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Skull 颅 山东大学医学院解剖教研室 李振华. Skull 颅 The skull is composed of 23 bones, which may be divided into the cerebral cranium 脑颅 and facial cranium 面颅.

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Presentation on theme: "Skull 颅 山东大学医学院解剖教研室 李振华. Skull 颅 The skull is composed of 23 bones, which may be divided into the cerebral cranium 脑颅 and facial cranium 面颅."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skull 颅 山东大学医学院解剖教研室 李振华

2 Skull 颅 The skull is composed of 23 bones, which may be divided into the cerebral cranium 脑颅 and facial cranium 面颅

3 Skull 颅 Cerebral cranium 脑颅 (8) ―larger, upper and posterior part, contains and protects the brain Single bones: include  frontal bone 额骨  ethmoid bone 筛骨  sphenoid bone 蝶骨  occipital bone 枕骨 Paired bones : include  temporal bone 颞骨  parietal bone 顶骨

4 Skull 颅 Bones of facial cranium 面颅骨 (15) ―smaller, lower, and anterior part, contains bones that surrounded the eye, nose and mouth Single bones: include  mandible 下颌骨  vomer 犁骨  hyoid bone 舌骨 Paired bones: include  maxilla 上颌骨  nasal bone 鼻骨  lacrimal bone 泪骨  palatine bone 腭骨  zygomatic bone 颧骨  inferior nasal concha 下鼻甲

5 Bones of facial cranium 面颅骨 面颅上颌为中心,上鼻泪,下下颌, 外颧内甲后犁腭,舌骨颈前单落脚。

6 Frontal bone Zygomatic bone Nasal bone Maxilla Mandible Sphenoid bone parietal bone Temporal bone Occipital bone

7 Mandible 下颌骨 Body of mandible Superior border: alveolar arch 牙槽弓 Inferior border: base of mandible 下颌底 Outer surface: mental protuberance 颏隆凸 Mental foramen 颏孔 Inner surface: mental spine 颏棘 Digastric fossa 二腹肌窝

8 Mandible 下颌骨 Ramus Mandibular notch 下颌切迹 Coronoid process 冠突 Condylar process 髁突  head of mandible 下颌头  neck of mandible 下颌颈 Mandibular foramen 下颌孔 Mandibular lingula 下颌小舌 Angle of mandible 下颌角 Masseteric tuberocity 咬肌粗隆

9 The skull as a whole 颅的整体观

10 Skull viewed from above (superior view) Bones:  frontal bone 额骨  paired parietal bone 顶骨  occipital bone 枕骨 Sutures:  Coronal suture 冠状缝  Sagittal suture 矢状缝  Lambdoid suture 人字缝 parietal tuber 顶结节 parietal foramen 顶孔

11 Skull viewed from above (superior view) Internal surface of the calvaria sulcus for superior sagittal sinus 上矢状窦沟 granular foveola 颗粒小凹 arterial grooves 动脉沟

12 Skull viewed from behind External occipital protuberance 枕外隆凸 Superior nuchal line 上项线 Inferior nuchal line 下项线

13 Internal view of base of skull 颅底内面观 Base of skull forms three fossae Anterior cranial fossa 颅前窝 Middle cranial fossa 颅中窝 Posterior cranial fossa 颅后窝

14 Internal view of base of skull 颅底内面观

15 Anterior cranial fossa 颅前窝 Formed by orbital part of frontal bone, cribriform plate of ethmoid, and lesser wings of sphenoid Structures: frontal crest 额嵴 foramen cecum 盲孔 crista galli 鸡冠 cribriform plate 筛板 cribriform foramina 筛孔

16 Meddle cranial fossa 颅中窝 Formed by the body and greater wings of sphenoid, petrous part of temporal Structures: Body of sphenoid bone 蝶骨体 Hypophysial fossa 垂体窝 Optic canal 视神经管 Anterior clinoid process 前床突 Tuberculum sellae 鞍结节 Dorsum sellae 鞍背 Posterior clinoid process 后床突 Sella turcica 蝶鞍

17 Meddle cranial fossa 颅中窝 Carotid sulcus 颈动脉沟 Superior orbital fissure 眶上裂 Foramen rotundum 圆孔 Foramen ovale 卵圆孔 Foramen spinosum 棘孔 Sulcus for middle meningeal artery 脑膜中动脉沟 Foramen lacerum 破裂孔 Internal opening of carotid canal 颈脉管内口 Trigeminal impression 三叉神经压迹 Arcuate eminence 弓状隆起 Tegmen tympani 鼓室盖

