1 觀卦 活化經典，豐富人生 《易經》觀卦與設計思維 Observation 仰觀俯察，修己觀人 發明創造 Minder Chen， Ph‧D‧Professor of Management Information SystemsMartin V‧ Smith School of Business and EconomicsCalifornia State University Channel IslandsCamarillo， CA 93012
14 Systems Thinking Tools “What do we mean when we say ‘systems thinking?'” We can use the phrase to refer to a set of tools – such as causal loop diagrams, stock and flow diagrams and simulation models – that help us map and explore dynamic complexity. We can also use it to mean a unique perspective on reality – a perspective that sharpens our awareness of whole and of how the parts within those wholes interrelate. Finally, systems thinking can refer to a special vocabulary with which we express our understanding of dynamic complexity. For example, systems thinkers often describe the world in terms of reinforcing and balancing processes, limits, delays, patterns of behavior over time, and so forth.”– Barry Richmond, isee systems, inc.
15 透視問題、事件之表面 事件之一端有如 冰山之一角 歷時觀察其行為 找出可尋之軌跡 探賾索隱 了解系統結構以 鉤深致遠 掌握其樞機之處 stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, and time delay delays.探賾索隱鉤深致遠了解系統結構以掌握其樞機之處感觀影響信念，信念影響行為
24 Richard Wilhelm/Baynes Translation THE JUDGMENTCONTEMPLATION. The ablution has been made, But not yet the offering. Full of trust they look up to him THE IMAGE The wind blows over the earth: The image of CONTEMPLATION. Thus the kings of old visited the regions of the world, Contemplated the people, And gave them instruction.卦辭：觀：盥而不薦，有孚顒若。【大象】風行地上，觀。先王以省方，觀民設敎。
36 童觀 「大人者，不失其赤子之心。」 -《孟子》 「不忘初心，方得始終。」 -《華嚴經》 「不忘初心，方得始終。」 《華嚴經》Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind by Suzuki-roshi’s statement, “In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities, in the expert’s mind there are few.”
37 六二，窺觀，利女貞。 【爻辭】六二，窺觀，利女貞。 【小象】「窺觀，女貞」，亦可醜也。 * 六二是偷偷地觀察，如果是女子保持其「貞」正的矜持，不便大大方方地去考察自己喜歡的對象，則還說得過去，故六二爻辭曰：「窺觀，利女貞。」。然而正人君子若不依正道去考察，而偷偷摸摸地去偷看、偷學東西，這就是見不得人的醜事。故小象曰：「窺觀女貞，亦可醜也。」坐井窺天，則曰天小；以管窺豹，只見一斑；見樹，不見林(Fail to see the forest for the trees)乃窺觀之失也。韓愈，〈原道〉：「坐井而觀天，曰天小者，非天小也。」*
74 有市場?沒市場? Market Assessment 非洲賣鞋:No market vs. Great Market台商燦坤 vs. 永樂電器Pros: 商品低價促銷策略、商品包退概念、退貨服務方式Cons: 動線凌亂、走道擁擠、品牌區隔不清統一 vs. 鼎新-康師傅方便麵 (link)1995年，馬雲在訪美時首次接觸到網際網路Search beer and no Chinese beer; search China, and there was no China.於1995年4月創辦網站「中國黃頁」4m-5m; 7:50m-Official Documentary about Jack Ma 马云《Dream Maker》 Alibaba Group “追梦者阿里巴巴”案例：“康师傅”方便面火爆京城康师傅方便面在中国大陆早已是家喻户晓，其市场占有率已近半壁江山。近些年，康师傅又发展了茶饮料、果汁、休闲食品等产品线，开始了相关多元化经营。 1988年大陆向台湾开放。一直想把父亲留下的“鼎新油坊”做大做强的魏氏四兄弟，推荐老小魏应行到大陆考察市场。他走了大半个中国。一天，在北京至深圳的火车上，肚子饿得咕咕叫，他便拿出一包方便面充饥。这时周围的几个乘客问：这方便面在哪儿买的?并用一种好奇的眼光打量着他手中的方便面。方便面有市场，为何不做方便面他脑子里灵光一闪。回到台湾后，这个发现很快就变成了现实，四兄弟开始改行做起了方便面。当时，台湾方便面市场是统一集团的天下，而鼎新企业小而无名，生产出来的方便面无人问津。怎么办于是他们决定到大陆去闯一闯。 1990年，通过市场调查，他们发现，大陆约有上百家方便面生产厂，其中仅北京就有十几家，但生产的都是低档方便面。价格在．5元／包左右，口味单一，质量不高，包装差劲。这些方便面销售情况大都不太好。而在机场等处卖的进口方便面，价格在3元～元／袋，超出了人们当时的支付能力。经过细致的市场分析，他们发现价格在1元N2元／袋的中档方便面是一个空档，于是决定占领这个细分市场。 1991年天津经济技术开发区招商。魏氏兄弟来到天津，注册了顶益食品公司，投资800万美元，开始生产方便面。生产什么样的方便面呢他们决定按照北方人的偏好，开发口味丰富、经济实惠、包装精美的方便面。开发小组带着开发出来的方便面样品进行市场调查。他们到京津地区的工厂、学校、机关请人品尝，同时请他们填写调查问卷，然后用计算机处理大量调查数据，并根据分析得到的信息，对佐料进行调配。最终，开发出来的方便面，开水一冲，香喷喷，好吃又好看，真正符合北方人要求汤浓、味重、稍辣的口味。而方便面的两包调料竟含有100多种佐料。产品有了，该给它起个什么名字呢用顶新不行!在台湾就没名气。顶益也不能用，在大陆都败过两次了。应该用一个通俗易记，非常贴近老百姓的名字。用康师傅理由是：在大陆北方人喜欢把比自己水平高的人叫师傅；在南方的企业里，一般称年长者为师傅。师傅既通俗又专业，还受人尊敬。师傅该姓什么呢让他姓健康的康吧因为顶益的方
76 橫看成嶺側成峰， 遠近高低各不同。 不識廬山真面目， 只緣身在此山中。 心態決定一切 角度(典範的轉移)影響你的視野 Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way.橫看成嶺側成峰， 遠近高低各不同。不識廬山真面目， 只緣身在此山中。Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way.不同的角度看見不同的事物 很多事情均有它的多角度 多尊重身旁的人的想法與聲音 不是只看您的思考模式! 因為無論是誰，都沒有永遠與絕對! 一隻青蛙和一匹馬... 請您仔細看,其實二幅是同一張圖, 只因為一幅是橫放的,一幅是豎擺的！By Amy GreenSoda角度決定視野，視野決定格局，格局決定策略，策略決定結局。心態決定一切
82 體用不二 熊十力先生常以大海水和海漚來比喻體和用。例如熊氏在其所著《乾坤衍》一書中，他有如下二則議論: 「孔子作易，廢除天帝，於流行而洞澈其元，於萬有而認識其體。譬之於翻騰活躍的眾漚，而明了其本身即是大海水也。是故即萬有即實體，即流行即真元。一言以蔽之，曰體用不二。」 p. 167.「大易決定體用不二，是其根本原理。不可搖奪。實體非固定性，元是變動不居。即從其變動不居，名之為功用。現象者，功用之別一稱(別一稱，猶云別名)。不是由實體變動了,又別造出一種世界，名為現象也。故說現象是功用之別一稱。(譬如大海水是騰躍不已的，即從其騰躍，說為眾漚。而眾漚的本身，原是大海水，豈是離於大海水而別為一世界乎?)」 pp. 251.Source: 熊十力《乾坤衍》, 學生書局, 1976.
