67 Albrecht Neubert论翻译能力的7 个特征 复杂性(complexity)异质性(heterogeneity)近似性( approximation)开放性(open-endedness)创造性(creativity)特定性( situationality)历史性(historicity)参见：Neubert , A. Competence in Language ,in Languages ,and in Translation[A] . In C. Schäffner & B. Adab(eds. ) Developing Translation Competence [C] . Amsterdam:John Benjamins ,2000 :
68 引自：Orozco, M. Building a Measuring Instrument for the Acquisition of Translation Competence in Trainee Translators [A]. In Schäffner, C. & Adab, B. (eds.) Developing Translation Competence [C]. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000:
69 引自： P ACTE Group. Building a Translation Competence Model [A] 引自： P ACTE Group. Building a Translation Competence Model [A]. In Alves, Fabio (Ed.). Triangulating Translation [C]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2003:60.
78 Translation Expertise Background of translation expertise studies:Translation competence studiesThe professional turnDevelopmental stages of translation expertise:Novice, Apprentice, Journeyman, Expert
79 Cognitive changes during the stages: increasing proceduralization;conversion of the novice’s declarative knowledge to procedural knowledge via proceduralization;
80 Major characteristics of translation expertise: limited in its scope/ elite performance does not transfer;Knowledge and content matter are importantlarger/ integrated cognitive units
81 functional, abstracted representations of presented information; automated basic strokes;selective access of relevant informationreflection / adaptation
82 Deliberate practice to acquire translation expertise (a) a well-defined task, (b) the task is of appropriate difficulty for the individual, (c) there is informative feedback, and (d) there are opportunities for repetition and for the correction of errors.
83 Principles to cultivate translation expertise 1. Cognitive Load Management Principle 2. Modality Principle3. Attention Support Principle 4. Signaling Principle 5. Spatial Contiguity Principle 6. Prior Knowledge Principle 7. Building Mental Models Principle 8. Multimedia Principle 9. Personalization Principle: 10. Spaced Practice Principle 11. Explanatory Feedback Principle 12. Self-Explanation Support Principle 13. Collaborative Learning Principle 14. Mirror the Job Principle