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CHAPTER 11 Endocrine System 韦 红 巧.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 Endocrine System 韦 红 巧."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 11 Endocrine System 韦 红 巧

2 CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Hypothalamus and Pituitary 3. Thyroid
4. Adrenal gland 5. Pancreas 6. Parathyroid

3 SECTION 1 Introduction Composing and Function of Endocrine System.
Definition and Chemical Classification of Hormone (激素). General Characteristics of Hormone. Mechanisms of Hormone Action. Control of Hormone Secretion

4 The endocrine system is one of major communication systems in the body.
The endocrine system consists of endocrine glands , tissues and cells that are able to produce hormones .

5 Hypothalamus Pituitary
Main endocrine glands: Hypothalamus Pituitary Thyroid Parathyroid Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Pancreas Ovary / Testis

6 Hormone(激素):are chemical messengers or signal molecules produced by endocrine glands / tissues /cells , which are carried by body fluid (blood or interstitial fluid) to the target organs where they produce messengers’ effect.

7 Modes of Delivery for Hormone 激素传递的方式:
Classical endocrine Paracrine Autocrine Neuroendocrine

8 Chemical Classification of Hormones
Amine Hormones NE、E、T3、T4等 Polypeptide and Protein Hormones 多数H Steroid Hormones Cortisol Aldosterone

9 General Characteristics of Hormones
Information transport effect of hormone (激素的信息传递作用) Transport information among cells, regulate their actions. First message

10 一个TRH Super-effect biologic blow up effect of hormone 十万个TSH
(激素的高效能生物活性) Hormones are present in the blood or tissues are in low concentrations, but their effects is higher action. 十万个TSH 酶促逐级放大作用 一个TRH

11 Target organ Target tissue Target cell Target gland R
Comparatively peculiar of hormone action Target organ Target tissue Target cell Target gland (激素作用的相对特异性) Only act on some specifically cells H1 R1 R H R2

12 Synergistic action 协同作用 Antagonistic action 拮抗作用
Mutual effect among hormones Three forms: Synergistic action 协同作用 Antagonistic action 拮抗作用 Permissiveness 允许作用 (激素间的相互作用)

13 Synergistic action Growth hormone (GH) Adrenaline Increase level of blood glucose Mutual effect among hormones is intensive each other. 升糖

14 升糖 Antagonistic action
Insulin Glucagon Blood glucose Blood glucose Mutual effect among hormones is inhibitory each other . 升糖 降糖

15 Permissiveness Epinephrine causes vasoconstriction in all ports of the peripheral circulation, but only in the presence of permissive amounts of glucocorticoid. The permissive action of glucocorticoid is the most obvious in our body. Hormone A must be present for the full strength of hormone B's effect. 糖皮质激素 心血管 儿茶酚胺

16 Mechanisms of Hormone Action
Hormone Receptors 1. Membrane receptors(细胞膜受体)are located on the target cell surface or membrane. Large proteins or Glycoproteins (糖蛋白) Polypeptide /Amine hormones

17 2.Intracellular receptors(细胞内受体)are located in the nucleus or the cytoplasm
Steroid hormone T3、T4 可分为: Nuclear Receptor 核受体 Extranuclear Receptor 胞质受体

18 Receptor regulation Up-regulation is an increase in the number of a hormone's receptors . Down-regulation is a decrease in the number of a hormone's receptors.

19 激素与受体结合时,使受体的亲和力和数量增加称上调;反之称下调。
受体调节 指对受体数量及亲和力的调控或影响。 激素与受体结合时,使受体的亲和力和数量增加称上调;反之称下调。

20 Mechanisms of Cell Signal Transduction Mediated by Hormone Receptor

21 1. Signal Transduction Mediated by Membrane receptors
(激素膜受体的信号转导) 胺类、蛋白质和肽类H,除T3、T4外

22 第二信使学说 (Second Messenger Theory)
(1)G-Protein-Linked Receptor Pathway G蛋白-GDP 第一信使+R G蛋白-GTP 效应器酶 蛋白激酶 及其他 第二信使前体 细胞功能改变 第二信使 第二信使学说 (Second Messenger Theory)