83 威廉．布萊克（William Blake, 1757-1827） To see a world in a grain of sand 一沙見世界 And a heaven in a wild flower, 一花現天堂 Hold infinity in the palm of your hand 掌中握無限 And eternity in an hour. 刹時存恆常是海浪?還是海洋? – 陳明德"You're not a wave, you're water (the ocean)."今是海浪，昔為海洋，浪盡歸海，即用悟體;化為海水，乘波再來，海動浪起，本體生用;汝是海波，亦是海洋，波既歡喜，洋亦無憂;沙見世界，波顯汪洋，緣事明理，煩惱菩提。理事無礙
89 DIKW (Information) Hierarchy WisdomKnow whyIntegrating: Connect the dotsKnowledgeKnow howLearning: Derive rules/policies through experiences & patternsInformationKnow whatAnalyzing: To support decision making1934 Eliot wrote in "The Rock":Where is the Life we have lost in living?Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?The Origin of theData Information Knowledge Wisdom HierarchyByNikhil Sharma[Updated: 11/01/2004]Source: "Information as a Resource", Harlan ClevelandThe HierarchyThe Data Information Knowledge and Wisdom Hierarchy (DIKW) is commonly referred to by many names. In most of the "Knowledge Management" literature the hierarchy is referred to as the "Knowledge Hierarchy", while the information science domain refers to the same hierarchy as "Information Hierarchy" for obvious reasons. Sometimes it is also referred to as the "Knowledge Pyramid".There is a lot of literature on the hierarchy, but this page is devoted to the origin of that hierarchy. To read more about the hierarchy please refer to some of the References.The DomainsWhile the domains of Information Science and Knowledge Management (KM) both refer to DIKW, they usually do not cross-reference. Thus there are two separate threads that lead to the origin of the hierarchy.In the domain of KM, Prof. Russell Ackoff is often cited as the initiator of the DIKW hierarchy. His 1988 Presidential Address to ISGSR is widely considered to be the earliest to mention the hierarchy in the KM literature. This address was printed in a 1989 article "From Data to Wisdom" . It does not cite any earlier sources of the hierarchy.However in response to this webpage I was made aware of an article by Milan Zeleny  which details out the DIKW hierarchy in Zeleny builds the DIKW hierarchy by equating Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom to “know-nothing”, “know-what”, “know-how” and “know-why” respectively. Zeleny’s 1987 mention of the hierarchy is earlier than Ackoff’s 1989 address, and he does not cite any earlier sources of the hierarchy. It can thus be argued that Zeleny was the first to mention the hierarchy in the field of KM.But the “Information Science” domain mentions the hierarchy as early as 1982, when Harlan Cleveland  wrote about it in a Futurist article. The article mentions the Information-Knowledge-Wisdom hierarchy in detail giving an example (see figure above). This article itself is not the origin of the hierarchy, but points to the origin.The OriginInterestingly the first ever mention of the hierarchy came from neither the KM field, nor the Information Science domain, but in poetry. In his Futurist article, Cleveland cites T.S. Eliot as the person who suggested the hierarchy in the first place- calling it "the T.S. Eliot hierarchy". The poet T.S. Eliot was the first to mention the "information hierarchy" without even calling it by that name. In 1934 Eliot wrote in "The Rock":This is the first vague mention of the hierarchy that was expanded by Cleveland, and later by others to add a layer of "Data".Beyond DIKW- Building on the HierarchyIn his futurist article , Harlan Cleveland concedes that information scientists are “still struggling with the definitions of basic terms”. He uses Elliot’s hierarchy as a starting point to explain the basic terms. He also agrees that there are many ways in which the elements of the hierarchy may be defined, but there is no need for universal agreement on them.While Cleveland himself doesn’t add ‘Data’ to Eliot’s hierarchy he mentions Yi-Fu Tuan’s and Daniel Bell’s version of the hierarchy in the article which includes data. Regarding ‘data’, Tuan says that data to become useful “they have to be linked to another rung or category of data” .In the information field others like Lucky  have detailed out their own versions of the hierarchy.Russell Ackoff’s version of the hierarchy has another category of “Understanding” built in. Thus Ackoff’s hierarchy is Data-Information-Knowledge-Understanding & Wisdom. According to him, understanding “requires diagnosis and prescription”. The DIKW hierarchy can also have many dimensions. One dimension of Ackoff’s hierarchy is temporal. He says that while information “ages rapidly”, knowledge “has a longer life-span” and only understanding “has an aura of permanence”. It is wisdom that he considers to be “permanent”.Zeleny himself proposes to add “enlightenment” on top of the familiar DIKW framework . Enlightenment, according to Zeleny (personal communication, October 29, 2004) “is not only answering or understanding why (wisdom), but attaining the sense of truth, the sense of right and wrong, and having it socially accepted, respected and sanctioned.”References1. Ackoff, R.L. "From Data to Wisdom", Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, Volume 16, 1989 p 3-9.2. Cleveland H. "Information as Resource", The Futurist, December 1982 p3. Eliot, T.S. "The Rock", Faber & Faber 1934.4. Cleveland Harland, “The Knowledge Executive: Leadership in an Information Society” (New York: Truman Talley Books, 1985) 21-23;5. Robert W. Lucky, Silicon Dreams: Information, Man and Machine (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989)6. Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony Mills: Data, Information, Knowledge, & Wisdom,7. Zeleny, M. "Management Support Systems: Towards Integrated Knowledge Management," Human Systems Management, 7(1987)1, ppContact me for comments & suggestionsNikhil Sharma, Doctoral Student, School Of Information, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Know nothingDataObserving: Description of eventsHappening/DoingEvent
98 預測未來、創造未來 The best way to predict the future is to invent it. “Don’t worry about what anybody else is going to do… The best way to predict the future is to invent it. Really smart people with reasonable funding can do just about anything that doesn’t violate too many of Newton’s Laws!” — Alan Kay in (link)Prediction Logic vs. Creation Logic＊What entrepreneurial firms follow the Creation Logic (action followed by analysis), when dealing with “unknown Unknowns”“They know that the Future is somewhat different from the Past. They know that they don’t have historical data to predict the past.”Observe what is going on and wonder how to occupy the space and test where there could be opportunities.The only way I am going to learn [about the unknowns] is by taking action”. Therefore “You think big, set-out in a direction but you start small and you start several projects”“See which of these are providing you some data or a proof of concept about what you think the Future may hold for you”Design your prototype and…fail fast, smart and cheap and learn quickly about the variables and unknowns of this environment. And don’t throw in more resources until you find your proof of concept”
108 來百工，利其器，天工人代，財用足 《論語》子曰：「工欲善其事，必先利其器。」 《尚書‧皋陶謨》「百僚師師，百工惟時。撫于五辰，庶績其凝。無教逸欲。有邦兢兢業業，一日二日萬幾。無曠庶官，天工人其代之。」《中庸》「凡為天下國家有九經，曰：修身也，尊賢也，親親也，敬大臣也，體群臣也，子庶民也，來百工也，柔遠人也，懷諸侯也。… 來百工則財用足 …」《考工記》最早收錄入《周禮》作為〈冬官〉篇，原不屬《周禮》。在漢代《周禮》原來的《冬官》篇遺失不存，把《考工記》補入作為《冬官》篇。東漢經學家鄭玄註解《周禮》，最早註解《考工記》。明代宋應星的《天工開物》李約瑟博士《中國科學技術史》「Science and Civilization In China」。
112 Observation: Learning From Nature 尼龍搭扣，也稱「魔術粘」、「魔鬼沾」、「魔鬼氈」、「魔術貼」、「黏扣帶」，是一種纖維緊固物，發明公司為「維可牢」（Velcro）Burs of Burdock 牛蒡毛刺Velcro is a company that produces the first commercially marketed fabric hook-and-loop fastener, invented in 1948 by the Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral.平時就有這些準備的心（prepared mind），一碰到機會就有聯想的能力，把「無」化為「有」，有「創造」的能力。他還能從自然界的生態，推廣「鉤」和「圈」的連接理論假設，用實驗去證明而對應了實際生活的「需要」。( )
114 痛人之所痛：Frictions & Pains:3M Masking Tapes Drew wanted to test a new batch of sandpaper, so he visited an auto body shop in St. Paul,Minn. When he entered the shop, he heard a group of workers cursing vehemently. He asked about the problem. Two-tone cars were popular then, but the effect required workers to mask certain parts of the auto body using a combination of heavy adhesive tape and butcher paper. After the paint dried, workers removed the tape – and often peeled away part of the new paint. Their labor was undone, and costs mounted for the customer.3M gives employees 15% of their time to work on their personal projects.
