Innovation Adoption Decision (Roger)
Definition 相對優勢Relative Advantage How improved an innovation is over the previous generation. 相容性Compatibility The level of compatibility that an innovation has to be assimilated into an individual’s life. 簡約易用 Simplicity If the innovation is perceived as complicated or difficult to use, an individual is unlikely to adopt it. 可試性 Trialability How easily an innovation may be experimented. If a user is able to test an innovation, the individual will be more likely to adopt it. 能見度Observability The extent that an innovation is visible to others. An innovation that is more visible will drive communication among the individual’s peers and personal networks and will in turn create more positive or negative reactions.

192 精實創業的學習歷程 Lean Startup Cycle
Ideas/Business Model Technologies Social trends Pains/Gains Focus Think with your hands Pivot/ Persevere Build Prototyping Minimum viable products (MVP) Learn Insights Hypotheses 5 Whys Minimize the total time & resource through the learning loop Product/service Address Job to be done Fit (P-S, P-M) Data Innovation Accounting Net Promoter Score AARRR Measure Split tests Observations Click streams Find/get real customers

193 如有所用,必有所試; 如有所試,必有所悟; 因其所悟,變通久大。 用 變、通 試 悟 創業時用人、用事、自試之道 如有所用,必有所試。
-- 據毓老師教誨及精實創業之心得,用人、行事、自試皆然。 〈繫辭傳〉有親(fit)則可久, 有功則可大(scaling) 。 通變(pivot)之謂事。 窮則變、變則通、通則久。 Talents/Ideas/Products 子曰:「如有所譽,必有所試矣。」 扶風馬鈞(與人爭論是否有指南車) 虛爭空言,不如試之易効也。… 傅玄曰:雖聖人之明,盡物, 如有所用,必有所試。 -- 《魏書‧杜夔傳》 用人 行事 自試 變、通 Pivot/ Scale Test Insights

194 韓愈〈原道〉 「博愛」之謂仁, (墨子:兼相愛,愛人若愛其身) 「行而宜之」之謂義,  重行事且能宜 「由是而之焉」之謂道,
「博愛」之謂仁, (墨子:兼相愛,愛人若愛其身) 「行而宜之」之謂義,  重行事且能宜  「由是而之焉」之謂道, 「足乎己無待於外」之謂德。 仁與義為定名,道與德為虛位。 故道有君子、小人,而德有凶、有吉。

195 先時、會用,都是新的講道、做事、成事 中國學問是解決問題,不是寫一本書教後人研究,我為何不寫書?中國文化沒有古今、新舊,只有先後,看你能不能做到先時,古人的智能,講就夠了,思想還有新舊之分? 會用,都是新的,不會用,都是舊的,講學不是為了留一本書,而是我們能從書中得到新的智能。有用之物卻無用,在於不思。讀書多少不重要,智能多才有用,講道容易行道難,做事容易成事難! 毓老師說 原文網址:https://read01.com/kjdn0g.html

196 Insights come to us “like a flash”—in an epiphany—making them difficult to rationalize or defend. Charles Peirce Epiphany頓悟: A moment of sudden and great revelation or realization. A moment in which you suddenly see or understand something in a new or very clear way. Enlightenment開悟: A final spiritual state marked by the absence of desire or suffering. 一聞經語,心即開… 思量即不中用,見性之人,言下須見…為說《金剛經》。至「應無所住而生其心」,惠能言下大悟,一切萬法,不離自性。 悟後起修

197 本來面目,悟後起修 惠能遂出,坐盤石上。惠明作禮云:「望行者為我說法。」惠能曰:「汝既為法而來,可屏息諸緣,勿生一念,吾為汝說。」
明良久,惠能曰:「不思善,不思惡,正與麼時,那個是明上座本來面目?」 惠明言下大悟。復問云:「上來密語密意外,還更有密意否?」惠能云:「與汝說者,即非密也。汝若返照,密在汝邊。」 明曰:「惠明雖在黃梅,實未省自己面目,今蒙指示,如人飲水,冷暖自知。今行者,即惠明師也。」… 惠能後至曹溪,又被惡人尋逐,乃於四會避難獵人隊中,凡經一十五載,時與獵人隨宜說法。獵人常令守網,每見生命,盡放之。

