Communicating Customer Value: Advertising and Public Relations Chapter 12 Global Edition.
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Communicating Customer Value: Advertising and Public Relations Chapter 12 Global Edition
Rest Stop: Previewing the Concepts (p.382) Define the five promotion mix tools for communicating customer value 定義五種推廣工具 Discuss the changing communications landscape and the need for integrated marketing communications 溝通環境改變與整合性行銷溝通 Describe and discuss the major decisions involved in developing an advertising program 廣告策略 Explain how companies use public relations to communicate with their publics 公共關係 12 - 2
12 - 3 The specific blend of promotion tools that the company uses to persuasively communicate customer value and build customer relationships. 一組特定推廣工具，企業用來溝通顧客 價值與建立顧客關係。 The Promotion mix (p.385)
Advertising Public Relations Sales Promotion Personal Selling Direct Marketing The Promotion Mix (p.386)
Advertising Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. 特定的贊助者用非人員的方式展現或推廣構想、產品 與服務 Sales Promotion Short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service. 給予短期誘因以鼓勵銷售或購買產品或服務 銷售促進的對象包括中間商、銷售人員與消費者
Public Relations Building good relations with the company’s various publics by obtaining favorable publicity, building up a good corporate image, and handling or heading off unfavorable rumors, stories, and events. 透過有利的公開報導、建立良好公司形象與處 理或移除不利公司的謠言、傳說與事件，以逹 到與公眾建立良好關係的結果 The Promotion Mix (p.386)
Personal Selling Personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships. 透過公司的銷售團隊以人員呈現的方式來建立 顧客關係或促成交易 The Promotion Mix (p.386)
Direct Marketing Direct connections with carefully targeted individual consumers to both obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships—the use of telephone, mail, fax, e-mail, the Internet, and other tools to communicate directly with specific consumers. 與審慎選擇的個別顧客進行接觸，以產生立即 回應與深耕顧客關係 — 通常使用電話、信件、 電子郵件、網路等，與特定顧客直接溝通 The Promotion Mix (p.386) 企業與消費者 的溝通僅靠溝 通組合嗎？
At the same time, marketing communication goes beyond these specific promotion tools. The product’s design, its price, the shape and color of its package, and the stores that sell it—all communicate something to buyers. Thus, although the promotion mix is the company’s primary communication activity, the entire marketing mix—promotion and product, price, and place—must be coordinated for greatest communication impact. The Promotion Mix (p.386)
The New Marketing Communications Model (p.385) Consumers are changing They are better informed and more communications empowered. 消費者溝通管道增加，被動告知 主動出擊 Marketing strategies are changing Mass markets have fragmented, leading to a more focused, narrowly defined micromarkets. 大眾市場分裂，目標市場選擇更具焦，更明確定義的微行銷 Sweeping advances in communications technology Technologies create new information and communication tools—from smartphones and iPads to satellite and online social networks… 科技創造全新的溝通工具與方式
The New Marketing Communications Model (p.385) Advertisers are now adding a broad selection of more- specialized and highly targeted media to reach smaller customer segments with more-personalized, interactive messages. 廣告主使用更專業、更目標導向的媒體來接觸 區隔更小、更個人化、更互動的目標市場 The new media range from specialty cable television channels and made-for-the-Web videos to Internet catalogs, e-mail, blogs, mobile phone content, and online social networks. 媒體更多元 Companies these days are doing less broadcasting and more narrowcasting 寬播 窄播 12 - 11
The Need for IMC (p.387) Companies fail to integrate their various communications channels. The result is a hodgepodge of communications to consumers. Conflicting messages from different sources can create confusion or blur brand perceptions. 訊息衝突、矛盾、破壞品牌認知 More companies are adopting the concept of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC). 溝通工具的整合與溝通內容的協調
Integrated Marketing Communications Recognize all points where the customer may encounter the company’s brands Deliver a consistent and positive message at each contact 找出品牌接觸點 每 個點傳送方式雖然不 同，但訊息是一致的 12 - 15 The “HD loves HB” integrated marketing communications campaign uses a rich, well-coordinated blend of promotion elements to successfully deliver Häagen-Dazs’ unique message