115 將錯就錯，因需要而發明 3M Post-it “I keep losing my place in my music!” One Sunday in 1974, Art Fry, a new-products developer at 3M, was singing in his church choir. “I found that the little piece of paper I used to mark the music had fallen out, making me fumble about trying to find the right page. “This was followed by a dull sermon. My mind was wandering back to the music problem when I had one of those ‘flashes of insight.’ Eureka! By using a recently invented adhesive, I could make a bookmark that could be stuck on, and removed, without damaging the book.”What Was This New Adhesive? In 1970 Spencer Silver, a chemist at 3M, was trying to develop a strong glue. But his new adhesive was super-weak instead of super-strong. It stuck to objects but could be easily peeled off. No one knew what to do with it, but Silver didn’t discard his new glue. What happened after Fry realized this new adhesive could make a great bookmark? “The next day at work, I prepared some samples of the bookmark. My colleagues started using their bookmark samples as notes and soon were at my desk saying that they were instant addicts and demanding more samples. As the circle of addiction quickly spread within our product development laboratory, I came to the very exciting and satisfying realization that those little, self-attaching notes were a very useful product.“We realized that what we had was not just a bookmark, but a new way to communicate or organize information. ” The Post-it® Note was born. “This of course was just the beginning of the innovation process. Samples had to be tested for every [possible] application we could think of. We had many tough problems to solve in manufacturing, quality, packaging, and sales. It took a lot of us to solve those problems, and we all feel good about what we did.” “My satisfaction has always been in making things that people really need, but cannot make for themselves. When those things [are still] used after I am gone, it will be as if part of me will live on forever.”IDEO
126 新石器革命The Neolithic Revolution or the Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, allowing the ability to handle an increasingly larger population.新石器革命發生在七千至一萬年前。它是人類的第一次農業革命，指人類的生產方式從狩獵採集到農耕的巨大轉變。新石器革命代表著人類和自然界的關係從被動適應環境轉變為利用和改造環境。此革命對人類社會的發展具有極其重要的意義。新石器時代革命意義遠遠不止於對農學（農耕技術）的影響，它更促進了人類的定居現象和其它社會現象的發生，這從根本上改變了人類對於自然的依賴，更提高了食物來源的穩定性與量化生產的可能。這些變化促進了人口聚集化，建造了複雜且完整的社會分工體系，經濟貿易體系，政治系統以及增加了知識與經驗的積累（例如私人產業制度和文字）。
127 三創：Creativity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship 三創方法學創業Entrepreneurship創意Creativity創新InnovationProduct/service/processBusiness modelSocial InnovationIT-enabledIndividualGroupOrganization創意的空間創新的文化創業的精神ExecutionTeamGrowthHackingMinimum Viable ProductPrototypingIdeaProductCustomer Development & Lean StartupBusiness Model CanvasCreative Problem SolvingDesign Thinking
128 如何贏得創新 Not Seeing the Opportunities Cannot see at its nascent stageDon’t take it seriously once seenDon’t understand when it has become successfulWait until it is too late第一 第二 第三 第四看不見 看不起 看不懂 來不及馬雲：很多人一生輸就輸在對新生事物[的看法和反應]上 (link)很多人一生輸就輸在對新生事物上 第一看不見； 第二看不起； 第三看不懂； 第四來不及！［一篇值得您關心的話題］ 【老祝觀察】未來五年各行業將全面洗牌，你，會在哪裡？ SEC中研國際祝老師國內一位很著名的成功學大師說過：“趨勢就像一匹馬，如果在馬後面追，你永遠都追不上，你只有騎在馬上面，才能和馬一樣的快，這就叫馬上成功！” 一、移動互聯網的發展： 未來我們的生活會是什麼樣子呢？我們設想一下，晚上帶著家人去吃飯，拿出手機點擊附件餐廳，看完餐廳介紹，對比之後，挑一家評價好的、好吃又實惠的餐廳，在手機上領取一張會員卡，定好座位，等時間到了，點擊導航，直接去吃飯，不用排隊。 吃飯的時候，哪個好吃的就拍個照，放到微博或朋友圈，曬一曬，與朋友共用，因為以後朋友來這裡吃飯的時候，憑著你的分享，朋友可以優惠，商家還要給你返利，既能吃到好東西，分享又能賺錢，真的很愜意。 吃完飯，去商場購物，看到哪個產品喜歡的，拿起來掃一下二維碼，用手機比比價，放入網路購物車，逛完商場，在手機上點擊送貨時間和送貨地址，直接付款，不用拎東西，也不用排隊，然後去看電影，因為電影票在吃飯的時候已經用手機買好了。 這就是我們未來的生活，你覺得能實現嗎？我想很快！ 二、巨人的倒下： 世界上曾經有一家世界500強的企業，名叫“柯達”KODAK，在1991年的時候，他的技術領先世界同行10年，但是2012年1月破產了，被做數碼的幹掉了。 當“索尼”SONY還沉浸在數碼領先的喜悅中時，突然發現，原來全世界賣照相機賣的最好的不是他，而是做手機的“諾基亞”，因為每部手機都是一部照相機，近幾年“索尼”相機部門業績大幅虧損，於今年倒閉。 然後呢？ 然後原來做電腦的“蘋果”出來了，把手機世界老大的“諾基亞”給幹掉了，而且沒有還手之力，2013年9月，“諾基亞”被微軟收購了。 發展倒逼轉型升級，整合、創新引領時代發展： 一、360的出臺，直接把殺毒變成免費的，淘汰了金山毒霸； 二、淘寶電子商務2012年一萬億的銷量，逼得“蘇甯、國美”(類似燦坤、全國電子)這些傳統零售巨頭不得不轉型，逼得“李寧服裝”(大陸最著名的運動服飾品牌之一)關掉了全國1800多家專賣店，連天上發了衛星的“沃爾瑪”都難以招架，如果馬雲“菜鳥”行動成功的話，24小時內全國到貨的夢想實現，那麼這些零售巨頭的命運又將會是如何？ 三、馬雲“餘額寶”的出臺，18天狂收57個億資金存款，開始強奪銀行的飯碗。 三馬（馬雲、馬化騰、馬明哲）的網上保險公司的啟動，預計未來五年將會有200萬保險人員失業，其他保險公司將何去何從？ 騰訊微信的出臺，6個億的用戶還在增加，直接打劫了中國移動、電信和聯通的飯碗。 所以，如果有一天你隔壁開火鍋店的張三，賣手機賣得比你好的時候，你不用覺得驚訝，因為，這是一個跨界的時代，每一個行業都在整合，都在交叉，都在相互滲透，如果原來你一直獲利的產品或行業，在另外一個人手裡，突然變成一種免費的增值服務，你又如何競爭？如何生存？未來五年各行業將全面洗牌 所以，未來的競爭，不再是產品的競爭、不再是管道的競爭，而是資源整合的競爭，是終端消費者的競爭，誰能夠持有資源，持有消費者用戶，不管他消費什麼產品、消費什麼服務，你都能夠盈利的時候，你才能夠保證你的利益，才能立於不敗之地。 引領時代的都是“騙子”： 30年前說下海能賺錢的人，被認為是騙子。 20年前說炒股能賺錢的人，被認為是騙子。 15年前說保險能幫到大家的，被認為是騙子。 10年前馬雲說互聯網能改變人們的生活，也被認為是騙子。 那些說別人是騙子的人，生活一成不変，生活品質一天比一天差！而那些當年所謂的“騙子”卻成了時代的標誌！ “每一次新的機遇的到來，都會造就一批富翁！” 當別人不明白的時候，他明白他在做什麼；當別人不理解的時候，他理解他在做什麼；當別人明白了，他富有了；當別人理解了，他成功了。任何一次機遇的到來，都必將經歷四個階段:“看不見“、“看不起“、“看不懂”、“來不及”。 任何一次財富的締造必將經歷一個過程: “先知先覺經營者；後知後覺跟隨者 ；不知不覺消費者 ! 反省一下，你有錯過嗎？人生比努力更重要的是選擇！與時俱進是財富的源泉哦! 發生在身邊的變化： 第一、當摩托羅拉還沉醉在V8088的時候， 不知道諾基亞已迎頭趕上。 第二、當諾基亞還注重低端機市場時，約伯斯的蘋果已經潛入。 第三、當蘋果成為街機的時候，三星已經傲視天下。 第四、當中國移動沾沾自喜為中國最大的通訊商時，渾然不覺微信客戶已突破4個億。 第五、當中國銀行業賺的盆滿缽滿高歌猛進時，阿里巴巴已經推出網路虛擬信用卡。 第六、當很多人還在想租個門面房開個小生意時，光棍節一天中國互聯網上創造天價成交額。 不要說停止學習，就是慢一點都有可能被淘汰出局。 未來十年拼什麼？ 答： 整 ～借 ～學 ～變 一：整；資源整合! 你能整合多少資源，多少管道，你將來就會得到多少財富！ 二：借；造船過河不如借船過河。 趨勢，無法阻擋；抉擇，要有智慧！ 三：學；今天的企業家，贏在學習， 勝在改變！ 柯達、諾基亞、李寧、索尼都輸在了不學習、不改變。古人雲:富不學富不長，窮不學窮不盡！ 四：變；要想改變口袋，先要改變腦袋！ 這個社會一直在淘汰有學歷的人，但是不會淘汰有學習力願意改變的人! 讀萬卷書不如行萬里路，行萬里路不如閱人無數，閱人無數不如名師指路，名師指路不如重疊成功人的腳步！ 面對挑戰我該怎麼辦？ 馬雲說：不要等到明天，明天太遙遠，今天就行動. 第一、改變一種行為不要拖到明天，否則它會變成你的習慣。 第二、拒絕一份誘惑不要拖到明天，否則它會造成你的傷害。 第三、抓住一次機會不要拖到明天，否則失去了就不會再來。 第四、不要讓今天的行動拖到明天，否則它無法帶來精彩。 第五、不要把今天的幸福拖到明天，否則它將一去不復返。 第六、不要把機會拖到明天，因機會是唯一的你還要等到明天 牛根生最後送上一句： 品牌的98%是文化，矛盾的98%來自誤會，資源的98%是靠整合。I'm little...But I'm a Great Winner. 松鼠遇到突轚而來老鷹...*I have no idea how this was filmed, but it's sure great to watch 先見之明人棄我取摸透產業先人一著
129 設計為核心之文化聚焦使用者之體驗，尤其是其情緒上之體驗。建立模式以檢驗了解複雜的問題使用芻型(prototype)來探索可能的解決方案。鼓勵嘗試，容忍失敗在各種限制條件下發揮最大創意設計思維乃大道至簡和人文化成之基本工具和方法(Design thinking is an essential tool for simplifying and humanizing.)接受如下的挑戰接受極其模糊的情境擁抱風險和危機設定合理的期望
130 IDEO Shopping Cart Case Study One doesn’t manage creativity [but nurtures]One manages for creativity (i.e., creative process)Tap ideas from all ranks (using multidisciplinary teams)Lone inventor myth Encourage and enable collaborationEnlightened trial and error (of a creative team) succeeds over the planning of lone genius.**Source: (1of 3)
