3 SECTION 1 Introduction Composing and Function of Endocrine System. Definition and Chemical Classification of Hormone (激素).General Characteristics of Hormone.Mechanisms of Hormone Action.Control of Hormone Secretion
4 The endocrine system is one of major communication systems in the body. The endocrine system consists of endocrine glands , tissues and cells that are able to produce hormones .
6 Hormone(激素):are chemical messengers or signal molecules produced by endocrine glands / tissues /cells , which are carried by body fluid (blood or interstitial fluid) to the target organs where they produce messengers’ effect.
7 Modes of Delivery for Hormone 激素传递的方式: Classical endocrineParacrineAutocrineNeuroendocrine
8 Chemical Classification of Hormones Amine HormonesNE、E、T3、T4等Polypeptide and Protein Hormones多数HSteroid HormonesCortisolAldosterone
9 General Characteristics of Hormones Information transport effect of hormone(激素的信息传递作用)Transport information among cells, regulate their actions.First message
10 一个TRH Super-effect biologic blow up effect of hormone 十万个TSH (激素的高效能生物活性)Hormones are present in the blood or tissues are in low concentrations, but their effects is higher action.十万个TSH酶促逐级放大作用一个TRH
11 Target organ Target tissue Target cell Target gland R Comparatively peculiar of hormone actionTarget organTarget tissueTarget cellTarget gland(激素作用的相对特异性)Only act on some specifically cellsH1R1RH R2
13 Synergistic actionGrowth hormone (GH)AdrenalineIncrease level of blood glucoseMutual effect among hormones is intensive each other.升糖
14 升糖 Antagonistic action Insulin GlucagonBlood glucose Blood glucoseMutual effect among hormones is inhibitory each other .升糖降糖
15 PermissivenessEpinephrine causes vasoconstriction in all ports of the peripheral circulation, but only in the presence of permissive amounts of glucocorticoid. The permissive action of glucocorticoid is the most obvious in our body.Hormone A must be present for the full strength of hormone B's effect.糖皮质激素心血管儿茶酚胺
16 Mechanisms of Hormone Action Hormone Receptors1. Membrane receptors(细胞膜受体)are located on the target cell surface or membrane.Large proteins or Glycoproteins(糖蛋白)Polypeptide /Amine hormones
17 2.Intracellular receptors(细胞内受体)are located in the nucleus or the cytoplasm Steroid hormone T3、T4可分为：Nuclear Receptor 核受体Extranuclear Receptor 胞质受体
18 Receptor regulationUp-regulation is an increase in the number of a hormone's receptors .Down-regulation is a decrease in the number of a hormone's receptors.
29 Steroid Hormone (类固醇激素) ↓ Hormone- Extranuclear Receptor Combo Hormone- Nuclear Receptor ComboActivate the transcription process of genesmRNAForm new proteinsEnter the CellTransported into the Nucleus基因表达学说
30 Control of Hormone Secretion Control by Negative FeedbackControl by NeuronsControl by Other HormonesControl by Positive FeedbackControl by Cyclical Variations
35 Hypothalamus and Adenohypophysis Neuroendocrine cell(神经内分泌细胞)下丘脑
36 Hypothalamic regulatory peptide 下丘脑调节肽 ( HRP)HRP are neuropeptides secreted by hypothalamic neurons that act on the anterior pituitary cells to control the synthesis and/or secretion of the anterior pituitary hormones .
54 2) Metabolic effects of GH ①Increase rate of protein synthesis in most cells of the body.② Increase mobilization of fatty acids , and increase use of the fatty acids for energy.③ Decrease rate of carbohydrate utilization throughout the boy , then increases the blood sugar level.Promote metabolismEnhance body proteinUse up the fat storesConserve carbohydrates