18 Posterior cranial fossa 颅后窝 Formed by occipital and the petrous part of temporal Structures: foramen magnum 枕骨大孔 clivus 斜坡 internal opening of hypoglossal canal 舌下神经管内口 internal occipital protuberance 枕内隆凸 internal occipital crest 枕内嵴 sulcus for transverse sinus 横窦沟 sulcus for sigmoid sinus 乙状窦沟 jugular foramen 颈静脉孔 internal acoustic pore 内耳门 internal acoustic meatus 内耳道

19 Skull viewed from below (inferior view) alveolar arch 牙槽弓 bony palate 骨腭 median palatine suture 腭正中缝 incisive foramina 切牙孔 incisive canal 切牙管 greater palatine foramen 腭大孔 posterior nasal apertures 鼻后孔 pterygoid process 翼突 occipital condyle 枕髁 external opening of hypoglossal canal 舌下神经管外口 external opening of carotid canal 颈动脉管外口 styloid process 茎突 stylomastoid foramen 茎乳孔 mandibular fossa 下颌窝 articular tubercle 关节结节

20 Lateral view of the skull 颅侧面观 External acoustic pore 外耳门 Mastoid process 乳突 Zygomatic arch 颧弓 Temporal fossa 颞窝 Pterion 翼点 Superior temporal line 上颞线

21 Lateral view of the skull 颅侧面观 Infratemporal fossa 颞下窝 pterygomaxillary fissure 翼上颌裂 pterygopalatine fossa 翼腭窝 sphenopalatine foramen 蝶腭孔

22 Skull viewed from the front (anterior view) 颅的前面观 Frontal region: frontal squama 额鳞 frontal tuber 额结节 superciliary arch 眉弓 glabella 眉间

23 Orbit 眶 pyramid-shaped paired cavities Base: supraorbital notch 眶上切迹 infraorbital foramen 眶下孔 Apex: optic canal 视神经管 Walls  Superior: fossa for lacrimal gland 泪腺窝  Medial: fossa for lacrimal sac 泪囊窝  Inferior: infraorbital fissure 眶下裂  infraorbital groove 眶下沟  infraorbital canal 眶下管

24 Bony nasal cavity 骨性鼻腔 Roof: cribriform plate of ethmoid Floor: bony palate Medial wall ― bony septum of nose Lateral wall  Superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae 上、中、下鼻甲  Superior, middle and inferior nasal meatus (underlying each concha) 上、中、下鼻道  Sphenoethmoidal recess 蝶筛隐窝 above superior nasal concha Anterior ―piriform aperture 梨状孔 Posterior ―posterior nasal aperture 鼻后孔 communicates with pharynx

25 Paranasal sinuses 鼻旁窦 Frontal sinus 额窦  Lies in frontal bone, deep to superciliary arch  Drain to anterior part of middle meatus

26 Paranasal sinuses 鼻旁窦 Maxillary sinus 上颌窦  Largest paired sinus, lie in the body of maxilla;  Opening into middle nasal meatus

27 Paranasal sinuses 鼻旁窦 Ethmoidal cellules 筛窦  Lie in ethmoidal bone, contains large number of air cells, divided into anterior, middle and posterior groups  Anterior and middle groups drain into middle nasal meatus, while posterior group drains into superior nasal meatus

28 Paranasal sinuses 鼻旁窦 Sphenoidal sinus 蝶窦  Lies in body of sphenoid bone  Drain into sphenoethmoidal recess

29 General characters of the skull at birth 新生儿颅的特征 The skull at birth is large in proportion to rest of the skeleton ―1/4 (adult 1/7) The facial portion equals about one eight that of the cranium in size, whereas in adult it is one half (1/4) Many bones consist of more than one piece

30 General characters of neonatal skull 新生儿颅的特征 Cranial frontanelles 颅囟 ― unossified membrane between the bones at the angles of parietal Anterior frontanelle 前囟 ―closes during middle of 2nd year Posterior frontanelle 后囟 ―closes by the end of 2nd month after birth Mastoid fontanelle 乳突囟 Sphenoidal fontanelle 蝶囟

31 Anteroposterior radiograph of skull.

32 Lateral radiograph of skull.

33 Horizontal CT at level of upper part of ramus of mandible showing relationships of the pterygoid plates.

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