198 培養創新文化-洞察力 決定組織看到契機還危機
為什麼有些人就是能理解別人無法理解的事情而看出契機或危機?原因就在於洞察力。許多企業往往因為重視可預期性、害怕意外、怕犯錯等原因,扼殺了洞見,錯過事先發覺異常現象和擾亂性的機會;如果能夠透過洞察力三路徑,培養具洞察力的組織文化,也許可以進一步搶先機。 洞察力三路徑: Contradictions Connections (connecting the dots) Coincidences Curiosities Creative Desperation: Trapped by Assumptions 誘發洞察力的契機:矛盾、連結、巧合、好奇、絕處逢生(急中生智) 。 行動:重建故事,增添新想法。 改變我們的理解方式。 https://matrixtrainings.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/seeing-what-others-dont-gary-klein.pdf 為什麼有些人就是能理解別人無法理解的事情?從而看出契機或危機?原因就在於洞察力。許多企業往往因為重視可預期性、害怕意外、怕犯錯等原因,扼殺了洞見,錯過事先發覺異常現象和擾亂性的機會;如果能夠透過洞察力三路徑,培養具洞察力的組織文化,也許可以進一步搶先機。 洞見常像魔法一樣出現,因為我們看到的都是令人驚奇的結局:那隻被拉出帽子的白兔。我們沒看到走向結局的步驟:魔術師努力練習的歲月、帽子的設計、兔子被夾帶到台上的方式,或是魔術師助手在關鍵時刻俯身向前,讓人們瞥見乳溝的障眼法。我們或許無法預期一個人產生洞見的確切時刻,但那個過程卻沒想像中的神秘。 洞見如何觸發?以下提供5種獲取洞見的策略: 1.連結 達爾文搭乘小獵犬號的旅途中,納悶究竟什麼原因造成他所看到的物種差異,透過連結馬爾薩斯的資源競爭觀點,達爾文建構出物競天擇的《進化論》。 2.巧合 二十世紀最偉大的天文發現,來自於巧合。愛爾蘭天體物理學家伯奈爾從發現一個巧合開始,進而發現脈衝星,改寫天文史。 3.好奇 亞歷山大˙弗萊明是偶然發現實驗室的一只培養皿異常,因好奇進一步探究,發現世上最成功的藥物盤尼西林神奇的治療能力,並因此拯救幾百萬條人命,獲得諾貝爾獎。 4.矛盾 惠特尼是華爾街出了名最多疑的研究分析師之一,老早就指出次級房貸問題嚴重,在一片看好聲中,她勇於與大眾的信念背道而馳,進而獲得他人無法捕捉到的洞見,揭露問題。 5.創造性的絕境 當初只是初階軍官的拿破崙,如何以寡敵眾,打贏一場看似絕無勝算的戰爭,一躍為善於運用戰術的頂尖軍事指揮官?靠的是創造性絕境。 一個組織該如何培育洞見?可以透過洞察力三路徑: 1.透過獲取洞見五策略中的發現矛盾、連結、巧合、好奇、創造性絕境,誘發洞察力的因素。 2.行動:重建故事,增添新想法。 3.改變我們的理解方式。 每條途徑都有自己改變信念的方式:像錨一般左右人們如何理解事物的信念。這個重新建構信念的過程,改變我們用來理解事件的故事,催生出瓦拉思所描述的靈光一閃。洞見會出其不意地用一個比較正確而實用的故事來取代原有的故事。 然而,許多洞見只是感覺對了,而沒有正確的解答或令人滿意的結局。它們通常是對於人的洞見。如果房市泡沫又延續一年,比如聯邦出手相救或中國投資人哄抬,那些因次級房貸市場崩潰而獲利的財務經理人,或許看來就沒那麼有預知力了。 如果想增進洞見,就該了解不同的路徑。每條路徑都需要與眾不同的方法。矛盾路徑需要我們願意敞開心胸接受意外,願意嚴肅看待之,就算它們違背了我們所認知的事物運作方式;連結的路徑則從我們接受經驗、準備思考不熟悉的可能性開始;創造性絕境的路徑,需要人們抱持批判的態度檢視假設,看看有沒有哪個假設絆住我們。 如果組織想孕育創新、增加發現,最好策略是削減會妨礙洞見的作為,但這種策略將難以落實。組織可能需要約束對可預測性和完美的渴望。一個建議是,運用得到授權的「勘漏團體」進行類似「上訴」的行動,以突破管理階層中其他人用來阻撓洞見的障礙。最重要的是,組織領導人準備做出任何改變,才能增加洞見或提高洞見的能見度。 用青花菜和小魚餅乾 設計出測試嬰兒的新方法 發展心理學家Alison Gopnik任教於加州大學柏克萊分校,因為聽到2歲兒子的一句話而產生連結式的洞見。她懷疑寶寶可以透過某種方式採納其他人的觀點,感知他人有自己的想法和喜好。 高普尼為了她主辦的晚餐派對,做了一道花俏甜點櫻桃白蘭地漬鳳梨,2歲兒子嘗了一口,扮鬼臉。「幾個星期後,他突然沒來由地轉頭對她說:媽咪,妳覺得鳳梨很好吃,但我覺得很噁心。 高普尼把她兒子的話拓展成一個實驗:青花菜和小魚餅乾範式(Paradigm) 。她給了幾個14到18個月大的寶寶一碗生青花菜和一碗培珀莉小魚餅乾,叫他們各吃一些。他們全都喜歡小魚餅乾勝於青花菜。然後,高普尼的共同研究員從兩個碗各拿了一點東西吃,做出嫌惡或高興的表情。 她讓半數寶寶看到她吃小魚餅乾時面露嫌惡,吃青花菜時面露喜色,對其餘寶寶則相反。運用青花菜和小魚餅乾的實驗,雷帕裘利和高普尼證明18個月大的寶寶具有同理能力,但14個月大的嬰兒還沒有。 高普尼設計出測試嬰兒的新方法。一如山本五十六,他的洞見給了他如何癱瘓美國軍艦的靈感。 產生洞見就是一種創造。洞見的魔法源於發現連結、巧合和好奇的力量;察覺矛盾的力量;為絕望所釋放的創造的力量。魔法就住在我們心中,永無休止地攪動。(本文摘自寶鼎出版《為什麼他能看到你沒看到的?洞察的藝術》」來源:寶鼎出版 Gary Klein, Seeing What Others Don’t: The Remarkable Ways We Gain Insights 寶鼎出版《為什麼他能看到你沒看到的?洞察的藝術》

199 顧客開發程序 The Customer Development Process
創新公司多因缺乏顧客而失敗,而非敗於產品開發上。 More startups fail from a lack of customers than from a failure of product development 探索 執行 發現 顧客 証實 顧客 創造 顧客 擴展 公司 成長駭客 變通 Growth Hacking 在不斷地嘗試中找到正確方向。(Try many times before you get it right.) 不怕失敗,從失敗中學習。 (It is OK to fail so plan to learn from it.) 每一階段皆盡其所學才往前進。(Only move to the next stage when you learn enough and reach the “escape velocity”)

200 The Lean Start-Up Steve Blank, "Why The Lean Start-up Change Everything," HBR, May (link)

201 獨角獸和蟑螂(小強) From Unicorn to Cockroach
Unicorn: A start-up company valued at over $1 billion with superfast growth. It relies on easy VC money to fund their growth. Cockroach: A cockroach, is a business that builds slowly and steadily from the get-go, keeping a close eye on revenues and profits. Spending is kept in check so that it can weather any funding storm. It is a more resilient business.