23 First messenger:Hormone
Effector Enzyme:AC(腺苷酸环化酶) PLC(磷酯酶C)等 Second messenger:cAMP、IP3、DAG、 cGMP、Ca2+等 (第一信使) (效应器酶) (第二信使)

24 1)AC- cAMP pathway 第二信使学说

25 2)PLC- IP3 和 DAG pathway 磷脂酰二磷酸肌醇PIP2 第二信使学说

26 (2)Protein Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Pathway
酪氨酸蛋白激酶受体 蛋白质酪氨酸残基磷酸化 基因转录 Insulin、GH

27 基因表达学说 (Gene Express Theory)
2. Signal Transduction Mediated by Intracellular receptors (激素胞内受体的信号转导) Steroid Hormone 、T3、 T4、 Vit D3 基因表达学说 (Gene Express Theory)

28 Gene Express Theory chromatin

29 Steroid Hormone (类固醇激素) ↓ Hormone- Extranuclear Receptor Combo
Hormone- Nuclear Receptor Combo Activate the transcription process of genes mRNA Form new proteins Enter the Cell Transported into the Nucleus 基因表达学说

30 Control of Hormone Secretion
Control by Negative Feedback Control by Neurons Control by Other Hormones Control by Positive Feedback Control by Cyclical Variations

31 SECTION 2 Hypothalamus and Pituitary (下丘脑与垂体)

32 Learning objectives: Outline the relation between Hypothalamus and Pituitary Definition , kinds and functions of Hypothalamic regulatory peptide List the hormones of pituitary and their actions


34 (下丘脑-腺垂体功能系统) (下丘脑-神经垂体功能系统) Hypothalamus – Adenohypophysial
Functional System (下丘脑-腺垂体功能系统) Hypothalamus – Neurohypophysial (下丘脑-神经垂体功能系统) 下丘脑

35 Hypothalamus and Adenohypophysis
Neuroendocrine cell (神经内分泌细胞) 下丘脑

36 Hypothalamic regulatory peptide
下丘脑调节肽 ( HRP) HRP are neuropeptides secreted by hypothalamic neurons that act on the anterior pituitary cells to control the synthesis and/or secretion of the anterior pituitary hormones .

37 下丘脑调节肽 ( HRP ) 概念: 下丘脑促垂体区肽能神经元 分泌调节腺垂体的内分泌活动的肽类 激素.

38 HRP包括 : Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone(CRH) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) Growth hormone inhibitory hormone (GHIH) Prolactin releasing factor (PRF) Prolactin inhibitory factor (PIF) Melanocyte releasing factor (MRF) Melanocyte inhibitory factor (MIF)

39 HRP包括 (9种): 促甲状腺素释放激素(TRH) 促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素(CRH) 促性腺素释放激素(GnRH)
生长素释放激素(GHRH) 生长素抑制激素(GHRIH) 催乳素释放因子(PRF) 催乳素释放抑制因子(PIF) 促黑激素释放因子(MRF) 促黑激素释放抑制因子(MIF)

40 1. GHRIH和GHRH GHRH: 弓 状 核 腹内侧核 Adenohypophysis分泌GH GHRH 脉冲式 2+ cAMP.Ca

其 他 Adenohypophysis分泌GH、 LH、FSH、 TSH、PRL、ACTH GHRIH 2+ cAMP.Ca

42 2. TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone)
Adenohypophysis释放TSH、PRL IP -DG 3

43 3.CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone)
室 旁 核 其他部位 Adenohypophysis释放ACTH CRH 脉冲式 2+ cAMP.Ca

44 4.GnRH 弓状核、室旁核 GnRH 内 侧 视 前 区 Adenohypophysis 释放LH、FSH 脉冲式 IP -DG 3

45 5. PRF和PIF 作用:调控 Adenohypophysis 分泌 PRL

46 6. MRF和MIF 作用:调控 Adenohypophysis 释放 MSH

47 Hormones of Adenohypophysis
(腺垂体激素) Growth hormone (GH) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Prolactin (PRL) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Polypeptide