131 腦力激盪術 IDEO Brainstorming Rules & Tips 拒絕批評 Defer judgment越奇怪越好 Encourage wild ideas量越多越好 Go for quantity歡迎搭便車 Build on the ideas of othersOne conversation at a timeStay focused on the topicBe visualNumber and record each idea – let’s try to get a hundred ideas, motivates participantsWrite the flow of ideas in a way that is visible to the groupMake sketches, mind-maps, diagrams, . . .*ABC Nightline - IDEO Shopping Cart (video) (extended edition); see Catherine Fredman, IDEO Difference (link); Design Thinking by David Kelly on 60 Minutes (video)
132 Design Thinking Process and Methods 闔戶謂之坤；闢戶謂之乾；一闔一闢謂之變；往來不窮謂之通；見乃謂之象；形乃謂之器；制而用之，謂之法；利用出入，民咸用之，謂之神。
133 Left Brain vs. Right Brain ImaginationKnowledgeIntuitionRational thoughtAnalogical thinkingLogical thinkingSolving problem creativelySolving problem correctivelyImagination is more important than knowledge- Albert Einstein
134 Left Brain vs. Right Brain Left brain functions uses logic detail oriented facts rule words and language present and past math and science can comprehend knowing acknowledges order/pattern perception knows object name reality based forms strategies practical safeRight brain functions uses feeling "big picture" oriented imagination rules symbols and images present and future philosophy & religion can "get it" (i.e. meaning) believes appreciates spatial perception knows object function fantasy based presents possibilities impetuous risk takingLEFT BRAIN FUNCTIONS uses logic detail oriented facts rule words and language present and past math and science can comprehend knowing acknowledges order/pattern perception knows object name reality based forms strategies practical safe RIGHT BRAIN FUNCTIONS uses feeling "big picture" oriented imagination rules symbols and imagespresent and future philosophy & religion can "get it" (i.e. meaning) believes appreciates spatial perception knows object function fantasy based presents possibilities impetuous risk taking
136 SCAMPER Method for Brainstorming (Eberle, 1971) 取代SubstituteWhat could be used instead of an existing component?組合CombineWhat could be added to an existing product?調適 AdaptHow can it be adjusted to suit a condition or purpose?改變、變大或小 Modify, Magnify, & MinifyHow can the color, shape, or form be changed?How can it be made larger, stronger, or thicker?How can it be made smaller, lighter, or shorter?另謀他用 Put to other usesWhat else can it be used for?除去 EliminateWhat can be removed or taken away from it?反向、重組Reverse & RearrangeHow can it be placed opposite its original position? How can the pattern, sequence, or layout be changed?
138 組合Combine(Add): Suitcases on Wheels Wheels on a suitcase? So convenient, they're an unremarkable essential for today's traveler. But in 1970, Bernard Sadow had trouble selling his rolling suitcase idea."I showed it to every department store in New York City and a lot of buying offices, and everybody said I was crazy. 'Nobody's going to pull a piece of luggage with wheels on it.' People just didn't think in those terms," Sadow said.Macy’s ads began promoting “the Luggage That Glides.”
139 RollerboardBut it was also a time of huge change in the culture of travel, as a growing number of people flew, airports became bigger and far more women began traveling alone, especially on business trips. It had taken a long time, but common sense and the quest for convenience prevailed. The suitcase acquired wheels; travelers no longer routinely needed porters and bellhops.The Rollaboard was invented in 1987 by Robert Plath, a Northwest Airlines 747 pilot and avid home workshop tinkerer, who affixed two wheels and a long handle to suitcases that rolled upright, rather than being towed flat like Mr. Sadow’s four-wheeled models.
140 When you think that there is nothing new we can create…
141 重組Rearrange: Making Novel Combination 六爻相雜，唯其時物也。道有變動，故曰爻；爻有等，故曰物；物相雜，故曰文；文不當，故吉凶生焉。
142 重組-Reverse/Rearrange: Different Types of Restaurants Hotpot火鍋Teppanyaki-typeRestaurant(i.e., Benihana)Source: Service Is Front Stage
143 另謀他用:大葫蘆與護手膏 另謀他用 Put to other uses. Reverse Innovation 惠子謂莊子曰：「魏王貽(音遺)我大瓠(音護)之種，我樹之成而實五石，以盛水漿，其堅不能自舉也。剖之以為瓢，則瓠落無所容。非不呺(音消)然大也，吾為其無用而掊之。」莊子曰：「夫子固拙於用大矣。宋人有善為不龜(音均)手之藥者，世世以洴澼絖(音平譬況)為事。客聞之，請買其方百金。聚族而謀曰：『我世世為洴澼絖，不過數金；今一朝而鬻技百金，請與之。』客得之，以說吳王。越有難，吳王使之將。冬，與越人水戰，大敗越人，裂地而封之。能不龜手一也，或以封，或不免於洴澼絖，則所用之異也。今子有五石之瓠，何不慮以為大樽而浮乎江湖，而憂其瓠落無所容？則夫子猶有蓬之心也夫！」 《莊子‧逍遥游》
148 Design Thinking Process at d.school (Stanford) Design Theory (Process):
149 Oral B Kid Toothbrush by IDEO Design Toothbrush for kid under age 5
150 實地考察 Do Observations in the Field Use observations in the field to spot contradictions of what you see and what you expect. Dig deeperGenchi Genbutsu (現地現物): “Going to the source to see for yourself.” (The Toyota Way, p. 40)Empathy means challenging preconceived ideas and setting aside your sense of what you think is true in order to learn what is true.“It’s not what you don’t know that get you into trouble. It is you know for sure that ain’t so.” Mark Twain.
151 Swiffer – P&G and Continuum “There has got to be a better way to clean a floor. Current mops are the cleaning equivalent of the horse drawn carriage – where’s the car?”Procter & Gamble’s 2nd most popular consumer product.
153 質性硏究 Qualitative Research Observation; Shadowing; Self-documentation1:1 Interviewing/Group Interviewing
154 Characteristics of Ethnographic Research Takes place “in the field”Observation is primary data collection techniqueInterviews are used to clarify observationsAttention is paid to context and artifactsField notes coded and analyzed for themes and variables** Ethnography produces fresh insights for design strategy.*** Leonard, D., and J. F. Rayport, "Sparking Innovation through Empathic Design," Harvard Business Review, November/December, 1997, pp. 102–13. (link)
155 Participant Observation Tips Observation is at the core of design thinkingWhy: To identify needs, NOT solutionsFocus on behaviors that reveal key design conceptsCapture cases at opposite ends of scaleLook for the unseen behavioral scaffoldingBe the foreignerFollow the golden rule (Empathy)Product Development Process: Observation (video)
156 One of the Tools Used to Understand Potential Users enough to inspire more creative thinking about how to engage themQualitative vs. QuantitativeNumber of subjects studied: 36Deep with small number vs. wide (shallow) with large numberFind out stakeholder’s unarticulated needsLonger interview and messier data collectedThe study is not to prove that our idea is good. It is to inspire us to have better and more innovative ideas.
