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Introduction The planning aspects of transport engineering relate to urban planning, and involve technical forecasting decisions and political factors.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction The planning aspects of transport engineering relate to urban planning, and involve technical forecasting decisions and political factors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction The planning aspects of transport engineering relate to urban planning, and involve technical forecasting decisions and political factors. Human factors are an aspect of transport engineering, particularly concerning driver- vehicle interface and user interface of road signs, signals, and markings.

2 Technical forecasting of passenger travel usually involves an urban transportation planning model, requiring the estimation of trip generation (how many trips for what purpose), trip distribution (destination choice, where is the traveler going), mode choice (what mode is being taken), and route assignment (which streets or routes are being used).

3 More sophisticated forecasting can include other aspects of traveler decisions, including auto ownership, trip chaining (the decision to link individual trips together in a tour) and the choice of residential or business location (known as land use forecasting). Transportation engineering, as practiced by civil engineers, primarily involves planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of transportation facilities.

4 Operations and management involve traffic engineering, so that vehicles move smoothly on the road or track. Older techniques include signs, signals, markings, and tolling. Newer technologies involve intelligent transportation systems (ITS), including advanced traveler information systems (such as variable message signs), advanced traffic control systems (such as ramp meters), and vehicle infrastructure integration.

5 ITS (Intelligent transportation system)
ITS refers to efforts to add information and communications technology to transport infrastructure and vehicles in an effort to manage factors that typically are at odds (不一致) with each other, such as vehicles, loads, and routes to improve safety and reduce vehicle wear, transportation times, and fuel consumption. ITS comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion(擁塞) and a synergy(協同增效作用) of new information technology for simulation, real-time control, and communications networks.

6 What is ITS? 智慧型運輸系統 (ITS, Intelligent Transportation System)乃是應 用先進的電子、通信、資訊與感測等技術, 以整合人、路、車的管理策略,提供即時 (real-time)資訊以增進運輸系統的安全、效率 及舒適性,同時也減少交通對環境的衝擊。


8 ITS概念模式

9 Congestion reduces efficiency of transportation infrastructure and increases travel time, air pollution, and fuel consumption. "Road operators, infrastructure, vehicles, their drivers and other road users will cooperate to deliver the most efficient, safe, secure and comfortable journey. The vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-infrastructure co-operative systems will contribute to these objectives beyond the improvements achievable with stand-alone systems."

10 為什麼要發展ITS 交通擁擠 交通事故 能源消耗 空氣汙染 運輸需求大幅增加,道路建設緩不濟急,交通擁擠造成運輸機動性與經濟生產力的降低。
車禍死傷嚴重,造成龐大的社會成本與負擔。 公路運輸過度消耗石油能源,造成國家整體資源分配的不均衡。 大量的汽、機車排放廢氣,威脅大自然與環境的永續發展。

11 ITS目標 增進交通安全(減少交通事故,提昇行車安全) 降低環境衝擊(減少空氣、噪音污染,提高能源 使用效率)
改善運輸效率(降低交通擁擠,提高運輸機動性) 提昇經濟生產力(促進相關產業發展,增加就業 機會)

12 Factors for both motorization and urbanization :
industrial economy replaced the agricultural economy. Population to move from rural locations into urban centers. motorization was causing cities to expand. Suburbs (近郊住宅區) provided a reasonable compromise between population density and access to employment, goods, and services. suburban infrastructure could be built quickly, supporting a rapid transition from a rural /agricultural economy to an industrial/urban economy.

13 Further, ITS can play a role in the rapid mass evacuation of people in urban centers after large casualty events such as a result of a natural disaster or threat. Much of the infrastructure and planning involved with ITS parallels the need for homeland security systems. In the developing world, the migration of people from rural to urbanized habitats has progressed differently and supported by a multimodal system of walking, bicycle transportation, motorcycles, buses, and trains.


15 ITS的技術骨幹 資訊收集:感測技術 資訊處理:電腦技術 資訊傳輸:通信技術

16 九大服務領域

17 執行架構

18 The success of ITS is heavily dependent on the availability of timely and accurate estimates of traffic conditions. The needed system is to utilize advanced traffic models to analyze data, especially real-time traffic data, from different sources to estimate and predict traffic conditions so that proactive (前瞻性) Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) and Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) strategies can be implemented to meet various traffic control, management, and operation objectives.