Shaping the Overall Promotion Mix (p.390) According to IMC, company must blend the promotion tools carefully into a coordinated promotion mix. Companies and brands within the same industry differ greatly in the design of their promotion mix. Mary Kay: personal selling and direct marketing CoverGirl: consumer advertising HP: retailer advertising and promotion Dell: uses only direct marketing
Factors that influence promotion mix design (pp. 392-393) The nature of each promotion tool 推廣工具的特質 Promotion mix strategies: push or pull 推廣策略 Product type 產品類型 Market type 市場類型 B2B vs. B2C Product life-cycle stage 產品生命週期階段 Consumers‘ response stage 消費者反應階段 Promotion budget 推廣預算 …
The nature of promotion tool ： Advertising (p.390) Reaches masses of geographically dispersed buyers at a low cost per exposure. (Super Bowl reaches 111 million Americans.) 接觸面廣 Enables the seller to repeat a message often 重覆播出 Consumers tend to view advertised products as more legitimate 有廣告的產品比較有保障 Can build up long-term image for a product 建立形象 Can trigger quick sales 帶動銷售 Is impersonal, one-way communication 非人的，單向 溝通 Can be very costly for some media types 媒體成本高
The nature of promotion tool ： Personal Selling (p.391) Involves personal interaction between two or more people. 二人以上互動 Involves personal interaction between two or more people. Buyers feel a greater need to listen and respond to personal selling. 二人以上互動 Allows all kind of customer relationships to spring up 建立關係與雙向溝通 Is most effective in building up buyers’ preferences, convictions, and actions. 建立偏好、說服、採取行 動最有效 Most expensive promotion tool. 最貴啦
The Nature of Sales Promotion (p.391) Wide assortment of tools. 種類繁多 Wide assortment of tools. 種類繁多 Attracts consumer attention. 吸引消費者注意 Attracts consumer attention. 吸引消費者注意 Offers strong incentives to purchase 提供購買誘因 Offers strong incentives to purchase 提供購買誘因 Can be used to dramatize product offers and boost sagging sales. 促銷方案戲劇化、提升銷售 Can be used to dramatize product offers and boost sagging sales. 促銷方案戲劇化、提升銷售 Invites and rewards quick responses Invites and rewards quick responses 激發與獎勵消費者快 速反應 Effects are short-lived Effects are short-lived 效果短暫 Not very effective in building long-run brand preference and customer relationships 無法建立品牌偏好與顧客關係 Not very effective in building long-run brand preference and customer relationships 無法建立品牌偏好與顧客關係 許多行銷經理最愛此種推廣，但是負面影響更多 許多行銷經理最愛此種推廣，但是負面影響更多 史上最成功促銷活動為 7-11 Hello Kitty 吸鐡石贈送案 史上最成功促銷活動為 7-11 Hello Kitty 吸鐡石贈送案 12 - 20
The nature of promotion tool ： Public Relations (p.391) Is very believable. 可信度高 Is very believable. 可信度高 who avoid salespeople and ads). 接觸廣泛潛在顧客 Reaches many prospects (who avoid salespeople and ads). 接觸廣泛潛在顧客 Can dramatize a company or product. 戲劇化 Can dramatize a company or product. 戲劇化. 好好規劃與使用可變成既有效又經濟的工 具 Economical if used with other mix elements. 好好規劃與使用可變成既有效又經濟的工 具
The nature of promotion tool ： Direct Marketing (p.392) Many forms of direct marketing exist Many forms of direct marketing exist Direct marketing forms share four primary characteristics: Direct marketing forms share four primary characteristics: Less public 非公開 (directed to a specific person) Less public 非公開 (directed to a specific person) Immediate 即時性 Immediate 即時性 Customized 客製化 Customized 客製化 Interactive 互動性 Interactive 互動性 Well suited to highly targeted marketing Well suited to highly targeted marketing
Sales force ( 銷售團隊 ) and trade promotion ( 中間 商推廣 ) are used to push the product through channels. Producer promotes the product to channel members who in turn promote it to final consumers. Push strategy Company spends a lot of money on consumer advertising and promotion ( 消費者廣告與促銷 ) to induce ( 吸引 ) final consumers to buy the product, creating a demand vacuum ( 需求吸引力 ) that pulls the product through the channel. Pull strategy
Figure 12.3 – Major Advertising Decisions 12 - 26 MissionMoney Message Media Measurement
Setting Advertising Objectives (p.394) Advertising objective: A specific communication task to be accomplished with a specific target audience during a specific period of time. 針對特定目標在特定時間要逹成 之特定溝通任務 Advertising objectives can be classified by their primary purpose: To inform To persuade To remind 12 - 27
Setting Advertising Objectives An advertising objective is a specific communication task to be accomplished with a specific target audience during a specific period of time. 針對特定目標在特定時間 要逹成之特定溝通任務 Should be based on STDP and Marketing Mix.