159 Design Thinking Process by Stanford d.school / IDEO “To create meaningful innovations,you need to know your users.Empathize and care about their lives.”“It’s not about coming up with the ‘right’ idea, it’s about generating the broadest range of possibilities.”“Build to think andtest to learn.”“Framing the right problem is the only way to create the right solution.”IDEO: Inspiration Ideation Implementation“Testing is an opportunity to learn about your solution/assumptions and your user.”
160 Quick (Low-Fidelity) Prototyping Think with your hands.Building to think.Fail often to succeed sooner.Read the IDEO Difference (link)
161 Why Designers Should Never Go to a Meeting Without a Prototype 如何試?A project with Sesame Workshop to develop Elmo’s Monster Maker—an iPhone app that leads young children through the process of designing their own monster friend. They had an idea for a new dance feature in which kids could guide Elmo through different dance moves in sync with a simple music track. Link
163 Design for Extreme Affordability Problem: 15 M premature and underweight babies and many died.Reasons:Babies are so tiny they don’t have enough fat to regulate their own body temperature.Traditional incubators can also cost as much as $20,000—each.Goal: Design low-cost infant incubator for developing worldField research:Saw unused infant incubators in hospital in Nepal. Changing design for hospitals and clinics to Rural mothers in their villagesHeard mother is going to reduce temperature from 38oc to 30oc Changing the indicator to just OK
168 Redesign MRI for Kids GE 18 billion Heathcare Division Multimillion-dollar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machinesProblem: Children are frighten by the MRI machine and 80% has to be sedated before scanning.Action: Chief designer took “Human-Centered Design and Innovation” at Stanford d.schoolSolution: Designing MRI machine Redesign and humanize the experience for kids (getting young patients safely and willingly through an MRI scan)What You Need to KnowThe machine is VERY loud, if they offer music-use it.Close your eyes BEFORE they slide you into the tube and keep them closed the entire time.Breathe normally.You will be at the imaging center minutes.If you are having a test “with contrast” they will do the test once then inject you with the contrast material and do the test again.It isn’t fun but it doesn’t hurt eitherYou will survive
169 GE’s “Adventure Series” MRI for Kids LinkGE's Adventure Series redesigns imaging equipment including MRIs, X-ray machines and CT scanners like the pirate-themed machine pictured here to make the procedures less scary for kids.(Link)
175 Rent the Runway Case Study Rent the Runway 的不同做法是深刻觀察到現代女性時尚的需求及困擾，加上分享經濟(Shared Economy)已被廣受歡迎，才發展為成功的創新公司。創辦人在創業過中以一系列的實際試驗來驗証企業模式中的「假設」，以行動代替企業計劃書的撰寫。因觀而得創業之靈感，由試而悟商道之途，為觀卦及精實創業的最佳實例!Rent the Runway (*case *link - read the case and introduction chapter; website; about; Aanalytics; press coverage)*Rent the Runway: An inside look at the tech startup's success *** The Business of Rentable Fashion***The Supply & Demand of Rent the Runway testing business ideas)***Working with Venture Capitalists as a Fashion Company
178 Drivers for Innovation Necessity is the mother of invention.Where there is a friction (frustration), there is an opportunity.Zappos’ founder Nick SwinmurnDropbox file sharing: Drew Houston reportedly conceived the idea for Dropbox after repeatedly forgetting his USB drive Chinapages.com by Jack MaZapposHe typed 'beer' in the Yahoo! search and got a number of results. Then he typed 'China' but this gave no results. This made him decide to start a company to bring information regarding Chinese companies on to the Internet. After arriving back to Hangzhou, Ma resigned his teaching job, borrowed US$ 2,000 and started chinapages.com, China's first commercial website which contained a list of companies operating in China...
182 Customer Value Canvas Customer Profile Value Map
183 雇用奶昔They were winning out over doughnuts, bagels, bananas, and boredom.If a company can discover a job-defined market, it will generally be much larger than one defined by product category.Milkshakes met their needs better than anything else. Bagels were dry; with cream cheese or jam, they resulted in sticky fingers. Doughnuts didn’t carry people past the 10 a.m. hunger attack. Bananas didn’t last long enough to solve the boring-commute problem. But it took 20 minutes to suck a viscous milkshake through a thin straw, hands remained clean and stomachs were satisfied until lunch.“Finding the Right Job for Your Product.” MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2007, pp. 38–47
184 Job-to-Be-Done Analysis “People don’t want to buy a quarter-inch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole!”Theodore Levitt, Professor of Marketing, Harvard Business School“Jobs-to-be-done"--addressing the basic problem a customer is facing and providing a product that can deliver the necessary result. Each job has functional, emotional, and social dimensions.The jobs-to-be-done point of view causes you to go with your customer as she goes about her day, always asking the question as she does something ask: “Why did you do it that way?”Source:"Marketing Malpractice: The Cause and the Cure," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 83, No. 12, December 2005.
185 Value Proposition Canvas Value MapCustomer Profile
189 Architecture of Innovation Intersection & IntegrationScience/TechnologyHumanity/ArtBusiness Model InnovationConsumerProcess InnovationEnd product/ service&ComponentExperienceInnovationService InnovationProduct InnovationTechnologyInnovationCreativity & ImaginationBusiness
190 Innovation Types Knowledge sources driving “service” innovations… BusinessAdministrationandManagementTechnologyInnovationBusinessInnovationScience &EngineeringTQMReengineeringLaser, seminconductorMedicine: Bloodless surgery, laser healing, surgical treatment, kidney stone treatment, eye treatment, dentistryIndustry: Cutting, welding, material heat treatment, marking parts, non-contact measurement of partsMilitary: Marking targets, guiding munitions, missile defence, electro-optical countermeasures (EOCM), alternative to radar, blinding troops.Law enforcement: used for latent fingerprint detection in the forensic identification fieldResearch: Spectroscopy, laser ablation, laser annealing, laser scattering, laser interferometry, LIDAR, laser capture microdissection, fluorescence microscopyProduct development/commercial: laser printers, optical discs (e.g. CDs and the like), barcode scanners, thermometers, laser pointers, holograms, bubblegrams.Laser lighting displays: Laser light showsCosmetic skin treatments: acne treatment, cellulite and striae reduction, and hair removal.Social-OrganizationalInnovationDemandInnovationGlobalEconomy& MarketsSocial SciencesGrouponGang-run printing合版印刷 Grameen Bank (Bank of the poor, Micro lending)SSME = Service Sciences, Management, and Engineering
191 創新被採用的五大因素 5 Factors of Innovation Adoption Decision (Roger) Definition相對優勢Relative AdvantageHow improved an innovation is over the previous generation.相容性CompatibilityThe level of compatibility that an innovation has to be assimilated into an individual’s life.簡約易用SimplicityIf the innovation is perceived as complicated or difficult to use, an individual is unlikely to adopt it.可試性TrialabilityHow easily an innovation may be experimented. If a user is able to test an innovation, the individual will be more likely to adopt it.能見度ObservabilityThe extent that an innovation is visible to others. An innovation that is more visible will drive communication among the individual’s peers and personal networks and will in turn create more positive or negative reactions.
