16 問題討論 在看過圖10-5之後請比較成本導向訂價法與價值導向訂價法之異同。 此兩種訂價法適用於哪些情境之下？ Companies set prices by selecting a general pricing approach that includes one or more of the following three sets of factors. Notice that this question focuses on the first two of these factors. Each is summarized below for your convenience.The simplest pricing method is cost-plus pricing--adding a standard markup to the cost of the product. This is common in construction, among professionals (such as doctors and lawyers), or companies dealing with the government (aerospace companies). Does using standard markups to set prices make sense? Generally, no. Any pricing method that ignores demand and competitor prices is not likely to lead to the best price. Still, however, this method remains popular because sellers are more certain about costs than about demand, prices within an industry seem to be standard (as in the medical field), and many feel that cost-plus pricing is fairer to both buyers and sellers. A variation of the above cost-oriented approach is break-even pricing (or a variation called target profit pricing) where the firm tries to determine the price at which it will break even or make a target profit it is seeking. See Figure 10-5 for additional details.An increasing number of companies are basing their prices on the product’s perceived value. Value-based pricing uses buyers’ perceptions of value, not the seller’s cost, as the key to pricing. Value-based pricing means that the marketer cannot design a product and marketing program and then set price. Price is considered along with the other marketing-mix variables before the marketing program is set. A company using value-based pricing must find out what value buyers assign to different competitive offers. However, measuring perceived value can be difficult. For more information on value pricing see Figure 10-5 and Marketing at Work 10-2.
20 互動式問題討論 以三至五人為一組，並說明以下之公司係採用哪一種訂價法—市場吸脂訂價法或市場滲透訂價法？ 麥當勞 Sony (電視以及其他電器)Bic公司(原子筆、照明器、刮鬍刀以及其他相關產品IBM (個人電腦)(a) McDonald’s generally introduces a new product with promotional pricing in order to induce trial. Eventually McDonald’s ends the promotion and sells the product at its higher regular price.(b) Sony uses a skimming strategy in the sense that it tries to attract the cream of the TV-buying market to its high-priced, high-quality products. It tends to maintain its high prices, rather than follow a strategy of lowering its prices over time to skim successive market segments.(c) BIC Corp. consistently uses penetration pricing to build markets and gain large shares. For example in its effort to find a new market to supplement its core businesses of pens and disposable razors, BIC introduced a line of fragrances in Europe and the U.S.-- at only $4 for a quarter-ounce spray bottle.(d) IBM is normally a high-priced seller in the information-processing industry, and its price cuts generally appear to be in response to competitors’ actions or unexpectedly low sales rather than part of a planned market-expansion strategy.