31 Citation Behavior, variance among disciplines: There are inherent differences in the citation behaviors of different disciplines and it is essential to understand these differences to use journal metrics effectively.For example there are huge differences with the size of different categories, the number of journals in each category, the number of articles and the number of citations to those articles, by understanding more about the category as a whole you can understand the context and relevance of impact factors and other metrics in the Journal Citation Reports.In particular there can be differences in the pace of citations to a journal, typically journals in the life sciences are cited very rapidly and the citations quickly tail off. However, in fields such mathematics or economics it takes longer for the journals to be cited and their impact is extended over a longer period of time.This is demonstrated with this graph, which shows what percentage of total citations in that category occurred in a given year. We can see that for the category Genetics & Heredity the peak of citation activity is reached in the second year after publication, whereas in the field of Economics it takes 5 years to reach the peak.The area shaded in grey represents the data that is used to calculate the traditional 2 year Impact Factor. As can be seen from this graph, the ratio of the overall citation history to the subset used in the calculation of the Impact Factor is much higher in the life sciences than it is in slower moving fields.There are inherent differences between different fields with regards to citation behavior. For some fields such as Mathematics or Economics it takes longer to reach the peak of citation activity.31
50 Thank You 台灣地區獨家代理--碩睿資訊有限公司 服務電話 02-7731-5800 服務信箱 網站[Read all statements on slide, then additional comments]In summarizing these comments best, we may say that patent law provides motivation for technological development. It serves as a stimulant for allocation of resources to research and development efforts.Today, this is true in research environments within both the Corporate and Academic sectors.