192 精實創業的學習歷程 Lean Startup Cycle Ideas/Business ModelTechnologiesSocial trendsPains/GainsFocusThink with your handsPivot/PersevereBuildPrototypingMinimum viable products (MVP)LearnInsightsHypotheses5 WhysMinimize the total time & resource through the learning loopProduct/serviceAddress Job to be doneFit (P-S, P-M)DataInnovation AccountingNet Promoter ScoreAARRRMeasureSplit testsObservationsClick streamsFind/get real customers
196 悟Insights come to us “like a flash”—in an epiphany—making them difficult to rationalize or defend.Charles PeirceEpiphany頓悟: A moment of sudden and great revelation or realization. A moment in which you suddenly see or understand something in a new or very clear way.Enlightenment開悟: A final spiritual state marked by the absence of desire or suffering.一聞經語，心即開… 思量即不中用，見性之人，言下須見…為說《金剛經》。至「應無所住而生其心」，惠能言下大悟，一切萬法，不離自性。悟後起修
199 顧客開發程序 The Customer Development Process 創新公司多因缺乏顧客而失敗，而非敗於產品開發上。More startups fail from a lack of customers than from a failure of product development探索執行發現顧客証實顧客創造顧客擴展公司成長駭客變通Growth Hacking在不斷地嘗試中找到正確方向。(Try many times before you get it right.)不怕失敗，從失敗中學習。 (It is OK to fail so plan to learn from it.)每一階段皆盡其所學才往前進。(Only move to the next stage when you learn enough and reach the “escape velocity”)
200 The Lean Start-UpSteve Blank, "Why The Lean Start-up Change Everything," HBR, May (link)
201 獨角獸和蟑螂(小強) From Unicorn to Cockroach Unicorn: A start-up company valued at over $1 billion with superfast growth. It relies on easy VC money to fund their growth.Cockroach: A cockroach, is a business that builds slowly and steadily from the get-go, keeping a close eye on revenues and profits. Spending is kept in check so that it can weather any funding storm. It is a more resilient business.
206 易有聖人之道四焉；以言者尚其辭，以動者尚其變，以制器者尚其象，以卜筮者尚其占。 不可為典要， 唯變所適 察於民之故 孔子曰：「君子有九思：…疑思問…」易有聖人之道四焉；以言者尚其辭，以動者尚其變，以制器者尚其象，以卜筮者尚其占。不可為典要，唯變所適察於民之故仰觀俯察觸類旁通日新之謂盛德The innovator's DNAinShareBy Stuart Pallister | December 21, 2009A major new study has highlighted the key skills that innovative and creative entrepreneurs need to develop. According to Hal Gregersen, an INSEAD professor and co-author of a six-year-long study into disruptive innovation involving some 3,500 executives, there are five 'discovery' skills you need but, he says, you don't have to be 'great in everything.A major new study involving some 3,500 executives has highlighted the key skills that innovative and creative entrepreneurs need to develop. The six-year-long research into disruptive innovation by INSEAD professor Hal Gregersen, Jeffrey Dyer of Brigham Young University and Clayton Christensen of Harvard, outlines five 'discovery' skills you need. But, says Gregersen, you don’t have to be ‘great in everything.’Some well-known business leaders such as Apple’s Steve Jobs and Amazon’s Jeff Bezos rely on their own particular strengths since innovative entrepreneurs rarely excel at all five discovery skills. For example, Scott Cook of Intuit is strong in observational skills. Marc Benioff, founder of Salesforce.com, does a lot of networking, he says. As for Bezos, “experimentation was his forte,” while Jobs is “incredibly strong at associating.”The five skills, Gregersen says, are ‘a habit, a practice, a way of life’ for innovators. Although Gregersen and his co-authors use the DNA metaphor, innovative entrepreneurs are actually made or developed, rather than born. “We each have unique, fixed physical DNA,” says Gregersen, “but in terms of creativity, we each have a unique set of learnable skills that we rely on in order to get to the ideas that will give us some insight.”Research involving identical twins suggests that only about per cent of our creativity ability is geneticically driven. “This means the other per cent comes from the world we live in,” Gregersen says. “So even if I took those identical twins and you have one twin who sits at home, watches the television, doesn't do a whole lot trying to generate a new business idea, and you've got a second twin who talks to 10 different people from 10 different diverse perspectives, who goes out and maybe observes the world systematically, takes notes and pictures, writes down in a journal things that he or she sees, constantly asking questions -- ‘What if ? Why not? How could? What might? How might? Those sorts of things. Which of those identical twins is likely to get the creative ideas?”“It's the one out there doing the creative actions,” Gregersen says. “They might get a bit of a boost from genetics but that's not the core of what delivers the results.”The five key discovery skillsAssociatingCreative entrepreneurs ‘connect the dots’ to make unexpected connections. They combine pieces of what may seem disparate pieces of information until “surprise - you've got this innovative new idea.” Steve Jobs, the CEO of Apple, was interested in calligraphy and this eventually led to his company producing user-friendly, graphics-based Macs. “Several years later, when Jobs was trying to figure out the Macintosh screen, and the 'what you see is what you get' (WYSIWG) sort of image, he connected the dots back to what he had learnt in calligraphy to what might be on the screen and it was a key component of making that whole computer work.”ObservingSome of the most innovative entrepreneurs are “intense observers,” Gregersen says. Take for example Scott Cook, the founder of Intuit: “When we interviewed him, we talked about how he got the initial idea for Quicken software. He watched really carefully in terms of how his wife was very frustrated doing their finances. Manually it was frustrating and irritating. She purchased some software that was equally frustrating and irritating.” It was at that point that Cook thought he might be able to develop a product that could help his wife “solve that problem more effectively.”After a ‘sneak preview’ of an early Apple computer, Cook got a “rich sense of what it might look like to have a user interface and a mouse and so on, and be able to have things like checks on the screen that looked like what they should be.” And from this observation, Gregersen says, sprang Quicken.ExperimentingWhen Jeff Bezos, the founder of internet retailer Amazon, was growing up, he used to spend time on his grandfather's farm in the summer. When machinery broke down on the farm, his grandfather would try to fix it himself, with some help from Jeff. They would “experiment, trying this and that, until it would finally work again.” If the animals on the farm got sick, his grandparents wouldn’t call the vet, but rather experiment and try to fix the problem themselves.“So Jeff grew up with that kind of attitude and mindset, that if I am confronted with a challenge, I can figure out a solution,” Gregersen says. “That kind of experimentation spilled over into Amazon.” At first, the idea had been to sell books via the internet without inventory. “That was the initial idea. We sometimes forget that it took him seven, eight, nine years of experimentation to build the capacity to have warehouses full of books.” As a consequence of his experimentation, Bezos “built this business model that we now call Amazon today.”QuestioningQuestions are at the core of what we do. We can be observing the world or experimenting, “but if I have no questions in my mind, I'm pretty unlikely to get any observations or insights or ‘ahas’ that I never saw or thought about,” Gregersen says.“And this kind of questioning attitude and mentality is just rampant in these folks.” Some may be better than others in observing, but when it comes to questioning, “all were powerful.”“I'll never forget when I sat down with A.G. Lafley (the former CEO of Procter & Gamble) to talk with him about his world of leadership. I had a series of questions related to research about global leadership and I swear he asked me far more questions in that interview than I asked him because he was just simply curious about what was going on in the research.”Another was Michael Dell. “I had the naivete to ask Michael if he had any favourite questions he likes to ask when he wanders around the world. And he instantly responded with a quizzical look, like ‘That's a dumb question.’ Then he said : “Hal if I had some favourite questions, everybody would know the answers. Instead, when I'm wandering the world, I try to construct a question for every conversation that might generate information that I never had before’. And for most of these innovative entrepreneurs, that's just how they think."NetworkingTypically, when we think of networking, we think of this in terms of jobs, a career or maybe social life. But when it comes to creativity, it takes on a different meaning. “Innovators are intentional about finding diverse people who are just the opposites of who they are, that they talk to, to get ideas that seriously challenge their own,” Gregersen says. Creative and innovative entrepreneurs look for people who are “completely different in terms of perspective” and regularly discuss ideas and options with them “to get divergent viewpoints.” There could be differences in gender, industry, age, country of origin, or even politics. “If I'm on the right, they're on the left, that kind of notion. And those sorts of diverse inputs in terms of conversations enabled them to get new ideas,” he says.