202 適合 (噬嗑)、契合 (Fit) Solution ideas  Storyboard Low fidelity prototype
High fidelity prototype Minimum Viable Products  Product Source:

203 親力親為, 極致服務。 專注一方, 建立灘頭。 為不可大, 而後可大。 Startup Idea= What you build +
Unscalable Things 親力親為, 極致服務。 專注一方, 建立灘頭。 為不可大, 而後可大。 Do Things that Don't Scale

204 觀察之道:Marketing Research to Insight Research
量化硏究:大數據,量多而淺 質性硏究:小數據,量少而深 極深研幾 探賾索隱 鉤深致遠 賾(音則): 幽深難見

205 創新者的基因組成 聯想力 綜合新穎想法的認知能力 行為技能 創新的勇氣 善疑善問 勇於挑戰現況 明觀慎察 創新的 想法 具備冒險精神
運用人脈 動手實驗 交付能力 規劃、分析 組織能力 細節導向的實踐力 有紀律的執行力 創新公司成長之初需要有探索發現之技能(Discovery Skills),找到契合的產品市場後則有賴交付能力(Delivery Skills)快速成長

206 易有聖人之道四焉;以言者尚其辭,以動者尚其變,以制器者尚其象,以卜筮者尚其占。 不可為典要, 唯變所適 察於民之故
孔子曰:「君子有九思:…疑思問…」 易有聖人之道四焉;以言者尚其辭,以動者尚其變,以制器者尚其象,以卜筮者尚其占。 不可為典要, 唯變所適 察於民之故 仰觀俯察 觸類旁通 日新之謂盛德 The innovator's DNA inShare By Stuart Pallister | December 21, 2009 A major new study has highlighted the key skills that innovative and creative entrepreneurs need to develop. According to Hal Gregersen, an INSEAD professor and co-author of a six-year-long study into disruptive innovation involving some 3,500 executives, there are five 'discovery' skills you need but, he says, you don't have to be 'great in everything. A major new study involving some 3,500 executives has highlighted the key skills that innovative and creative entrepreneurs need to develop. The six-year-long research into disruptive innovation by INSEAD professor Hal Gregersen, Jeffrey Dyer of Brigham Young University and Clayton Christensen of Harvard, outlines five 'discovery' skills you need. But, says Gregersen, you don’t have to be ‘great in everything.’ Some well-known business leaders such as Apple’s Steve Jobs and Amazon’s Jeff Bezos rely on their own particular strengths since innovative entrepreneurs rarely excel at all five discovery skills. For example, Scott Cook of Intuit is strong in observational skills. Marc Benioff, founder of Salesforce.com, does a lot of networking, he says. As for Bezos, “experimentation was his forte,” while Jobs is “incredibly strong at associating.” The five skills, Gregersen says, are ‘a habit, a practice, a way of life’ for innovators. Although Gregersen and his co-authors use the DNA metaphor, innovative entrepreneurs are actually made or developed, rather than born. “We each have unique, fixed physical DNA,” says Gregersen, “but in terms of creativity, we each have a unique set of learnable skills that we rely on in order to get to the ideas that will give us some insight.” Research involving identical twins suggests that only about per cent of our creativity ability is geneticically driven. “This means the other per cent comes from the world we live in,” Gregersen says. “So even if I took those identical twins and you have one twin who sits at home, watches the television, doesn't do a whole lot trying to generate a new business idea, and you've got a second twin who talks to 10 different people from 10 different diverse perspectives, who goes out and maybe observes the world systematically, takes notes and pictures, writes down in a journal things that he or she sees, constantly asking questions -- ‘What if ? Why not? How could? What might? How might? Those sorts of things. Which of those identical twins is likely to get the creative ideas?” “It's the one out there doing the creative actions,” Gregersen says. “They might get a bit of a boost from genetics but that's not the core of what delivers the results.” The five key discovery skills Associating Creative entrepreneurs ‘connect the dots’ to make unexpected connections. They combine pieces of what may seem disparate pieces of information until “surprise - you've got this innovative new idea.” Steve Jobs, the CEO of Apple, was interested in calligraphy and this eventually led to his company producing user-friendly, graphics-based Macs. “Several years later, when Jobs was trying to figure out the Macintosh screen, and the 'what you see is what you get' (WYSIWG) sort of image, he connected the dots back to what he had learnt in calligraphy to what might be on the screen and it was a key component of making that whole computer work.” Observing Some of the most innovative entrepreneurs are “intense observers,” Gregersen says. Take for example Scott Cook, the founder of Intuit: “When we interviewed him, we talked about how he got the initial idea for Quicken software. He watched really carefully in terms of how his wife was very frustrated doing their finances. Manually it was frustrating and irritating. She purchased some software that was equally frustrating and irritating.” It was at that point that Cook thought he might be able to develop a product that could help his wife “solve that problem more effectively.” After a ‘sneak preview’ of an early Apple computer, Cook got a “rich sense of what it might look like to have a user interface and a mouse and so on, and be able to have things like checks on the screen that looked like what they should be.” And from this observation, Gregersen says, sprang Quicken. Experimenting When Jeff Bezos, the founder of internet retailer Amazon, was growing up, he used to spend time on his grandfather's farm in the summer. When machinery broke down on the farm, his grandfather would try to fix it himself, with some help from Jeff. They would “experiment, trying this and that, until it would finally work again.” If the animals on the farm got sick, his grandparents wouldn’t call the vet, but rather experiment and try to fix the problem themselves. “So Jeff grew up with that kind of attitude and mindset, that if I am confronted with a challenge, I can figure out a solution,” Gregersen says. “That kind of experimentation spilled over into Amazon.” At first, the idea had been to sell books via the internet without inventory. “That was the initial idea. We sometimes forget that it took him seven, eight, nine years of experimentation to build the capacity to have warehouses full of books.” As a consequence of his experimentation, Bezos “built this business model that we now call Amazon today.” Questioning Questions are at the core of what we do. We can be observing the world or experimenting, “but if I have no questions in my mind, I'm pretty unlikely to get any observations or insights or ‘ahas’ that I never saw or thought about,” Gregersen says. “And this kind of questioning attitude and mentality is just rampant in these folks.” Some may be better than others in observing, but when it comes to questioning, “all were powerful.” “I'll never forget when I sat down with A.G. Lafley (the former CEO of Procter & Gamble) to talk with him about his world of leadership. I had a series of questions related to research about global leadership and I swear he asked me far more questions in that interview than I asked him because he was just simply curious about what was going on in the research.” Another was Michael Dell. “I had the naivete to ask Michael if he had any favourite questions he likes to ask when he wanders around the world. And he instantly responded with a quizzical look, like ‘That's a dumb question.’ Then he said : “Hal if I had some favourite questions, everybody would know the answers. Instead, when I'm wandering the world, I try to construct a question for every conversation that might generate information that I never had before’. And for most of these innovative entrepreneurs, that's just how they think." Networking Typically, when we think of networking, we think of this in terms of jobs, a career or maybe social life. But when it comes to creativity, it takes on a different meaning. “Innovators are intentional about finding diverse people who are just the opposites of who they are, that they talk to, to get ideas that seriously challenge their own,” Gregersen says. Creative and innovative entrepreneurs look for people who are “completely different in terms of perspective” and regularly discuss ideas and options with them “to get divergent viewpoints.” There could be differences in gender, industry, age, country of origin, or even politics. “If I'm on the right, they're on the left, that kind of notion. And those sorts of diverse inputs in terms of conversations enabled them to get new ideas,” he says. “Now it doesn't come instantly. Sometimes the conversations provide their own insights.” David Neeleman, founder of JetBlue Airways and now CEO of Azul Airlines in Brazil, got the idea for paperless ticketing or e-ticketing, Gregersen says, by talking to one of his employees about the frustration of having to carry around paper tickets in order to give them to passengers flying on their planes. “So that conversation then led to a new idea and a way of doing things differently.” Disruptive innovation Another of the co-authors of the study, Clayton Christensen, is an expert in disruptive innovation and this led Gregersen to wonder what the origin was of “those disruptive organisations that changed whole industries.” They then drew up a list of the world’s most innovative companies based in part on BusinessWeek’s ”Most Innovative Company” ranking and began interviewing the CEOs or founders. They got access to the likes of Dell, asking him and others: "Tell us about what was going on when you got the initial idea that led to this innovative business called Dell computer (or Amazon in the case of Bezos)." They then realised, when looking at the responses to this question, that innovative entrepreneurs are “doing a lot of the same things -- there’s a little bit of variation but a lot of the same things.” At that stage, they developed a self assessment and 360 degree survey based on the concepts of experimenting and so on, and assessed ‘thousands of executives and entrepreneurs.’ “And what we discovered was that those engaging in these behaviours and this thinking pattern, were actually the ones who delivered breakthrough processes, new products and services, new business lines within companies, corporate entrepreneurship, and new businesses outside of companies -- all of which were financially profitable and successful.” “At the core of this, all these folks were driven by a fundamental bias against the status quo. They were absolutely uncomfortable with things being the way they are. They wanted to make things change ... They wanted to change the world. And they're going to risk failure in order to make that a reality.” Corporate decision-making, he says, does “not usually value or support innovative actions.” Yet, some companies do. P&G’s marketers, for example, spend more than 12 hours on average each month just observing customers. “They value the behaviour and they get the innovative results. So one of the surprises for me is that even though these are relatively straightforward things that we could do, most of us have lost the capability to do them.” Practising and developing the skills Gregersen says the five discovery skills may seem ‘intuitive’ but when it comes to the actual practice, “doing them is counterintuitive.” That’s because the adult world in which we live “does not value these actions.” Gregersen’s advice? Start acting like a child again: “Not 100 per cent of the time, that would be absurd. We're adults and we have to run businesses. But 20 per cent, 25 per cent of our time, act like a four-year-old again,” Gregersen told INSEAD Knowledge. “Because all these skills are what four-year-olds do. They ask thousands of questions: ‘Why?’ ‘Why not?’ This and that. They're always asking those questions ... They observe intensely and they'll talk to just about anybody.” “These are the things that we all did as four-year-olds. We all did this stuff. And if we happened to attend a Montessori-type school like many innovative entrepreneurs did, then we still might be doing this stuff. But most school and corporate systems consistently say: ‘Don't do it, stop doing it’ ... and we lose our innate creative capacity.” But this ability is not lost forever. “We can get it back and that's where, if I want to become better at questioning, I start asking more questions.” His suggestion is to get a journal and, if you've got a problem, take a few minutes each day to write down questions about that problem. After a month or so, “your questions will change and it's by changing the question that we change our fundamental understanding about the problem that leads us to a solution that we never thought of before.” Take notes when observing others. “Step back from (the problem or situation), talk to people: ‘What did you learn? What surprised you? What was interesting?’ If you like to talk to people, talk to somebody different: maybe on another floor, a different building, a different office, another country, but talk to somebody who's 180 degrees different from you. These are things that we can do and they don't take a lot of time to do them.” “Innovation is a habit,” Gregersen says. “And for these innovative entrepreneurs it's a way of life. It's the fabric of who they are. And for others who aren't that way, they could be: if they choose to act different to think different.” You can find more about the ‘Innovator’s DNA’ in the December edition of the Harvard Business Review. Hal Gregersen is an affiliate professor of leadership at INSEAD. The co-authors of the study are Jeffrey Dyer, a strategy professor at Brigham Young University, and Clayton Christensen, a professor of business administration at Harvard. 乘承應比,益者三友 利涉大川 居則觀其象,觀其會通,感而遂通,通天下之志 見乃謂之象;形乃謂之器;制而用之,謂之法 利有攸往, 行而宜之謂之義 博學、審問、慎思、明辨、篤行 備物致用,立成器以為天下利