Setting Advertising Objectives Help moving consumers through the buying process Building or strengthening long-term customer relationships 廣告的最終目的：「購買」「建立關係」 Advertising objectives can be classified by their primary purpose: Inform 告知 Persuade/Compare 說服 / 比較 Remind 提醒
Setting Advertising Objectives Inform ：新產品建立主需求 Introducing a new product category To build primary demand Persuade/Compare ：建立選擇性需求，偏好 Becomes more important when competition increases. To build selective demand Comparative ads or attack ads are used Remind ：維持知名度與關係，提醒購買 Is important for mature products To maintain customer relationships and keep consumers thinking about the product
Setting Advertising Objectives p 415 Table 12.1 hTC— 蝴蝶機，功能、通路Inform ： hTC— 蝴蝶機，功能、通路 Telling the market about a new product. Suggesting new uses for a product. Explaining how the product works. Reducing fears or correcting false impressions. 維力沙茶醬 PK 牛頭牌沙茶醬Persuade/Compare ：維力沙茶醬 PK 牛頭牌沙茶醬 Building brand preference. Encouraging switching ore persuading customer to purchase now. Changing customer’s perception of product attributes. Comparing brand with other brands. 初一與十五要買大茂黑瓜Remind ：初一與十五要買大茂黑瓜 Keeping it in customer's mind during off seasons. Maintaining its top-of-mind awareness. Reminding consumer that the product may be needed. Reminding consumer where to buy it.
Setting the Advertising Budget Advertising budget: The dollars and other resources allocated to a product or a company advertising program Methods: Affordable method Percentage-of-sales method Competitive-parity method Objective-and-task method 12 - 33
Setting the Advertising Budget (p.395) Affordable method ( 量力而為 ): Setting promotion budget at the level management thinks the company can afford Percentage-of-sales method ( 銷售百分比 ) : Setting promotion budget at a certain percentage of current or forecasted sales or as a percentage of the unit sales price 最多業界採用，邏輯錯誤 12 - 34
Setting the Advertising Budget Competitive-parity method ( 競爭對等 / 競爭 看齊 ): Setting the promotion budget to match competitors’ outlays Objective-and task method ( 目標與任務 ): Developing the promotion budget by Defining specific objectives Determining the tasks that must be performed to achieve these objectives Estimating the costs of performing these tasks 12 - 35
Advertising Strategy The plan by which the company accomplishes its advertising objectives 逹成廣告目標的廣告 計劃 Major elements: Creating messages Selecting media 12 - 36 Breaking through the clutter: Today’s consumers, armed with an arsenal of weapons, are increasingly choosing not to watch ads
Message Strategy (p.400) What to say ？ Advertiser must next develop a compelling creative concept 獨特的創意概念 Creative concept: Compelling big idea that brings the advertising message strategy to life in a distinctive and memorable way 讓人驚艷、讓人印 象深刻 Creative concept guides the choice of specific appeals to be used in an advertising campaign 創意概念 (big idea) 廣告訴求 12 - 37
Message Strategy Advertising appeals should be: Meaningful – Pointing out benefits that make the product more desirable or interesting to consumers 有意義 Believable – Consumers must believe that the product or service will deliver the promised benefits 可相信 Distinctive – Should tell how the product is better than competing brands 很獨特 12 - 38
Execution Style (p.400) How to say ？ The approach, style, tone, words, and format used for executing an advertising message 廣告訊息執行的方法 、形式、調性、對白 或用字 ( 文案 )… 等 現在是春天 Execution styles: This ad creates a nostalgic mood around the product. “So I baked her the cookies she’s loved since she was little”
