20 Ranking of Frequent Social Activities Type of Social ActivityMean (SD)Range1Talking with acquaintances7.50 (2.48)1-92Entertainment7.18 (2.30)3Social contacts with family members and friends5.90 (2.15)4Religious activities5.29 (2.02)5Cognitive games4.52 (1.99)6Life performance, visits by group organizations3.89 (1.59)1-67Arts/craft classes3.65 (2.16)8Holiday-related activities2.63 (1.20)1-59Outings for pleasures2.19 (1.68)
21 Ranking of Meaningful Social Activities Type of Social ActivityMean (SD)Range1Outings for pleasures3.53 (0.75)1-42Social contacts with family members and friends3.52 (0.79)3Cognitive games3.26 (0.92)4Holiday-related activities3.23 (0.84)5Arts/craft classes3.21 (1.00)6Entertainment3.14 (0.89)7Religious activities3.12 (0.95)8Talking with acquaintance3.03 (0.93)9Life performance, visits by group organizations2.96 (0.89)
22 Ranking of Enjoyable Social Activities Type of Social ActivityMean (SD)Range1Social contacts with family members and friends3.75 (0.57)1-42Outings for pleasures3.69 (0.62)3Cognitive games3.49 (0.72)4Holiday-related activities3.39 (0.74)5Entertainment3.33 (0.78)6Arts/craft classes3.31 (0.88)7Talking with acquaintance3.29 (0.82)8Religious activities3.22 (0.85)9Life performance, visits by group organizations3.12 (0.83)
23 Summary of Participation in Social Activities ComponentThe MostThe LeastFrequencyTalking with acquaintancesEntertainmentOutings for pleasuresHoliday-related activitiesMeaningfulnessSocial contacts with family members and friendsLife performance, visits by group organizationsTalking with acquaintanceEnjoymentReligious activities
41 References 王靜枝、胡嘉容、張文芸･與失智者之有效溝通策略及方法。護理雜誌，58(1)，85-90。 李宗派 (2009)･探討溝通概念與技巧「如何與老人和失智症患者保持和諧之關係」･台灣老 保健學刊，5(1)，1-16。 Gitlin, L. N., Winter, L., Burke, J., Chernett, N., Dennis, M. P. & Hauck, W. W. (2008). Tailored activities to manage neuropsychiatric behaviors in persons with dementia and reduce caregiver burden: a randomized pilot study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(3), Harmer, B. J., & Orrell, M. (2008). What is meaningful activity for people with dementia living in care homes? A comparison of the views of older people with dementia, staff and family carers. Aging and Mental Health, 12(5), Hsu, Y. C. (2011). Socially Supportive Activity Inventory: Reliability and validity of a social activity instrument for long-term care institutions. Journal of Nursing Research, 19(3), Krueger, K., R., Wilson, R. S., Kamenetsky, J. M., Bames, L. L., Bienias, J. L., & Bennett, D. A. (2009). Social engagement and cognitive function in old age. Experimental Aging Research, 35(1), Phinney, A., Chaudhury, H., O‘Connor, D. L. (2007). Doing as much as I can do: the meaning of activity for people with dementia. Aging and Mental Health, 11(4), Pool, J. (2002). The Pool Activity Level (PAL) Instrument for Occupational Profiling.: A practical resource for carers of people with cognitive impairment. (2nd ed.). London: Jessica Kingsley. Richards KC, Beck C, O’Sullivan PS, Shue VM. (2005) Effect of individualized social activity on sleep in nursing home residents with dementia. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 53(9), Wenborn, J., Challis, D., Pool, J., Burgess, J., Elliott, N., & Orrell, M. (2008). Assessing the validity and reliability of the Pool Activity Level (PAL) checklist for use with older people with dementia. Aging and Mental Health, 12 (2),
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