19 先進交通管理系統 (Advanced Traffic Management Systems, ATMS)
ATMS為智慧型運輸系統(ITS)的核心與基礎。 利用偵測、通訊及控制等技術,將交通監控 所得之交通狀況,經由通訊網路傳輸到控制 中心,制定及評估交通控制策略,執行整體 性的交通管理。 相關資訊傳送給用路人與相關道路管理單位, 以達到運輸效率最大化及運輸安全之目的。

20 Active traffic management (ATM), also known as managed lanes or smart lanes, is a scheme for improving traffic flow and reducing congestion on motorways. It has been implemented in several countries, including Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It makes use of automatic systems and human intervention to manage traffic flow and ensure the safety of road users.

21 交通管理功能與其他各功能間的關係

22 ATMS之涵蓋範圍 交通資訊 需求管理 有效改善交通擁擠問題提高交通服務水準 高速公路 匝道控制 幹道號誌 控制

23 ATMS之相關技術 地理資訊系統 電腦交通號誌 行進間測重 匝道儀控 自動車輛分類 事件自動偵測 電子式自動收費 動態交通預測 自動車輛辨識
最佳路線導引 電腦交通號誌 匝道儀控 事件自動偵測 動態交通預測 自動車輛定位 可變訊息標誌


25 Intelligent transportation applications
Electronic toll collection (ETC) makes it possible for vehicles to drive through toll gates at traffic speed, reducing congestion at toll plazas and automating toll collection. Most ETC systems were based on using radio devices in vehicles that would use proprietary (專利的) protocols to identify a vehicle as it passed under a gantry over the roadway.

26 Many ETC systems use transponders like this one to electronically debit the accounts of registered cars without their stopping Norway now has 25 toll roads operating with electronic fee collection (EFC), as the Norwegian technology is called (see AutoPASS). In 1995, Portugal became the first country to apply a single, universal system to all tolls in the country,

27 電子式自動收費

28 Automated vehicle identification
Some early AVI (Automated vehicle identification) systems used barcodes affixed to each vehicle, to be read optically at the toll booth. Optical systems proved to have poor reading reliability, especially when faced with inclement weather and dirty vehicles. Most current AVI systems rely on radio- frequency identification, where an antenna at the toll gate communicates with a transponder on the vehicle via Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC).

29 High occupancy toll lanes
High occupancy toll lanes (HOT lanes) is a road pricing scheme that gives motorists in single- occupant vehicles access to high-occupancy vehicle lanes (or "HOV lanes"). Typically, these tolls increase as traffic density and congestion within the tolled lanes increases, a policy known as congestion pricing. The goal of this pricing scheme is to minimize traffic congestion within the lanes.

30 Cordon zones with congestion pricing
The main objective of this charge is to reduce traffic congestion within the cordon area. This fee or toll is charged automatically using electronic toll collection or automatic number plate recognition, since stopping the users at conventional toll booths would cause long queues, long delays, and even gridlock (市區交 通大堵塞).

31 Cordon zones (管制區) have been implemented in Singapore, Stockholm, and London, where a congestion charge or fee is collected from vehicles entering a congested city center. Congestion pricing gantry at North Bridge Road, Singapore.

32 Variable speed limits Variable speed limits which change with road congestion and other factors. Typically such speed limits only change to decline during poor conditions, rather than being improved in good ones. Example variable speed limit sign in the United States.

33 Emergency vehicle notification systems
The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically via activation of in- vehicle sensors after an accident. When activated, the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the nearest emergency point. The minimum set of data contains information about the incident, including time, precise location, the direction the vehicle was traveling, and vehicle identification.

34 Cooperative systems on the road
Communication cooperation on the road includes car-to-car, car-to-infrastructure, and vice versa. Data available from vehicles is acquired and transmitted to a server for central fusion (結合) and processing. This data can be used to detect events such as rain (wiper activity) and congestion (frequent braking activities). The goal of cooperative systems is to use and plan communication and sensor infrastructure in order to increase road safety.

35 先進用路人資訊系統 (Advanced Traveler Information Systems, ATIS)
使其能於車內、家裡、辦公室、車站等地 點方便地取得所需之資訊,作為旅次產生、 運具與路線選擇之決策參考,以順利到達 目的地。

36 ATIS之相關技術 最佳路線導引 可變訊息標誌 無線電通訊 公路路況廣播 電視路況報導、電傳視訊 全球衛星定位系統 旅行服務資訊
整體服務數位網路 可變訊息標誌 公路路況廣播 全球衛星定位系統 地理資訊系統 車內顯示系統

37 可變訊息標誌 (Changeable Message Signs, CMS)
可變訊息標誌乃是一種可程式化的交通管 理設施,其透過文字或圖形符號來傳達各 項動態的控制或警告訊息給道路使用者, 藉以增進道路使用率,並減低意外事故。 當其應用於高速公路時,主要在顯示前方 交通管制或警告、一般狀況以及宣導等訊 息。