Message Execution Choose the execution style Choose a tone ：理性、感性 Use memorable, attention-getting words 街上的乞丐：「我是個瞎子」？ 創意大師：「現在是春天，而 … 我是個瞎子！」 Choose correct format elements ( 平面廣告 ) Illustration 圖形 Headline 標題 Copy 文案 一個圖形勝過千言萬語 你好, 我想推荐我自己成為你的第二個祕書. 我不需要辦公窒, 健勞保, 加班費 …. 我為你 24 小時服務 ….
Types of Execution Styles (p.401) Slice of lifeShows one or more “typical” people using the product in a normal setting LifestyleShows how a product fits in with a particular lifestyle FantasyCreates a fantasy around the product or its use Mood or imageBuilds a mood or image around the product or service, such as beauty, love, intrigue, or serenity MusicalShows people or cartoon characters singing about the product Personality symbolCreates a character that represents the product Technical expertiseShows the company’s expertise in making the product Scientific evidencePresents survey or scientific evidence that the brand is better or better liked than one or more other brands Testimonial evidence or endorsement Features a highly believable or likable source endorsing the product
Consumer-Generated Messages 12 - 42 Online crafts marketplace/community Etsy.com ran a contest inviting consumers to tell the Etsy.com story in 30-second videos. The results were “positively remarkable” User-generated advertising efforts can produce new ideas and fresh perspectives on the brand Boost consumer involvement and with the brand
Marketing at Work PepsiCo’s Doritos brand has been very successful with user-generated advertising 12 - 43 Consumer-generated messages: Last year, three Doritos “Crash the Super Bowl” ads finished in USA Today’s top five. This “Pug goes for the chips” ad tied for first place.
Selecting Advertising Media Deciding on reach, frequency, and impact 接觸率 頻率 影響力 Choosing among major media types 先擇主要媒體 ( 電視 / 報紙..) Selecting specific media vehicles 再選特定媒體工具 ( 民視 / 台視..) Deciding on media timing 最後決 定播出排程
Selecting Advertising Media (p.404) Advertising media: Vehicles through which advertising messages are delivered to their intended audiences Steps in advertising media selection: Determining reach, frequency, and impact ( 決定接觸率、 頻率與效果 ) Choosing among major media types ( 選擇媒體類型 ) Selecting specific media vehicles ( 選擇特定媒體工具 ) Choosing media timing ( 選擇媒體時程 ) 12 - 45
Reach, frequency, and impact (P. 404) Reach 接觸率，有多少目標市場看到 Percentage of people in the target market who are exposed to the ad campaign during a given period of time Frequency 頻率，他們看了幾次 How many times the average person in the target market is exposed to the message Media Impact 影響力，效果如何 The qualitative value of a message exposure through a given medium
Choosing Among Major Media Types Choose media that effectively and efficiently present the message to customers Consider each medium’s impact, effectiveness, and cost 效果、有效性與成本 12 - 47 Viewers most deeply engaged in the Discovery Channel’s Dirty Jobs series turned out to be truck-buying men, a ripe demographic for Ford’s F-Series pickups
Figure 12. 2 - Profiles of Major Media Types (p.405) 12 - 48 MediumAdvantages Television 電視 Good mass-marketing coverage; low cost per exposure; combines sight, sound, and motion; appealing to the senses Newspapers 報 紙 Flexibility; timeliness; good local market coverage; broad acceptability; high believability Internet 網路 High selectivity; low cost; immediacy; interactive capabilities Direct mail 直接 信件 High audience selectivity; flexibility; no ad competition within the same medium; allows personalization Magazines 雜誌 High geographic and demographic selectivity; credibility and prestige; high-quality reproduction; long life and good pass-along readership Radio 廣播 Good local acceptance; high geographic and demographic selectivity; low cost Outdoor 戶外傳 媒 Flexibility; high repeat exposure; low cost; low message competition; good positional selectivity