207 犯上與諍諫(音建) 有子曰:「其為人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鮮矣;不好犯上,而好作亂者,未之有也。君子務本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其為仁之本與!」 仲尼居,曾子侍。子曰:「先王有至德要道,以順天下,民用和睦,上下無怨。汝知之乎?」曾子避席曰:「參不敏,何足以知之?」子曰:「夫孝,德之本也,教之所由生也。復坐,吾語汝。身體髮膚,受之父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也。立身行道,揚名於後世,以顯父母,孝之終也。夫孝,始於事親,中於事君,終於立身。《大雅》云:『無念爾祖,聿脩厥德。』」 曾子曰:「若夫慈愛、恭敬、安親、揚名,則聞命矣。敢問子從父之令,可謂孝乎?」子曰:「是何言與,是何言與!昔者天子有爭臣七人,雖無道,不失其天下;諸侯有爭臣五人,雖無道,不失其國;大夫有爭臣三人,雖無道,不失其家;士有爭友,則身不離於令名;父有爭子,則身不陷於不義。故當不義,則子不可以不爭於父,臣不可以不爭於君;故當不義,則爭之。從父之令,又焉得為孝乎!」

208 Questioning “The important and difficult job is never to find the right answers, it is to find the right question.” -Peter Drucker “question the unquestionable.” -Ratan Tata

209 Risk Taking Culture “Fail often to succeed sooner.” – IDEO’s motto Risk taking: Take enough chances and you risk a few big failures. Prototyping Embrace mini-failure Large firms tend to be more risk-averse