48 Hormones of Adenohypophysis
(腺垂体激素) 促甲状腺激素(TSH) 促肾上腺皮质激素 (ATCH) 促卵胞激素(FSH) 黄体生成素 (LH) 生长素 (GH) 催乳素 ( PRL) 促黑激素(MSH)

49 1.Growth Hormone ,GH (1) Actions of GH 1) Promote growth

50 骨、软骨、肌肉等细胞分裂 蛋 白 质 合 成 1)促进生长作用 生长 介素 IGF-I IGF-II 生长介素 (胰岛素样生长因子)

51 幼年期:GH Dwarfism 侏儒症 GH Giant巨人症 成年后:GH Acromegaly 肢端肥大症

52 Dwarfism

53 Giant Acromegaly

54 2) Metabolic effects of GH
①Increase rate of protein synthesis in most cells of the body. ② Increase mobilization of fatty acids , and increase use of the fatty acids for energy. ③ Decrease rate of carbohydrate utilization throughout the boy , then increases the blood sugar level. Promote metabolism Enhance body protein Use up the fat stores Conserve carbohydrates

55 2)促进代谢作用 ① 促进蛋白质合成 ② 促进脂肪分解、FA氧化 ③ 抑制外周组织摄取及利用糖 垂体性糖尿病

56 (2) Control of GH secretion
1)Control by Hypothalamus : 2)Control by Negative Feedback : GH↑→ GHRH ↓ ; IGF-I↑ →GHRIH↑→GH↓← IGF-I↑ 3) Metabolic factors : 血糖↓、AA↑、FA↑→GH↑ GHRH↑→GH↑; GHIH↑→GH↓

57 4) Control by Other Hormones
T 3T4、 Ins、雌H、雄H → GH↑ 皮质醇→GH↓ 5) Sleep : SWS(慢波睡眠)→GH↑; FWS(快波/异相睡眠)→GH↓ 6) Exercise →GH↑, Aging →GH↓

58 2. Prolactin , PRL(催乳素) (1)Actions of Prolactin 1) Prolactin promotes the growth of mammary glands and is required to initiate and maintain milk production.

59 1) 对乳腺:促进妊娠期乳腺发育,引起并维持泌乳
青春期乳腺发育 妊娠期乳腺发育 乳腺分泌 雌H、孕H GH、GC Insulin PRL T3T4 雌H 孕H PRL PRL

60 2)Sex gland: PRL刺激卵泡黄体生成素(LH)受体生成,小量PRL对孕激素合成起允许作用,大量则抑制孕激素的合成。PRL还能促进前列腺及精囊腺的生长,增强LH对间质细胞的作用,睾酮合成增加。 3)Participate in Stress Reaction (应激反应)

61 3. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone MSH
(促黑激素) 促进黑素细胞合成黑色素,使皮肤毛发颜色加深。

62 Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH,促甲状腺素):促进甲状腺细胞的增生和甲状腺激素的合成。
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH,促肾上腺皮质激素):主要作用是促进肾上腺皮质增生和糖皮质激素的合成与释放。

63 促性腺激素: 包括促卵泡激素(FSH)和黄体生成素(LH)。

64 Hypothalamus and Neurohypophysis

65 Hormones of Neurohypophysis
神经垂体激素 Paraventricular nucleus (室旁核) Supraoptic nucleus (视上核) Oxytocin AVP or ADH

66 1. Vasopressin (VP,血管升压素即Antidiuretic Hormone,ADH (抗利尿激素) (1)抗利尿作用:促进远曲小管和集合管对水的重吸收(详见肾脏章) (2)升血压作用:大剂量收缩血管,升高血压(脱水,失血时增多).

67 2. Oxytocin (催产素 ) 作用: (1)对乳腺(mammary glands) :引起射乳并维持哺乳期乳腺不致萎缩

68 (2)对子宫(uterus): 促进妊娠子宫收缩
(可用于催产,引产与产后止血) OXT 2+ Ca

69 1.进入“内分泌2” 2.返回“神经6” 3.结束 4.返回主菜单

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