7 犹太人的节期 犹太历分民事历和宗教历 出埃及前，人们以收割后为一年始(出23:16)(民事历) 宗教背景犹太人的节期犹太历分民事历和宗教历出埃及前，人们以收割后为一年始(出23:16)(民事历)出12:2定亚笔月(Abib, 或尼散月Nisan)为正月(宗教历)In Exodus 12:2 Abib (Nisan) was designated as “the first month of the year,” and later the other sacred occasions were dated by the number of months after it. However, before the Exodus, people probably regarded the year to begin after the harvest of crops. Thus the Feast of Tabernacles, which was also called “the feast of ingathering,” though in the seventh month, was said to be “at the end of the year” (Exodus 23:16), when the people has finished their harvesting (Deut 16:13). For centuries the Jewish people have celebrated the Feast of Trumpets (“the first day of the seventh month”, Lev. 23:24) as the New Year’s Day (Rosh Hashana, “Head of the Year”). Apparently they had two calendars, one religious, from Nisan through Adar, and the other civil, from Tishri through Elul.
10 犹太人的文献 旧约圣经(摩西五经、先知书、著作)(为耶稣所肯定，约10:35) 次经(Apocrypha, 未为耶稣和使徒所肯定) 宗教背景犹太人的文献旧约圣经(摩西五经、先知书、著作)(为耶稣所肯定，约10:35)次经(Apocrypha, 未为耶稣和使徒所肯定)米示拿(Mishnah，c.a. 200AD)，记载拉比的教训他勒目(Talmud，c.a. 400AD)，记载拉比的教训他耳根(Targums)，亚兰文翻译的旧约，新约时代为口传，后成文犹太史学家约瑟夫(Josephus, AD)的犹太古史和犹太战记犹太哲学家斐罗(Philo, 1st cent.)的著作Mention: Legalists pushed the Sabbath law to the extremes.The Mishnah or Mishna (Hebrew: משנה, "repetition", from the verb shanah שנה, or "to study and review", also "secondary" (derived from the adj. שני)) is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic Judaism.The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root lmd "teach, study") is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history.The Talmud has two components: the Mishnah (Hebrew: משנה)(c. 200 CE), the first written compendium of Judaism's Oral Law; and the Gemara (c. 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible.The terms Talmud and Gemara are often used interchangeably. The Gemara is the basis for all codes of rabbinic law and is much quoted in other rabbinic literature. The whole Talmud is also traditionally referred to as Shas (ש״ס), a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, the "six orders" of the Mishnah.
20 四位福音书作者 四福音与四活物(结1:4-10, 启4:6-8) 四福音书的特点 Since early Christianity, theologians and artists have delighted in finding parallels and connections between various aspects of the Bible, and the Four Evangelists have long been associated with the four "living creatures" who surround God's throne in Ezekiel and Revelation.The symbolism of each of the Four Evangelists and their gospels was first established in the 5th century and little changed since。Peter Paul Rubens – The Four Evangelists (1614)
21 四位福音书作者(续) 马太 马可 路加 约翰 启示录中的活物 人 狮子 牛 鹰 象征 人性，理性 权能，勇气，复活，君王 牺牲，服事，力量 四福音书的特点四位福音书作者(续)马太马可路加约翰启示录中的活物人狮子牛鹰象征人性，理性权能，勇气，复活，君王牺牲，服事，力量天，天堂，灵，神性福音书主题基督的人性基督为王基督为祭司和祭物基督的神性福音书始于基督从亚伯拉罕开始的家谱施洗约翰在旷野象狮子般的喊叫；耶稣在旷野与野兽同在一处撒迦利亚在圣殿服事基督是道Evangelists' symbolsThe symbols of the four Evangelists are here depicted in the Book of Kells. The four winged creatures symbolize, clockwise from top left, Matthew, Mark, John, and Luke.In iconography the evangelists often appear in Evangelist portraits derived from classical tradition, and are also frequently represented by the following symbols, which originate from the four "living creatures" that draw the throne-chariot of God, the Merkabah, in the vision in the Book of Ezekiel (Chapter 1) reflected in the Book of Revelation (4.6-9ff), though neither source links the creatures to the Evangelists. They are normally, but not invariably, all shown with wings like angels. The meanings accruing to the symbols grew over centuries, with an early formulation by Jerome, and were fully expressed by Rabanus Maurus, who set out three layers of meaning for the beasts, as representing firstly the Evangelists, secondly the nature of Christ, and thirdly the virtues required of a Christian for salvation:Matthew the Evangelist, the author of the first gospel account is symbolized by a winged man, or angel. Matthew's gospel starts with Jesus' genealogy from Abraham; it represents Jesus' Incarnation, and so Christ's human nature. This signifies that Christians should use their reason for salvation.Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel account is symbolized by a winged lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. Mark has John the Baptist preaching "like a lion roaring" at the beginning of his Gospel. It also represents Jesus' Resurrection (because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, a comparison with Christ in the tomb), and Christ as king. This signifies that Christians should be courageous on the path of salvation.Luke the Evangelist, the author of the third gospel account (and the Acts of the Apostles) is symbolized by a winged ox or bull – a figure of sacrifice, service and strength. Luke's account begins with the duties of Zacharias in the temple; it represents Jesus' sacrifice in His Passion and Crucifixion, as well as Christ being High priest (this also represents Mary's obedience). The ox signifies that Christians should be prepared to sacrifice themselves in following Christ.John the Evangelist, the author of the fourth gospel account is symbolized by an eagle – a figure of the sky, and believed to be able to look straight into the sun. John starts with an eternal overview of Jesus the Logos and goes on to describe many things with a "higher" level than the other three (synoptic) gospels; it represents Jesus' Ascension, and Christ's divine nature. This represents that Christians should look on eternity without flinching as they journey towards their goal of union with God.Each of the symbols is depicted with wings following the biblical sources first in Ezekiel 1-2, and in Revelation. The symbols are shown with, or in place of, the Evangelists in early medieval Gospel Books, and are the usual accompaniment to Christ in Majesty when portrayed during the same period, reflecting the vision in Revelations. They were presented as one of the most common motifs found on church portals and apses, as well as many other locations. When surrounding Christ, the figure of the man is usually at top left – above Christ's right hand, with the lion above Christ's left arm. Underneath the man is the ox and underneath the lion is the eagle. This both reflects the medieval idea of the order of "nobility" of nature of the beasts (man, lion, ox, eagle) and the text of Ezekiel From the thirteenth century their use began to decline, as a new conception of Christ in Majesty, showing the wounds of the Passion, began to be used. Sometimes in Evangelist portraits they appear to dictate to the writing evangelist. All four evangelists are all Jesus's disciples.
23 四福音书的特点四位福音书作者(续)The Book of Kells (Irish: Leabhar Cheanannais) (Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I. (58), sometimes known as the Book of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables. It was created by Celtic monks ca. 800 or slightly earlier. The text of the Gospels is largely drawn from the Vulgate, although it also includes several passages drawn from the earlier versions of the Bible known as the Vetus Latina. It is a masterwork of Western calligraphy and represents the pinnacle of Insular illumination. It is also widely regarded as Ireland's finest national treasure.Kells Folio – Symbols of The Four Evangelists (c. 800)