210 QuestionStorming Questionstorming differs from brainstorming in its focus on questions, not ideas What are your questioning patterns? What kinds of questions do you focus on? What questions yield unexpected insights into why things are the way they are? What questions surface fundamental assumptions and challenge the status quo? What questions generate strong emotional responses (a great indicator of challenging the way things are)? What questions guide you best into disruptive territory? Standard Questions What are the best questions we need to ask right now? Is there a better way to state that question? What are the standards by which we decide that one question is better than another? How can we best organize the questions in descending order of quality? Who or what should ask the question? To whom or what should the question be directed? How should the question be asked? When or under what conditions should the question be asked? Where should the question be asked? Why should the question be asked? Should the question be asked? What are likely to be the consequences of asking the question? What purposes might the question serve other than getting an answer? What might be the purposes of someone who asked that question in a given situation? How could the question be misunderstood? Is the question meaningful? Is the question answerable in principle? What is the operation by which answers might be produced and selected? Is the question-answering operation reproducible by others? How can we tell whether the question has been answered? By when are we going to need to have an answer? By when are we going to need to have the question? What are the concerns and goals of the members of the group? What are the perceptions and abilities of the members of the group? What are the kinds of resources associated with this question and the group? Space? Time? Energy? Materials? Information? Agents? Skills? Initial state? Operating conditions? What are the tools and resources available to the group? How can they be obtained? What kinds of costs are associated with asking this question and answering it? What are likely to be the costs of asking the question? What are likely to be the costs of trying to answer the question? Is the question answerable by the group given its resources? If not, what do we do? Who or what can answer the question in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost? Should two or more of the questions be combined into one? If so, how? Should the question be split into two or more questions? If so, how? Have we come up with more questions than we can handle during this session? Which questions may have to be answered before others can be answered or even asked? What are the questions or kinds of questions we may need to ask later? How well is this questorming session working? Are we criticizing too soon? Too late? Are we getting sidetracked into a discussion of answers? Do we need to change the composition of the group? Add members? Expel someone? Are we lacking information critical to proceeding further? If so, how can we get it? Have we covered all the major possibilities? Are we overlooking anything? Innovator’s DNA, p. 88 Also and

211 "Idea" now becomes "Question"
Example A QuestionStorming which is a brainstorming but you brainstorm to generate questions to ask, such as what questions we should ask to improve ABC Compnay's innovation initiative?  "Idea" now becomes "Question" Examples: Who should be in charge? What are the major barrier?  Which area has the most potential? 

212 Source: Innovation DNAs, p. 184

213 行動派 ================================================ 《老子》:上士聞道,勤而行之。
子曰:「先行其言,而後從之。」 子曰:「君子欲訥於言,而敏於行。」 子路有聞,未之能行,唯恐有聞。 季文子三思而後行。子聞之,曰:「再,斯可矣。」 ================================================ 子路問:「聞斯行諸?」子曰:「有父兄在,如之何其聞斯行之?」 冉有問:「聞斯行諸?」子曰:「聞斯行之。」 公西華曰:「由也問聞斯行諸,子曰『有父兄在』;求也問聞斯行諸,子曰『聞斯行之』。赤也惑,敢問。」 子曰:「求也退,故進之;由也兼人,故退之。」因材施教 《老子》:上士聞道,勤而行之。 Don’t Talk, Act. Don’t Say, Show. Don’t Promise, Prove.

214 《易》中的「行」之義 〈文言〉:「終日乾乾」,行事也;…「終日乾乾」,與時偕行。…君子以成德為行,日可見之行也。「潛」之為言也,隱而未見,行而未成,是以君子「弗用」也。 坤卦彖辭:牝馬地類,行地无疆,柔順利貞。君子攸行,先迷失道,後順得常。 〈繫辭傳〉以君子將有為也,將有行也,問焉而以言,其受命也如響,无有遠近幽深,遂知來物。非天下之至精,其孰能與於此。…是故,形而上者謂之道,形而下者謂之器。化而裁之謂之變,推而行之謂之通,舉而錯之天下之民,謂之事業。…而裁之,存乎變;推而行之,存乎通;神而明之,存乎其人。…因貳以濟民行,以明失得之報。 夫乾,天下之至健也,德行恆易以知險; 夫坤,天下之至順也,德行恆簡以知阻。

215 Associative Thinking: Connecting the Dots
Rent The Runway  NetFlix of High Fashion

216 Michael Su’s 心得 初六 童觀... 君子吝。 六二 窺觀,利女貞。 六三 觀我生進退。 六四 觀國之光,利用賓於王。
優點:赤子之心,繪事後素,推己及人。缺點:見識不深,直覺反射,容易相信假話,被人利用。 六二 窺觀,利女貞。 客觀,科學精神,傍觀。適合新聞記者,副手,助手,職員等。不改變主體運作的觀察法。 六三 觀我生進退。 主觀,主場,支持者。本體介入環境的影響,及本體出入環境的比較。我存在的意義,我進駐的影響,和我出離的影響。 六四 觀國之光,利用賓於王。 比較各種例子,譬如國宴上各國使臣的動作。除主體之外,各相對客體的行事或影響。 九五 觀我生,君子無咎。 確立主體。君子適從。建立結構,觀察其營運。 上九 觀其生,君子無咎。 九五確立主體結構或體制之後,看百姓的適從反應,看全體系統功能的生效或發揮成效。

217 結論 世事洞明皆學問,人情練達即文章。 處處留心皆學問,時時反己即修行。 內行看門道,觀察上國光; 觀察欲深入,巨細皆要緊。 上國有優缺,效法需折中, 分析天下事,逆順不失真。 觀外以省內,改過方能成, 切磋且琢磨,精益再求精。

218 止定生慧觀 易中自有寶,還待識路人。 拋去自家珍,枉費窮追尋。 識得自性路,止定生慧觀。 富有成大業,盛德在日新。 --寶可夢 (Pokemon Go) 流行有感

219 見仁見智、見山見水 仁者見之謂之仁,知者見之謂之知。 一陰一陽之謂道,繼之者善也,成之者性也。 百姓日用而不知,故君子之道鮮矣。
顯諸仁,藏諸用,鼓萬物而不與聖人同憂,盛德大業至矣哉。富有之謂大業,日新之謂盛德。生生之謂易,成象之謂乾,效法之為坤,極數知來之謂占,通變之謂事,陰陽不測之謂神。 -- 〈繫辭傳〉 青原惟信禪師曾對門人說: 老僧三十年前未曾參禪時,見山是山,見水是水。 後來參禪悟道,見山不是山,見水不是水。 而今個休歇處,依然見山是山,見水是水。 語出《指月錄》卷二十八。

