Unit 1 Part Ⅰ Pre-reading activitiesPre-reading activities Part Ⅱ Text AText A Part Ⅲ Text BText B Part Ⅳ Post-reading activitiesPost-reading activities
Pre-reading questions 1. What do you know of Winston Churchill? 2. Do you know when World War II broke out? What else do you know about it? 3. Can you guess what the texts in this unit are going to be about? 4. During World War I, which countries were the main Allies( 协约国）, and which the main Central Powers （同盟国） ? back
Never Give In, Never, Never, Never Text A Winston Churchill
Cultural Notes: Winston Churchill Churchill became Britain’s Prime Minister and Minister of Defense in 1940, and was reelected as Prime Minister in 1951. His radio speeches during World War Ⅱ gave the British people a strong determination to win the war. (1874-1965) “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.”
Cultural Notes: Winston Churchill, a British Conservative statesman, orator, and writer, was noted for his leadership during World War II. He held various posts under both Conservative and Liberal governments, including First Lord of the Admiralty (1911-1915, 1939-1940), and Chancellor of the Exchequer (1924 -1929) before becoming Prime Minister (1940-1945, 1951-1956). including First Lord of the Admiralty （海军大 臣） (1911-1915, 1939-1940), and Chancellor of the Exchequer (1924 -1929) before becoming Prime Minister (1940-1945, 1951-1956).
Cultural Notes: His writings include The World Crisis (1923 -1929), The Second World War (1948 -1953), and A History of the English-Speaking Peoples (1956 -1958). He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953.
Cultural Notes: During World War I, which countries were the main Allies( 协约国）, and which the main Central Powers （同盟国） ? The main Allies were France, Russia, Italy and the US, while the main Central Powers, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey.
Cultural Notes: What was the direct cause for the Allies’ -- British and France’s -- declaration of war against Germany that started World War II? The direct cause was the German invasion of Poland on Sept.1, 1939.
Language study 1. ups and downs: a mixture of good things and bad things Example: The organization has experienced its ups and downs since it was founded in 1999. Sitting beside the window, he recalled the ups and downs of his parenthood. 2. position: situation at a particular time Examples: It is time those companies revealed more about the financial position. Their soccer team is going to be in a very difficult position if nothing particular shows up.
Language study 3.The unmeasured menace of the enemy: the immense or incalculable threat or danger of the enemy attack. menace: a person or thing that is likely to cause harm; a threat or danger. Example: He is speaking to me with menace. The escaped criminals are a menace to social security. The boy is really a menace. 这个男孩真是讨厌。 4. What is short and sharp and what is long and tough: difficulties and hardships of any kind, imminent or distant, temporary or long-lasting.
Language study 5. Throwing our minds back to our meeting here ten months ago: recollecting our meetings at Harrow School ten months ago. Example: Please throw your mind back to 1945, when people all over the world were engaged in a great and cruel war against the Fascists. 6. noble chance of war: impressive opportunities of war. 7. appearances are often very deceptive: surface phenomena tend to be misleading. 8. meet with: experience; undergo Example: Attempts to find civilian volunteers have met with embarrassing failure.
Language study 9.pray to be given that extra courage to carry this far- reaching imagination: wish to be equipped with excessive courage to accomplish or realize this effective and influential blueprint. far-reaching: having important and widely applicable effects or implications. Example: the far-reaching consequences 深远的影响 10. conviction of honor and good sense: strong beliefs in honor and good judgement of duty and justice conviction: a strong belief or opinion Example: He is a man of strong convictions.
Language study 11. yield to : give in or surrender Example: The government didn’t yield to terrorism. 12. drawn a sponge across her slate: wipe out Example: She sponged her child’s face with a handkerchief.
Language study 13.stand in the gap: shoulder the responsibility in isolation Example: At the critical moment of world economic recession, a powerful government is needed to stand in the gap. gap: ( 防线的 ) 突破口 Example: We could see the house through a gap in the wall.
Language study 14. overwhelm vt. make (sb.) feel completely helpless, astonished, or embarrassed. 压倒, 制服 Example: At the age of forty, he was overwhelmed with work, illness and family problems. Overwhelmed by the disaster, … A past participial phrase, usually that of a transitive verb( 及 物动词 ), can function as an adverbial modifying the main verb of the sentence to indicate cause, time, condition etc. Example: As he was overwhelmed by the disaster, he retired with his family to a country retreat in Surrey. — Overwhelmed by the disaster, he retired with his family to a country retreat in Surrey.
Language study 15. We have only to persevere to conquer: we have no choice but to hold on until victory comes. persevere: continue in a course of action even in the face of difficulties or with little or no indication of success 坚持不懈, 不屈不挠 Example: He persevered amidst all these difficulties. 身处 所有这些困难中，他仍然坚持下去。 persevere in one’s studies 孜孜不倦地学习 perseverance Perseverance leads to success.
