3 High/Scope成立背景1960年代初，密西根州易絲蓮市（Ypsilanti, Michigan）公立學校裡一位負責特別事務的David P. Weikart鑑於看到該市高中生中，來自於低收入戶家庭的學生在學習成就是失敗的一群，因而成立一特別委員會，和三名小學校長共同研究。1962年，Weikart成立密西根州政府第一個政府贊助的托兒所方案，稱之為「培瑞托兒所方案」（Perry preschool project）。該方案專為3-4歲兒童設計，Weikart認為，方案的主要目的在「協助低收入戶家庭居於不利的兒童」（Educating disadvantaged children）。1971年，Weikart出版《認知導向的課程：一個適合學前教育工作者的指導方針》（The Cognitively Oriented Curriculum: A Framework for Preschool Educators）
4 High/Scope成立背景1970年，Weikart離開了易絲蓮公立學校，另外成立了高瞻遠矚教育研究基金會（High/Scope Education Research Foundation），至今該基金會一直從事研究與發展培瑞方案（Perry Preschool Programme）的研究。1979年，基金會出版了《行動中的孩童：教師手冊》（Young Children in Action: A Manual for School Educators）。從該書的出版來看，培瑞方案已由原本強調皮亞傑的認知性工作，轉變到強調兒童是知識的建構者。該書認為，在認知發展之主動經驗（key experience of cognitive experience）的目標中，應增加「主動學習」（active learning）一項。因此，培瑞方案越來越走向兒童的「主體性」與「主動性」
15 High/Scope幼稚園的一天 問候時間 （Greeting Time）(15–20 minutes) Greeting time provides a smooth transition from home to school and gives children and adults a chance to share important information for the day. 計劃時間（Planning Time ）(10 minutes) Children indicate what they choose to do during work time (typically what they will do first). Adults try to understand children‘s plans and often try to help children extend their plans. 活動時間（Work Time） (45 minutes–1 hour) Children carry out their initial and subsequent plans. Children can work with any of the materials in any of the interest areas. Adults observe children and look for opportunities to enter into children’s activities to encourage their thinking, extend their play, and help them wrestle with problem-solving situations. 打掃時間（Cleanup） (10 minutes) Children and adults together return materials and equipment to their storage spaces and, when appropriate, put away or find display space for their personal creations. 反省時間（Recall Time） (10 minutes) Recall brings closure to the plan-work-recall sequence. Children reflect on, talk about, and/or show what they have done at work time. *（以上四個就是Plan-Do-Recall活動）
16 High/Scope幼稚園的一天點心與午餐時間Snack or Meal Times (20 minutes) Children and adults share nutritious food and interesting conversation together in a relaxed, family-style manner. 大團體時間Large-Group Time (10–15 minutes) Children and adults get together to play games, tell and reenact stories, sing songs, do finger-plays, dance, play musical instruments, or reenact special events. This time is an opportunity for each child to participate in a large group, sharing ideas and learning from the ideas of others. 小團體時間Small-Group Time (15–20 minutes) Each adult meets with a consistent small group of children to work with materials planned and introduced by the adult. Although the adult chooses and introduces the materials, each child has control over what he or she will do with these materials. 戶外去囉！Outside Time (30 minutes) Children engage in vigorous, noisy outdoor play. Adults participate in and support children's play in the outdoor setting.
20 在1962年到1967年之間，David Weikart與其在密西根的團隊成員，著手進行“High/Scope Perry Preschool Programme Study”，針對低收入戶3-4歲孩童的學習情形進行長期的縱貫研究。Lawrence J. Schweinhart等人亦針對高瞻遠矚學前教育課程模式的實施成果進行一項長期縱貫的實驗設計研究（以下簡報為Schweinhart的研究過程與結果）。
21 1. Model preschool programs have lifetime effects.
22 2. Model preschool programs have large return on investment.
23 Four studies find long-term benefits and return on investment. Weikart and Schweinhart’s High/Scope Perry Preschool Study found such effects for a high-quality preschool program versus no program.Ramey and Campbell’s North Carolina Abecedarian project found such effects for high-quality versus typical child care.Reynolds’ Chicago Child-Parent Centers study found such effects for a big-city service program.Olds’ Elmira, New York, study found such effects for a nurse home visiting program.
24 Most U.S. children under 6 have regular care and education arrangements.
25 Three federal programs provide most of the funding for programs for low-income young children. EligibilityAnnual FundingHead StartPoverty children 3-5$6.8 billionChild Care and Development FundLow-income children 0-5$4.8 billionTemporary Assistance for Needy Families$2.7 billion
26 State preschool programs are spreading throughout the U.S. 38 states spend state funds on preschool programs.These programs spent $2.8 billion to serve 800,000 children inMost, but not all, require teachers to be certified.Most states have early learning standards for what children are to learn.
27 Head Start and state preschool programs nationally have modest effects. Head Start Impact Study Modest effects on literacy, reduced problem behavior, increased parents reading to childrenHead Start FACES Study Modest gains in children’s literacy and social skills in Head Start and kindergarten yearsFive-State Preschool Study Improvements in children’s vocabulary, print awareness skills, and early mathematics skills.
28 Using the validated High/Scope Curriculum: Adults help children take initiative and develop cognitively, socially, and physically.The classroom has various activity areas and lots of accessible materials.The daily routine includes time for children to plan, do, and review their activities.