220 前赤壁賦 蓋將自其變者而觀之,則天地曾不能以一瞬 自其不變者而觀之,則物與我皆無盡也。 - 蘇軾,〈前赤壁賦〉
蓋將自其變者而觀之,則天地曾不能以一瞬  (天地間剎剎生新無時不在變化); 自其不變者而觀之,則物與我皆無盡也。  (萬物與我們一樣都是無窮盡的)。 - 蘇軾,〈前赤壁賦〉

221 《易經》思維動動腦 孔子的觀人之法為何? 以相法看人相貌有多少可信度? 佛教觀心、道家觀復、儒家明明德三者有何異同?
觀事有那幾種境界?試用《呂氏春秋》「正反倒順」和《中庸》「執兩用中」的觀察法來分析當今政治、社會、或企業中的某一項重要議題。

222 參考資料 【易經今解】觀卦 | 易學網 http://www.eee-learning.com/book/neweee20
《高島斷易》20-觀http://blog.xuite.net/dejavu8899/blog/ 觀微知著的工程應用 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HMn3ynFbarE and and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4f09VdXex3A Pokemon GO and Interactive Dynamic Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9f1fCCb3hVg *The Spring book from Google Venture (http://www.gv.com/sprint)

223 Backup slides

224 不知變通其民棄之:通其變使民不倦 2002年, BBC舉行一個「最偉大的100名英國人」的調查,結果是英國戰時首相邱吉爾獲選為有史以來最偉大的英國人。 這位反對綏靖政策,領導英國堅決與德國納粹決戰到底並贏得勝利的「最偉大的英國人」,戰後卻立即被英國選民拋棄了,由於工黨提出福利國家的目標對戰後一貧如洗的英國社會有吸引力,導致保守黨慘敗。面對可能的敗選,邱吉爾以「酒店關門時我就走」(I leave when the pub closes.)表達心情 1945年7月邱吉爾卸下首相職務,他引用古希臘歷史學家普魯塔克的話說:「對政治領袖無情,是偉大民族的標誌。(Ingratitude towards their great men is the mark of strong peoples. )」這句話因邱吉爾引用而成為傳世名言。

225 《史記‧孫子吳起列傳》:「能行之者未必能言,能言之者未必能行。」
孔孟觀人術 《論語‧為政》子曰:「視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安,人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?」 孟子的觀人術是「聽其言也,觀其眸子,人焉廋哉!」《孟子‧離婁上》 《論語‧公冶長》宰予晝寢。子曰:「朽木不可雕也,糞土之牆不可杇也,於予與何誅﹖」子曰:「始吾於人也,聽其言而信其行;今吾於人也,聽其言而觀其行。於予與改是。」 《史記‧孫子吳起列傳》:「能行之者未必能言,能言之者未必能行。」

226 見人己之過 國朝張縉《示張在人書》曰:「凡人流品之高下,數言可決者,在見己之過,見人之過;誇己之善,服人之善而已。但見己之過,不見世人之過;但服人之善,不知己有一毫之善者,此上流也。見己之過,亦見世人之過;知己之善,亦知世人之善,因之取長去短,人我互相為用者,其次焉者也。見己之過,亦見世人之過;知己之善,亦知世人之善,因之以長角短,人我分疆者,又其次焉者也。世人但見人之過,不見己之過;但誇己之善,不服人之善者,此下流也。」 張文襄幕府紀聞 (民國)辜鴻銘

227 魏文侯問李克如何決定二位宰相人選時,他沒有直接回答,只提出了如下的觀人術:「
李克觀人術 魏文侯問李克如何決定二位宰相人選時,他沒有直接回答,只提出了如下的觀人術:「 居視其所親, 富視其所與, 達視其所舉, 窮視其所不為, 貧視其所不取。」 《史記‧魏世家》 文侯謂李克曰:「先生嘗有言曰:『家貧思良妻;國亂思良相。』今所置非成則璜,二子如何?」對曰:「卑不謀尊,疏不謀戚。臣在闕門之外,不敢當命。」文侯曰:「先生臨事勿讓!」克曰:「君弗察故也。居視其所親,富視其所與,達視其所舉,窮視其所不為,貧視其所不取,五者足以定之矣,何待克哉!」文侯曰:「先生就舍,吾之相定矣。」李克出,見翟璜。翟璜曰:「今者聞君召先生而卜相,果誰為之?」克曰:「魏成。」翟璜忿然作色曰:「西河守吳起,臣所進也。君內以鄴為憂,臣進西門豹。君欲伐中山,臣進樂羊。中山已拔,無使守之,臣進先生。君之子無傅,臣進屈侯鮒。以耳目之所睹記,臣何負於魏成!」李克曰:「子言克於子之君者,豈將比周以求大官哉?君問相於克,克之對如是。所以知君之必相魏成者,魏成食祿千鍾,什九在外,什一在內;是以東得卜子夏、田子方、段干木。此三人者,君皆師之;子所進五人者,君皆臣之。子惡得與魏成比也!」翟琪逡巡再拜曰:「璜,鄙人也,失對,願卒為弟子!」

228 觀國觀人 國家將興,必有禎祥; 國家將亡,必有妖孽。 … 故君子居易以俟命,小人行險以徼幸。」 國之將亡,賢人隱,亂臣貴。
--《中庸》 太史公曰:國之將興,必有禎祥,君子用而小人退。 國之將亡,賢人隱,亂臣貴。 --《史記‧楚元王世家》 孔子曰:「君子有不幸而無有幸, 小人有幸而無不幸。」 -- 《論衡》

229 遺傳-羽球 1. 屬性交集:DNA、基因 (羽毛和遺傳都是DNA的作用) 2. 類比:賽局、贏者全拿
(精子要競爭才有機會卵子結合,就像球賽一樣) 3. 反向詮釋:成功是99%來自努力、心機 (遺傳是靠運氣,贏球也是運氣,相反的就是用心經營而得來的成果) 4. 屬性轉移:變化球、混沌 (打球必須要保持不可預測性,不斷的突變,才不會被對手看破) 5. 主題關係: 球星、世家 (他遺傳到父親打球的天份) 6. 因果關係: 毽子、羽扇 (羽球的前身是什麼?) 7. 上下關係:逆風飛翔 、羽化登仙 (新世代的羽球要具有能抗拒風速的設計) -- 洪瑞雲教授