Figure 12. 2 – Profiles of Major Media Types (P. 405) 12 - 49 MediumLimitations TelevisionHigh absolute costs; high clutter; fleeting exposure; less audience selectivity 成本高、廣告擁擠、時間短、觀眾少、選擇性少 Newspapers Short life; poor reproduction quality; small pass-along audience 時 效短、印製品質差 Internet Potentially low impact; the audience controls exposure 效果差 Direct mail Relatively high cost per exposure; “junk mail” image 成本高、垃圾 Magazines Long ad purchase lead time; high cost; no guarantee of position 前 置期間長 RadioAudio only; fleeting exposure; low attention (“the half-heard” medium); fragmented audiences 只能聽、時間短 Outdoor Little audience selectivity; creative limitations 選擇性少
Selecting Specific Media Vehicles (P.406) Choose the best media vehicles—specific media within each general media type Compute the cost per 1,000 persons reached by a vehicle 計算每千人接觸成本 Consider the costs of producing ads for different media 製作費 Balance media costs against several media effectiveness factors 考慮為逹特定效果所產生的成本 Audience quality 觀眾素質 ( 健康雜誌 ) Audience engagement 觀眾投入 ( 俏佳人 ) Editorial quality 編輯或製作品質 ( 天下 )
Deciding on Media Timing (P. 407) Must decide how to schedule the advertising over the course of a year Must decide how to schedule the advertising over the course of a year Follow seasonal pattern 配合旺季 Oppose seasonal pattern 淡季猛攻 Same coverage all year 平均平配 Choose the pattern of the ads Choose the pattern of the ads Continuity : Scheduling ads evenly within a given period Pulsing : Scheduling ads unevenly over a given time period 何時可看到愛之味甜辣醬的廣告？ 何時可看到愛之味甜辣醬的廣告？
媒體排程策略 ( 蕭富峰 ch15) F Time F F F 集中策略 持續策略 continuity 間歇策略 脈搏策略 pulsing
Evaluating Advertising and Return on Advertising Investment (p. 407) Return on advertising investment: the net return on advertising investment divided by the costs of the advertising investment. 廣告成本 Evaluating advertising involves: Measuring the communication effects of an ad— “Copy Testing.” 溝通效果， pre/pro ad Measuring the sales effects of an ad: 銷售效果 – More harder to measure – Sales and profits ads expenditure regression – Conduct experiment
Other Advertising Considerations (p.408) Organization of ad function: Small companies—one person in firm Large companies—ad department that may also work with an ad agency Advertising agencies employ specialists who perform ad tasks better then the company’s own staff can. – Bring outside viewpoints to problem- solving – Wide range of experience
Other Advertising Considerations (p.408) International advertising issues: To what degree should global advertising be adapted to various countries? – Greater need for standardization of global brand advertising strategies. – Specific advertising programs must usually be adapted to local cultures and other factors.
Standardized Worldwide Advertising Gillette ’ s ads for its Venus razor are virtually the same worldwide.
International Advertising Decisions: Standardization Benefits Lower advertising costs Greater global advertising coordination More consistent worldwide image Drawbacks Ignores the fact that country markets differ greatly in cultures, demographics, and economic conditions 12 - 57
International Advertising Decisions: Standardization Standardized global advertising: VISA coordinates its worldwide advertising under the theme “more people go with VISA,” a theme that works as well in Brazil (left) as it does in the United States (right)