“Now it doesn't come instantly. Sometimes the conversations provide their own insights.” David Neeleman, founder of JetBlue Airways and now CEO of Azul Airlines in Brazil, got the idea for paperless ticketing or e-ticketing, Gregersen says, by talking to one of his employees about the frustration of having to carry around paper tickets in order to give them to passengers flying on their planes. “So that conversation then led to a new idea and a way of doing things differently.”Disruptive innovationAnother of the co-authors of the study, Clayton Christensen, is an expert in disruptive innovation and this led Gregersen to wonder what the origin was of “those disruptive organisations that changed whole industries.” They then drew up a list of the world’s most innovative companies based in part on BusinessWeek’s ”Most Innovative Company” ranking and began interviewing the CEOs or founders.They got access to the likes of Dell, asking him and others: "Tell us about what was going on when you got the initial idea that led to this innovative business called Dell computer (or Amazon in the case of Bezos)." They then realised, when looking at the responses to this question, that innovative entrepreneurs are “doing a lot of the same things -- there’s a little bit of variation but a lot of the same things.”At that stage, they developed a self assessment and 360 degree survey based on the concepts of experimenting and so on, and assessed ‘thousands of executives and entrepreneurs.’ “And what we discovered was that those engaging in these behaviours and this thinking pattern, were actually the ones who delivered breakthrough processes, new products and services, new business lines within companies, corporate entrepreneurship, and new businesses outside of companies -- all of which were financially profitable and successful.”“At the core of this, all these folks were driven by a fundamental bias against the status quo. They were absolutely uncomfortable with things being the way they are. They wanted to make things change ... They wanted to change the world. And they're going to risk failure in order to make that a reality.”Corporate decision-making, he says, does “not usually value or support innovative actions.” Yet, some companies do. P&G’s marketers, for example, spend more than 12 hours on average each month just observing customers. “They value the behaviour and they get the innovative results. So one of the surprises for me is that even though these are relatively straightforward things that we could do, most of us have lost the capability to do them.”Practising and developing the skillsGregersen says the five discovery skills may seem ‘intuitive’ but when it comes to the actual practice, “doing them is counterintuitive.” That’s because the adult world in which we live “does not value these actions.”Gregersen’s advice? Start acting like a child again: “Not 100 per cent of the time, that would be absurd. We're adults and we have to run businesses. But 20 per cent, 25 per cent of our time, act like a four-year-old again,” Gregersen told INSEAD Knowledge. “Because all these skills are what four-year-olds do. They ask thousands of questions: ‘Why?’ ‘Why not?’ This and that. They're always asking those questions ... They observe intensely and they'll talk to just about anybody.”“These are the things that we all did as four-year-olds. We all did this stuff. And if we happened to attend a Montessori-type school like many innovative entrepreneurs did, then we still might be doing this stuff. But most school and corporate systems consistently say: ‘Don't do it, stop doing it’ ... and we lose our innate creative capacity.”But this ability is not lost forever. “We can get it back and that's where, if I want to become better at questioning, I start asking more questions.”His suggestion is to get a journal and, if you've got a problem, take a few minutes each day to write down questions about that problem. After a month or so, “your questions will change and it's by changing the question that we change our fundamental understanding about the problem that leads us to a solution that we never thought of before.”Take notes when observing others. “Step back from (the problem or situation), talk to people: ‘What did you learn? What surprised you? What was interesting?’ If you like to talk to people, talk to somebody different: maybe on another floor, a different building, a different office, another country, but talk to somebody who's 180 degrees different from you. These are things that we can do and they don't take a lot of time to do them.”“Innovation is a habit,” Gregersen says. “And for these innovative entrepreneurs it's a way of life. It's the fabric of who they are. And for others who aren't that way, they could be: if they choose to act different to think different.”You can find more about the ‘Innovator’s DNA’ in the December edition of the Harvard Business Review.Hal Gregersen is an affiliate professor of leadership at INSEAD. The co-authors of the study are Jeffrey Dyer, a strategy professor at Brigham Young University, and Clayton Christensen, a professor of business administration at Harvard.乘承應比，益者三友利涉大川居則觀其象，觀其會通，感而遂通，通天下之志見乃謂之象；形乃謂之器；制而用之，謂之法利有攸往， 行而宜之謂之義博學、審問、慎思、明辨、篤行備物致用，立成器以為天下利
208 Questioning“The important and difficult job is never to find the right answers, it is to find the right question.”-Peter Drucker“question the unquestionable.”-Ratan Tata
209 Risk Taking Culture“Fail often to succeed sooner.” – IDEO’s mottoRisk taking: Take enough chances and you risk a few big failures.PrototypingEmbrace mini-failureLarge firms tend to be more risk-averse
210 QuestionStormingQuestionstorming differs from brainstorming in its focus on questions, not ideasWhat are your questioning patterns? What kinds of questions do you focus on?What questions yield unexpected insights into why things are the way they are?What questions surface fundamental assumptions and challenge the status quo?What questions generate strong emotional responses (a great indicator of challenging the way things are)?What questions guide you best into disruptive territory?Standard QuestionsWhat are the best questions we need to ask right now?Is there a better way to state that question?What are the standards by which we decide that one question is better than another?How can we best organize the questions in descending order of quality?Who or what should ask the question?To whom or what should the question be directed?How should the question be asked?When or under what conditions should the question be asked?Where should the question be asked?Why should the question be asked?Should the question be asked?What are likely to be the consequences of asking the question?What purposes might the question serve other than getting an answer?What might be the purposes of someone who asked that question in a given situation?How could the question be misunderstood?Is the question meaningful?Is the question answerable in principle?What is the operation by which answers might be produced and selected?Is the question-answering operation reproducible by others?How can we tell whether the question has been answered?By when are we going to need to have an answer?By when are we going to need to have the question?What are the concerns and goals of the members of the group?What are the perceptions and abilities of the members of the group?What are the kinds of resources associated with this question and the group? Space? Time? Energy? Materials? Information? Agents? Skills? Initial state? Operating conditions?What are the tools and resources available to the group? How can they be obtained?What kinds of costs are associated with asking this question and answering it?What are likely to be the costs of asking the question?What are likely to be the costs of trying to answer the question?Is the question answerable by the group given its resources? If not, what do we do?Who or what can answer the question in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost?Should two or more of the questions be combined into one? If so, how?Should the question be split into two or more questions? If so, how?Have we come up with more questions than we can handle during this session?Which questions may have to be answered before others can be answered or even asked?What are the questions or kinds of questions we may need to ask later?How well is this questorming session working? Are we criticizing too soon? Too late? Are we getting sidetracked into a discussion of answers?Do we need to change the composition of the group? Add members? Expel someone?Are we lacking information critical to proceeding further? If so, how can we get it?Have we covered all the major possibilities? Are we overlooking anything?Innovator’s DNA, p. 88Also and
211 "Idea" now becomes "Question" ExampleA QuestionStorming which is a brainstorming but you brainstorm to generate questions to ask, such as what questions we should ask to improve ABC Compnay's innovation initiative? "Idea" now becomes "Question"Examples:Who should be in charge?What are the major barrier? Which area has the most potential?
224 不知變通其民棄之：通其變使民不倦2002年， BBC舉行一個「最偉大的100名英國人」的調查，結果是英國戰時首相邱吉爾獲選為有史以來最偉大的英國人。 這位反對綏靖政策，領導英國堅決與德國納粹決戰到底並贏得勝利的「最偉大的英國人」，戰後卻立即被英國選民拋棄了，由於工黨提出福利國家的目標對戰後一貧如洗的英國社會有吸引力，導致保守黨慘敗。面對可能的敗選，邱吉爾以「酒店關門時我就走」（I leave when the pub closes.）表達心情 1945年7月邱吉爾卸下首相職務，他引用古希臘歷史學家普魯塔克的話說：「對政治領袖無情，是偉大民族的標誌。(Ingratitude towards their great men is the mark of strong peoples. )」這句話因邱吉爾引用而成為傳世名言。
230 Learning and Assumptions Testing Big CompanyStart-up
231 AEIOU Observation Framework DimensionWhat to Watch ForActivitiesWhat are people doing?EnvironmentHow are people using the environment?What’s the role of the environment?InteractionsDo you see any routines?Do you observe special interactions between people? Between people & objects?ObjectsWhat’s there and being used or not used?Describe engagement with objects.UsersWho are the users? What are their roles?Look for extreme users.Source: Doblin, Inc. By Rick Robinson and Stef Norvaisis
232 Empathy Map Customer (user) GAIN PAIN “wants”/needs, what really countsmajor preoccupations, worries & aspirationsEmpathyMapenvironmentfriendswhat the markets offerswhat friends saywhat boss sayswhat influencers sayGAIN“wants”/needs,measures of success,obstaclesPAINfears, frustrations, obstaclesattitude in publicappearancebehavior towards others
233 Supplemental Research Methods Artifact analysisContext mappingParticipant diaries, collages, or photo journalsShop alongDigital Ethnography (…Webnography?)