230 Learning and Assumptions Testing
Big Company Start-up

231 AEIOU Observation Framework
Dimension What to Watch For Activities What are people doing? Environment How are people using the environment? What’s the role of the environment? Interactions Do you see any routines? Do you observe special interactions between people? Between people & objects? Objects What’s there and being used or not used? Describe engagement with objects. Users Who are the users? What are their roles? Look for extreme users. Source: Doblin, Inc. By Rick Robinson and Stef Norvaisis

232 Empathy Map Customer (user) GAIN PAIN “wants”/needs,
what really counts major preoccupations, worries & aspirations Empathy Map environment friends what the markets offers what friends say what boss says what influencers say GAIN “wants”/needs, measures of success, obstacles PAIN fears, frustrations, obstacles attitude in public appearance behavior towards others

233 Supplemental Research Methods
Artifact analysis Context mapping Participant diaries, collages, or photo journals Shop along Digital Ethnography (…Webnography?)

234 矛盾路徑需要我們願意敞開心胸接受意外,願意嚴肅看待之,就算它們違背了我們所認知的事物運作方式;
連結的路徑則從我們接受經驗、準備思考不熟悉的可能性開始; 創造性絕境的路徑,需要人們抱持批判的態度檢視假設,看看有沒有哪個假設絆住我們。 約束對可預測性和完美的渴望。 產生洞見就是一種創造。洞見的魔法源於發現連結、巧合和好奇的力量;察覺矛盾的力量;為絕望所釋放的創造的力量。

235 「綜卦的理,是告訴我們:萬事要客觀,因為立場不同(相反),觀念就完全兩樣。」
錯綜複雜 「綜卦的理,是告訴我們:萬事要客觀,因為立場不同(相反),觀念就完全兩樣。」 「錯卦的理是:立場相同,目標一致,可是看問題的角度不同,所見也就不同了。」 Source: 南懷瑾,《易經雜說》,老古出版社,p.33

236 屯是萬事起頭的難, 蹇是事物進行過程中的難, 而困是事情到了末了窮困已極的難[1]。 面對困難 否:陰陽不通之難。 剝:重陰浸長之難。
明夷:賢人受傷之難。 无妄:無緣無故受到波及的災難。 [1] 《周易折中》上經、屯卦卦辭集說引蔡清之註, p. 171。

237 朱子註解「格物、致知」 「所謂致知在格物者,言欲致吾之知,在即物而窮其理也。蓋人心之靈莫不有知,而天下之物莫不有理,惟於理有未窮,故其知有不盡也。是以大學始教,必使學者即凡天下之物,莫不因其已知之理而益窮之,以求至乎其極。至於用力之久,而一旦豁然貫通焉,則眾物之表裡精粗無不到,而吾心之全體大用無不明矣。此謂物格,此謂知之至也。 」

238 易經是一種思考工具 現代易經學者郭建勳認為: 「易的卦形、卦爻辭本身並不能預決吉凶,但它特殊的結構與表達方式使它具有了模糊性、靈活性、空白性,形成極大的張力,從而給卜筮者提供了想象發揮與靈活解說的廣闊天地。」似乎言明了,易經是一種思考工具,而非一種預測工具。

239 《易》道情勢分析學:時、勢、位、事、情、易、德
Position High 表至裏 ∆形 Posture 勢 = ∆時 Full Solid middle中堅 Inside out  Outside in 裏至表 Initiate始  Grow 壯 Decay究 Empty Low Time 慎始始壯究終而復始始壯究誠終

240 李光地在《周易折中》屯卦經文後的案語 卦者時也,爻者位也,此聖經之明文,而歷代諸儒所據以為說者,不可易也。然沿襲之久,每局於見之拘,遂流為說之誤。何則?其所曰為時者,一時也;其所指為位者,一時之位也。如屯則定為多難之世,而凡卦之六位,皆處於斯世,而有事於屯者也。夫是以二為初所阻,五為初所逼,遂使一卦六爻,止為一時之用,而其說亦多駁雜而不概於理,此談經之敝也。蓋《易》卦之所謂時者,人人有之,如屯則士有士之屯,窮居未達者是也。君臣有君臣之屯,志未就、功未成者是也。甚而庶民商賈之賤,其不逢年而鈍於市者,皆屯也。聖人繫辭,可以包天下萬世之無窮,豈為一時一事設哉?苟達此義,則初自為初之屯,德可以有為而時未至也。二自為二之屯,道可以有合而時宜待也。五自為五之屯,澤未可以遠施,則為之宜以漸也。其餘三爻,義皆仿是。蓋同在屯卦,則皆有屯象。異其所處之位,則各有處屯之理。中間以承乘比應取義者,亦虛象爾。故二之乘剛但取多難之象,初不指初之為侯也。五之屯膏,但取未通之象,亦不因初之為侯也。今日二為初阻,五為初逼,則初乃卦之大梗,而《易》為衰世之書,豈聖人意哉?六十四卦之理,皆當以此例觀之,庶乎辭無窒礙而義可得矣。

241 Making Mistakes犯错Vs Perfection Tendency完美;完善倾向
Group A Make one best Grade the best Group B Make as many Grade the best

242 Participate and Understand Business参与营运
Review customer complaints投诉 Organize focus group interviews客户研究小组 Site walk with customers实地巡查 Follow and spy跟纵 Touch line and touch point感触线/点 Conduct customer satisfaction surveys满意调查

243 A Credible Organization Diagnosis: NLP (SSSTT@CSP VS SHR@SP)
Touch Line / Touch Point: Entrance—Reception Desk—Door contact—Garden—Lift lobby—Home SEE看到 HEAR听到 FEEL感觉到 Physical Setup 环境 Personal clothing and belongings being hanged in eye-catching areas衣服 Water seepages had been carrying out for months without progress External walls are dirty (Near the children playground) Unnecessary items on desk – messy 2 high trees in front of security kiosk which makes the kiosk invisible Dirty floor of Fitness Centre w/ many stains and scars, looks old and untidy. Others ….. Lack of relaxed music Noise from air-conditioners Water dripping noise Door closed & opened Lobby seems so cool, lack of warmth黑暗 Too dark in the Lobby & guest contact areas People Skill 员工技巧 Staff were not smiling, looking tired and unfriendly冷 Do not want to open door after return from shopping Lack of initiatives to help customers Poor appearance with untidy uniform Sleep at work Others …. No greeting沒招呼 Voice was weak & monotonous no positive body gestures when meeting guests Yawning in public and before the guests Staff were cool, customers did not feel a sense of hospitality or welcome back Not take initiative to do extra miles for guests after shopping, or follow up customers’ enquiry

