Presentation on theme: "Introduction The planning aspects of transport engineering relate to urban planning, and involve technical forecasting decisions and political factors."— Presentation transcript:
1 IntroductionThe planning aspects of transport engineering relate to urban planning, and involve technical forecasting decisions and political factors.Human factors are an aspect of transport engineering, particularly concerning driver- vehicle interface and user interface of road signs, signals, and markings.
2 Technical forecasting of passenger travel usually involves an urban transportation planning model, requiring the estimation of trip generation (how many trips for what purpose), trip distribution (destination choice, where is the traveler going), mode choice (what mode is being taken), and route assignment (which streets or routes are being used).
3 More sophisticated forecasting can include other aspects of traveler decisions, including auto ownership, trip chaining (the decision to link individual trips together in a tour) and the choice of residential or business location (known as land use forecasting).Transportation engineering, as practiced by civil engineers, primarily involves planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of transportation facilities.
4 Operations and management involve traffic engineering, so that vehicles move smoothly on the road or track. Older techniques include signs, signals, markings, and tolling. Newer technologies involve intelligent transportation systems (ITS), including advanced traveler information systems (such as variable message signs), advanced traffic control systems (such as ramp meters), and vehicle infrastructure integration.
5 ITS (Intelligent transportation system) ITS refers to efforts to add information and communications technology to transport infrastructure and vehicles in an effort to manage factors that typically are at odds (不一致) with each other, such as vehicles, loads, and routes to improve safety and reduce vehicle wear, transportation times, and fuel consumption.ITS comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion(擁塞) and a synergy(協同增效作用) of new information technology for simulation, real-time control, and communications networks.
6 What is ITS?智慧型運輸系統 (ITS, Intelligent Transportation System)乃是應 用先進的電子、通信、資訊與感測等技術， 以整合人、路、車的管理策略，提供即時 (real-time)資訊以增進運輸系統的安全、效率 及舒適性，同時也減少交通對環境的衝擊。
9 Congestion reduces efficiency of transportation infrastructure and increases travel time, air pollution, and fuel consumption."Road operators, infrastructure, vehicles, their drivers and other road users will cooperate to deliver the most efficient, safe, secure and comfortable journey. The vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-infrastructure co-operative systems will contribute to these objectives beyond the improvements achievable with stand-alone systems."
12 Factors for both motorization and urbanization : industrial economy replaced the agricultural economy. Population to move from rural locations into urban centers.motorization was causing cities to expand.Suburbs (近郊住宅區) provided a reasonable compromise between population density and access to employment, goods, and services.suburban infrastructure could be built quickly, supporting a rapid transition from a rural /agricultural economy to an industrial/urban economy.
13 Further, ITS can play a role in the rapid mass evacuation of people in urban centers after large casualty events such as a result of a natural disaster or threat. Much of the infrastructure and planning involved with ITS parallels the need for homeland security systems.In the developing world, the migration of people from rural to urbanized habitats has progressed differently and supported by a multimodal system of walking, bicycle transportation, motorcycles, buses, and trains.
18 The success of ITS is heavily dependent on the availability of timely and accurate estimates of traffic conditions. The needed system is to utilize advanced traffic models to analyze data, especially real-time traffic data, from different sources to estimate and predict traffic conditions so that proactive (前瞻性) Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) and Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) strategies can be implemented to meet various traffic control, management, and operation objectives.
20 Active traffic management (ATM), also known as managed lanes or smart lanes, is a scheme for improving traffic flow and reducing congestion on motorways. It has been implemented in several countries, including Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It makes use of automatic systems and human intervention to manage traffic flow and ensure the safety of road users.
25 Intelligent transportation applications Electronic toll collection (ETC) makes it possible for vehicles to drive through toll gates at traffic speed, reducing congestion at toll plazas and automating toll collection. Most ETC systems were based on using radio devices in vehicles that would use proprietary (專利的) protocols to identify a vehicle as it passed under a gantry over the roadway.
26 Many ETC systems use transponders like this one to electronically debit the accounts of registered cars without their stoppingNorway now has 25 toll roads operating with electronic fee collection (EFC), as the Norwegian technology is called (see AutoPASS). In 1995, Portugal became the first country to apply a single, universal system to all tolls in the country,
28 Automated vehicle identification Some early AVI (Automated vehicle identification) systems used barcodes affixed to each vehicle, to be read optically at the toll booth. Optical systems proved to have poor reading reliability, especially when faced with inclement weather and dirty vehicles.Most current AVI systems rely on radio- frequency identification, where an antenna at the toll gate communicates with a transponder on the vehicle via Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC).
29 High occupancy toll lanes High occupancy toll lanes (HOT lanes) is a road pricing scheme that gives motorists in single- occupant vehicles access to high-occupancy vehicle lanes (or "HOV lanes"). Typically, these tolls increase as traffic density and congestion within the tolled lanes increases, a policy known as congestion pricing. The goal of this pricing scheme is to minimize traffic congestion within the lanes.
30 Cordon zones with congestion pricing The main objective of this charge is to reduce traffic congestion within the cordon area. This fee or toll is charged automatically using electronic toll collection or automatic number plate recognition, since stopping the users at conventional toll booths would cause long queues, long delays, and even gridlock (市區交 通大堵塞).
31 Cordon zones (管制區) have been implemented in Singapore, Stockholm, and London, where a congestion charge or fee is collected from vehicles entering a congested city center.Congestion pricing gantry at North Bridge Road, Singapore.
32 Variable speed limitsVariable speed limits which change with road congestion and other factors. Typically such speed limits only change to decline during poor conditions, rather than being improved in good ones.Example variable speed limit sign in the United States.
33 Emergency vehicle notification systems The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically via activation of in- vehicle sensors after an accident. When activated, the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the nearest emergency point. The minimum set of data contains information about the incident, including time, precise location, the direction the vehicle was traveling, and vehicle identification.
34 Cooperative systems on the road Communication cooperation on the road includes car-to-car, car-to-infrastructure, and vice versa. Data available from vehicles is acquired and transmitted to a server for central fusion (結合) and processing. This data can be used to detect events such as rain (wiper activity) and congestion (frequent braking activities).The goal of cooperative systems is to use and plan communication and sensor infrastructure in order to increase road safety.