241 Making Mistakes犯错Vs Perfection Tendency完美;完善倾向 Group AMake one bestGrade the bestGroup BMake as manyGrade the best
242 Participate and Understand Business参与营运 Review customer complaints投诉Organize focus group interviews客户研究小组Site walk with customers实地巡查Follow and spy跟纵Touch line and touch point感触线/点Conduct customer satisfaction surveys满意调查
243 A Credible Organization Diagnosis: NLP (SSSTT@CSP VS SHR@SP) Touch Line / Touch Point: Entrance—Reception Desk—Door contact—Garden—Lift lobby—HomeSEE看到HEAR听到FEEL感觉到Physical Setup环境Personal clothing and belongingsbeing hanged in eye-catching areas衣服Water seepages had been carrying out for months without progressExternal walls are dirty (Near the children playground)Unnecessary items on desk – messy2 high trees in front of security kiosk which makes the kiosk invisibleDirty floor of Fitness Centre w/ many stains and scars, looks old and untidy.Others …..Lack of relaxed musicNoise from air-conditionersWater dripping noiseDoor closed & openedLobby seems so cool, lack of warmth黑暗Too dark in the Lobby & guest contact areasPeople Skill员工技巧Staff were not smiling, looking tired and unfriendly冷Do not want to open door after return from shoppingLack of initiatives to help customersPoor appearance with untidy uniformSleep at workOthers ….No greeting沒招呼Voice was weak & monotonousno positive body gestures when meeting guestsYawning in public and before the guestsStaff were cool, customers did not feel a sense of hospitality or welcome backNot take initiative to do extra miles for guests after shopping, or follow up customers’ enquiry
244 變革 變動不居，周流六虛，上下無常， 剛柔相易，不可以為典要，唯變所適。 繫辭傳 念念遷謝。新新不住。…變化密移。我誠不覺。 寒暑遷流。漸至於此。《楞嚴經》波斯匿王 之語煢煢白兔, 東走西顧;衣不如新, 人不如故。-漢古艷歌 (註: 煢音窮 ).There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things.Those who by valorous ways become princes, like these men, acquire a principality with difficulty, but they keep it with ease. The difficulties they have in acquiring it arise in part from the new rules and methods which they are forced to introduce to establish their government and its security. And it ought to be remembered that there is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Because the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions, and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under the new. This coolness arises partly from fear of the opponents, who have the laws on their side, and partly from the incredulity of men, who do not readily believe in new things until they have had a long experience of them. Thus it happens that whenever those who are hostile have the opportunity to attack they do it like partisans, whilst the others defend lukewarmly, in such wise that the prince is endangered along with them.A prince never lacks legitimate reasons to break his promise. Niccolo Machiavelli A return to first principles in a republic is sometimes caused by the simple virtues of one man. His good example has such an influence that the good men strive to imitate him, and the wicked are ashamed to lead a life so contrary to his example. Niccolo Machiavelli A son can bear with equanimity the loss of his father, but the loss of his inheritance may drive him to despair. Niccolo Machiavelli A wise ruler ought never to keep faith when by doing so it would be against his interests. Niccolo Machiavelli Before all else, be armed. Niccolo Machiavelli Benefits should be conferred gradually; and in that way they will taste better. Niccolo Machiavelli Entrepreneurs are simply those who understand that there is little difference between obstacle and opportunity and are able to turn both to their advantage. Niccolo Machiavelli For among other evils caused by being disarmed, it renders you contemptible; which is one of those disgraceful things which a prince must guard against. Niccolo Machiavelli God is not willing to do everything, and thus take away our free will and that share of glory which belongs to us. Niccolo Machiavelli Hatred is gained as much by good works as by evil. Niccolo Machiavelli He who wishes to be obeyed must know how to command. Niccolo Machiavelli Hence it comes about that all armed Prophets have been victorious, and all unarmed Prophets have been destroyed. Niccolo Machiavelli I'm not interested in preserving the status quo; I want to overthrow it. Niccolo Machiavelli If an injury has to be done to a man it should be so severe that his vengeance need not be feared. Niccolo Machiavelli It is better to be feared than loved, if you cannot be both. Niccolo Machiavelli It is double pleasure to deceive the deceiver. Niccolo Machiavelli It is much more secure to be feared than to be loved. Niccolo Machiavelli It is necessary for him who lays out a state and arranges laws for it to presuppose that all men are evil and that they are always going to act according to the wickedness of their spirits whenever they have free scope. Niccolo Machiavelli It is not titles that honor men, but men that honor titles. Niccolo Machiavelli Men are so simple and so much inclined to obey immediate needs that a deceiver will never lack victims for his deceptions. Niccolo Machiavelli Men are so simple and yield so readily to the desires of the moment that he who will trick will always find another who will suffer to be tricked. Niccolo Machiavelli Men ought either to be indulged or utterly destroyed, for if you merely offend them they take vengeance, but if you injure them greatly they are unable to retaliate, so that the injury done to a man ought to be such that vengeance cannot be feared. Niccolo Machiavelli Men rise from one ambition to another: first, they seek to secure themselves against attack, and then they attack others. Niccolo Machiavelli Men should be either treated generously or destroyed, because they take revenge for slight injuries - for heavy ones they cannot. Niccolo Machiavelli Men shrink less from offending one who inspires love than one who inspires fear. Niccolo Machiavelli Nature that framed us of four elements, warring within our breasts for regiment, doth teach us all to have aspiring minds. Niccolo Machiavelli Never was anything great achieved without danger. Niccolo Machiavelli No enterprise is more likely to succeed than one concealed from the enemy until it is ripe for execution. Niccolo Machiavelli Of mankind we may say in general they are fickle, hypocritical, and greedy of gain. Niccolo Machiavelli One change always leaves the way open for the establishment of others. Niccolo Machiavelli One who deceives will always find those who allow themselves to be deceived. Niccolo Machiavelli Politics have no relation to morals. Niccolo Machiavelli Princes and governments are far more dangerous than other elements within society. Niccolo Machiavelli Severities should be dealt out all at once, so that their suddenness may give less offense; benefits ought to be handed ought drop by drop, so that they may be relished the more. Niccolo Machiavelli Since it is difficult to join them together, it is safer to be feared than to be loved when one of the two must be lacking. Niccolo Machiavelli Tardiness often robs us opportunity, and the dispatch of our forces. Niccolo Machiavelli The distinction between children and adults, while probably useful for some purposes, is at bottom a specious one, I feel. There are only individual egos, crazy for love. Niccolo Machiavelli The fact is that a man who wants to act virtuously in every way necessarily comes to grief among so many who are not virtuous. Niccolo Machiavelli The first method for estimating the intelligence of a ruler is to look at the men he has around him. Niccolo Machiavelli The main foundations of every state, new states as well as ancient or composite ones, are good laws and good arms you cannot have good laws without good arms, and where there are good arms, good laws inevitably follow. Niccolo Machiavelli The more sand has escaped from the hourglass of our life, the clearer we should see through it. Niccolo Machiavelli The new ruler must determine all the injuries that he will need to inflict. He must inflict them once and for all. Niccolo Machiavelli The one who adapts his policy to the times prospers, and likewise that the one whose policy clashes with the demands of the times does not. Niccolo Machiavelli The promise given was a necessity of the past: the word broken is a necessity of the present. Niccolo Machiavelli The question is, then, do we try to make things easy on ourselves or do we try to make things easy on our customers, whoever they may be? Niccolo Machiavelli The wise man does at once what the fool does finally. Niccolo Machiavelli The wish to acquire more is admittedly a very natural and common thing; and when men succeed in this they are always praised rather than condemned. But when they lack the ability to do so and yet want to acquire more at all costs, they deserve condemnation for their mistakes. Niccolo Machiavelli There are three kinds of intelligence: one kind understands things for itself, the other appreciates what others can understand, the third understands neither for itself nor through others. This first kind is excellent, the second good, and the third kind useless. Niccolo Machiavelli There is no avoiding war; it can only be postponed to the advantage of others. Niccolo Machiavelli There is no surer sign of decay in a country than to see the rites of religion held in contempt. Niccolo Machiavelli There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Niccolo Machiavelli To understand the nature of the people one must be a prince, and to understand the nature of the prince, one must be of the people. Niccolo Machiavelli War is just when it is necessary; arms are permissible when there is no hope except in arms. Niccolo Machiavelli War should be the only study of a prince. He should consider peace only as a breathing-time, which gives him leisure to contrive, and furnishes as ability to execute, military plans. Niccolo Machiavelli We cannot attribute to fortune or virtue that which is achieved without either. Niccolo Machiavelli When you disarm the people, you commence to offend them and show that you distrust them either through cowardice or lack of confidence, and both of these opinions generate hatred. Niccolo Machiavelli Where the willingness is great, the difficulties cannot be great. Niccolo Machiavelli Whoever conquers a free town and does not demolish it commits a great error and may expect to be ruined himself. Niccolo Machiavelli Whosoever desires constant success must change his conduct with the times. Niccolo Machiavelli- Machiavelli on Change