244 變革 變動不居,周流六虛,上下無常, 剛柔相易,不可以為典要,唯變所適。 繫辭傳 念念遷謝。新新不住。…變化密移。我誠不覺。
寒暑遷流。漸至於此。 《楞嚴經》波斯匿王 之語 煢煢白兔, 東走西顧;衣不如新, 人不如故。-漢古艷歌 (註: 煢音窮 ). There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Those who by valorous ways become princes, like these men, acquire a principality with difficulty, but they keep it with ease. The difficulties they have in acquiring it arise in part from the new rules and methods which they are forced to introduce to establish their government and its security. And it ought to be remembered that there is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Because the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions, and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under the new. This coolness arises partly from fear of the opponents, who have the laws on their side, and partly from the incredulity of men, who do not readily believe in new things until they have had a long experience of them. Thus it happens that whenever those who are hostile have the opportunity to attack they do it like partisans, whilst the others defend lukewarmly, in such wise that the prince is endangered along with them. A prince never lacks legitimate reasons to break his promise. Niccolo Machiavelli A return to first principles in a republic is sometimes caused by the simple virtues of one man. His good example has such an influence that the good men strive to imitate him, and the wicked are ashamed to lead a life so contrary to his example. Niccolo Machiavelli A son can bear with equanimity the loss of his father, but the loss of his inheritance may drive him to despair. Niccolo Machiavelli A wise ruler ought never to keep faith when by doing so it would be against his interests. Niccolo Machiavelli Before all else, be armed. Niccolo Machiavelli Benefits should be conferred gradually; and in that way they will taste better. Niccolo Machiavelli Entrepreneurs are simply those who understand that there is little difference between obstacle and opportunity and are able to turn both to their advantage. Niccolo Machiavelli For among other evils caused by being disarmed, it renders you contemptible; which is one of those disgraceful things which a prince must guard against. Niccolo Machiavelli God is not willing to do everything, and thus take away our free will and that share of glory which belongs to us. Niccolo Machiavelli Hatred is gained as much by good works as by evil. Niccolo Machiavelli He who wishes to be obeyed must know how to command. Niccolo Machiavelli Hence it comes about that all armed Prophets have been victorious, and all unarmed Prophets have been destroyed. Niccolo Machiavelli I'm not interested in preserving the status quo; I want to overthrow it. Niccolo Machiavelli If an injury has to be done to a man it should be so severe that his vengeance need not be feared. Niccolo Machiavelli It is better to be feared than loved, if you cannot be both. Niccolo Machiavelli It is double pleasure to deceive the deceiver. Niccolo Machiavelli It is much more secure to be feared than to be loved. Niccolo Machiavelli It is necessary for him who lays out a state and arranges laws for it to presuppose that all men are evil and that they are always going to act according to the wickedness of their spirits whenever they have free scope. Niccolo Machiavelli It is not titles that honor men, but men that honor titles. Niccolo Machiavelli Men are so simple and so much inclined to obey immediate needs that a deceiver will never lack victims for his deceptions. Niccolo Machiavelli Men are so simple and yield so readily to the desires of the moment that he who will trick will always find another who will suffer to be tricked. Niccolo Machiavelli Men ought either to be indulged or utterly destroyed, for if you merely offend them they take vengeance, but if you injure them greatly they are unable to retaliate, so that the injury done to a man ought to be such that vengeance cannot be feared. Niccolo Machiavelli Men rise from one ambition to another: first, they seek to secure themselves against attack, and then they attack others. Niccolo Machiavelli Men should be either treated generously or destroyed, because they take revenge for slight injuries - for heavy ones they cannot. Niccolo Machiavelli Men shrink less from offending one who inspires love than one who inspires fear. Niccolo Machiavelli Nature that framed us of four elements, warring within our breasts for regiment, doth teach us all to have aspiring minds. Niccolo Machiavelli Never was anything great achieved without danger. Niccolo Machiavelli No enterprise is more likely to succeed than one concealed from the enemy until it is ripe for execution. Niccolo Machiavelli Of mankind we may say in general they are fickle, hypocritical, and greedy of gain. Niccolo Machiavelli One change always leaves the way open for the establishment of others. Niccolo Machiavelli One who deceives will always find those who allow themselves to be deceived. Niccolo Machiavelli Politics have no relation to morals. Niccolo Machiavelli Princes and governments are far more dangerous than other elements within society. Niccolo Machiavelli Severities should be dealt out all at once, so that their suddenness may give less offense; benefits ought to be handed ought drop by drop, so that they may be relished the more. Niccolo Machiavelli Since it is difficult to join them together, it is safer to be feared than to be loved when one of the two must be lacking. Niccolo Machiavelli Tardiness often robs us opportunity, and the dispatch of our forces. Niccolo Machiavelli The distinction between children and adults, while probably useful for some purposes, is at bottom a specious one, I feel. There are only individual egos, crazy for love. Niccolo Machiavelli The fact is that a man who wants to act virtuously in every way necessarily comes to grief among so many who are not virtuous. Niccolo Machiavelli The first method for estimating the intelligence of a ruler is to look at the men he has around him. Niccolo Machiavelli The main foundations of every state, new states as well as ancient or composite ones, are good laws and good arms you cannot have good laws without good arms, and where there are good arms, good laws inevitably follow. Niccolo Machiavelli The more sand has escaped from the hourglass of our life, the clearer we should see through it. Niccolo Machiavelli The new ruler must determine all the injuries that he will need to inflict. He must inflict them once and for all. Niccolo Machiavelli The one who adapts his policy to the times prospers, and likewise that the one whose policy clashes with the demands of the times does not. Niccolo Machiavelli The promise given was a necessity of the past: the word broken is a necessity of the present. Niccolo Machiavelli The question is, then, do we try to make things easy on ourselves or do we try to make things easy on our customers, whoever they may be? Niccolo Machiavelli The wise man does at once what the fool does finally. Niccolo Machiavelli The wish to acquire more is admittedly a very natural and common thing; and when men succeed in this they are always praised rather than condemned. But when they lack the ability to do so and yet want to acquire more at all