38 CMS常見顯示內容

39 CMS常見顯示內容

40 先進公共運輸系統 (Advanced Public Transportation Systems, APTS)
先進大眾運輸系統(APTS)係將先進交通管理 系統(ATMS)、先進用路人資訊系統(ATIS)與 先進車輛控制及安全系統(AVCSS)之技術應 用於公共運輸,以改善公共運輸服務品質, 提高營運效率,增加公共運輸之吸引力。 APTS服務項目: 路徑中大眾資訊 大眾運輸系統管理 個人大眾運輸 大眾運輸旅行安全

41 APTS之相關技術包括 自動車輛監視(Automatic Vehicle Monitoring, AVM) 自動車輛定位(AVL)
雙向無線電通訊 電子式自動付費(Electronic Fare Payment, EFP) 最佳路線導引 公車電腦排班 公車電腦輔助調度 車內顯示系統

42 APTS系統架構圖 TMIC 之公車營管中心 路側子系統 ¡] RSU¡^ 車輛子系統 ( OBC) 聯外子系統 (ISP) 中心子系統
優先號誌 資訊查詢站 ˙同質單位:北市交控中心 ˙異質單位:公車、鐵路、捷運、飛航管理單位 TMIC 之公車營管中心 交通資訊站 TCIS 路側子系統 ¡] RSU¡^ 2. 廣域 WAN 1.區域 LAN 信號柱 無線通訊業者 車輛子系統 ( OBC) 聯外子系統 (ISP) 中心子系統 3.短距無線通訊 DSRC 4.長距無線通訊 WAC 2.廣域 5.廣域 公司、家戶 Desktop WAP PDA 其他用路人 子系統 智慧型公車站牌 公車車載電腦 定位 承載率 行車記錄 交通資訊 接收 到站訊息 交通資料庫 策略 資料融合 資料交換 定位資料 WEB 伺服

43 APTS運作示意簡圖

44 目前應用APTS通訊系統之規劃 公車站牌動態資訊顯示 車上資訊顯示 公車定位輔助 車隊運作與管理 大眾運輸旅行安全系統

45 先進車輛控制及安全系統 (Advanced Vehicle Control and Safety Systems, AVCSS)
本系統之主要特色係利用感測器協助人類 感官功能之不足,減少危險之發生;提高 自動控制之程度,從事更安全、準確、可 靠之控制,彌補駕駛人因判斷錯誤及技術 不佳所造成的疏失與危險。

46 360度全方位防撞系統示意圖

47 實例 A發現前方塞車 A將資訊傳給後方來車 B受到資訊後傳達給可能朝這方向的CDE CDE收到此訊息,可以決定是否改變路線
1.道路發生塞車、事故等: A發現前方塞車 A將資訊傳給後方來車 B受到資訊後傳達給可能朝這方向的CDE CDE收到此訊息,可以決定是否改變路線 2.同一車道上的訊息傳輸: FG行進間影像相互交換

48 實例

49 夜間行人監視器系統(Night Pedestrian Monitor)

50 路面監視器 (Road Surface Monitor)

51 側後警示(Side-rear Warning)

52 先進煞車輔助(Advanced Brake Assist)

53 先進預視距離控制(Advanced Preview Distance Control)

54 商用車輛營運系統 (Commercial Vehicle Operation Services, CVOS)
係利用ATMS、ATIS與AVCSS之技術於商 業營運車輛,以提昇運輸效率及安全,並 減少人力成本,提高生產力。 所謂「商用車輛」不僅包括大型與重型車 輛(如卡車、貨車),也包括緊急救援用 車輛(如救護車、拖吊車),以及每日運 作的商用小型車(如計程車)等。

55 CVOS 之相關技術包括 行進間測重(WIM) 自動車輛監視(AVM) 電子式自動收費(ETC) 自動車輛定位(AVL)
雙向無線電通訊 商車電腦輔助調度 行進間測重(WIM) 電子式自動收費(ETC) 自動車輛辨識(AVI) 最佳路線導引 自動貨物辨識(ACI) 等

56 自動車輛定位(AVL)

57 車輛監控

58 最佳路線導引

59 弱勢使用者保護服務 (Vulnerable Individual Protection Services, VIPS)
使用者服務項目包括: 行人/自行車騎士安全:提供行人與自行車騎士安全維護之服務。 機車騎士安全:提供機車騎士安全維護之服務。

60 有聲號誌設備

61 參考資料 中華智慧型運輸系統協會 交通部運輸研究所

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