Language study 16. catastrophic : involving or causing sudden great damage or suffering. catastrophe n. Example: He could be heading for catastrophe in the election. 17. lull: a temporal interval or quiet or lack of activity Example: a lull in the fight. The storm has lulled. 18.deceptive : giving an appearance or impression different from the true one; misleading. Example: Appearance can be deceptive. deception n. deceive vt.
Language study 19. impostor: one who deceives under the assumed identity 20. flinch: avoid doing or becoming involved in sth through fear or anxiety. Example: You mustn’t flinch from difficulties.
Text Organization: PartsParagraphsMain Ideas 11 This part is opening remarks in which Churchill summarized the great events that had happened in the world with Great Britain in particular and then talked about the purpose of his visit. 22 -5 Analyzes the world situation and how other countries looked at Britain and then called on the British people not to give in. 36-8 By changing a word in the additional verse of the school song, he expressed his conviction that this nation was determined to fight for the victory of this great war.
About the author Historian John Keegan is the defense and military specialist for London's Daily Telegraph.
Comprehension questions of Text II 1. When and how did Churchill step onto the world stage? Churchill stepped onto the world stage at the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 in the capacity of the First Lord of the Admiralty of Great Britain.
Comprehension questions of Text II 2. Why did Churchill hope the USA could join the war against Hitler? Because he knew very well that his country alone was not demographically, industrially or financially strong enough to win the victory of the war against the Nazis and the intervention of the USA, the most powerful country in the world, would bring the war to its end much sooner.
Comprehension questions of Text II 3. In what way, according to the author of this text, was Churchill a successful statesman? Ever since he became the premier of his country, Churchill placed his hope of final victory on the intervention of the USA. In order to get the USA involved in the war, he established a personal relationship with President Roosevelt. When his request was declined by Roosevelt, he was still optimistic and believed that things would work his way. The later development of the world situation proved that he was right.
Post-reading Activities Text A: 1.What is the rhetorical features of the text? (keys).keys 2. Translation practiceTranslation practice 3. Language practiceLanguage practice 4. Comprehension checkComprehension check
Rhetorical features of the text Repetition: Never, Never, Never Metaphor: drawn a sponge across her slate; our country stood in the gap. Antonyms: great or small, large or petty
Translation Translate the following passage into English, using the words and phrases given in the brackets: 1. 我安排他们在小酒吧见面，但那个小伙一直 都没有来。 (turn up) 2. 你无法仅凭表象判断形势是否会变得对我们 不利。 (tell from appearance) 3. 那个士兵每次打仗都冲锋在前，从而赢得了 国家最高的荣誉。 (stand in the gap) 4. 主席讲话很有说服力，委员会其他成员都听 从他的意见。 (yield to)
Translation 5. 他们现在生活富裕了，但也曾经历坎坷。 (ups and downs) 6. 这次演讲我将说明两个问题。 (address oneself to) 7. 我们正筹划为你举办一次盛大的圣诞聚 会。 (in somebody’s honor) 8. 听到那个曲子，我回想起了儿童时代。 (throw one’s mind back)
Translation Keys: 1. I had arranged for them to meet each other at the pub but the young man never turned up. 2. You cannot tell merely from appearance whether things will turn out unfavorable to us or not. 3. The soldier, who stood in the gap in every battle, gained the highest honors of the country. 4. The chairman spoke so frequently that the rest of the committee yielded to his opinion.
Translation 5. They are well-to-do now, but along the way they had their ups and downs. 6. There are two questions to which I will address myself in the lecture. 7. We are planning a big Christmas party in your honor. 8. Hearing the tune threw my mind back to my childhood. back
Translate the following passage into Chinese 他们告诉我们, 我们很弱小, 无法对付如此强大的敌人。 但是，我们什么时候才能强大一些呢？是下个星期吗？ 是明年吗？是我们完全被解除武装之时吗？犹豫不决、 无所作为就能使我们积聚力量吗？难道只有仰面而卧、 心存幻想，直至让敌人捆住我们的手脚，我们才能找 到有效的抵御办法吗？先生们，假如我们适当地运用 造物主赋予我们 的力量，我们就不弱小。我们拥有 300 万为争取神圣自由而武装起来的人民，我们拥有 这样的国家，这是敌人可能派遣来的任何军队都无法 战胜的。战争的胜利不仅仅属于强者，胜利还属于警 觉的人、主动的人、无畏的人。先生们，我们已别无 选择。即使我们卑躬屈膝，指望从战争中脱身，也为 时以晚。除了屈服，沦为奴隶，我们没有退路！ 战争 也迫在眉睫 ------ 让它到来吧！先生们，请允许我重复 一遍：让它到来吧！
Language Practice Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box in its appropriate form ups and downs go through close an account misfortune put…through throw one’s mind back to address oneself to yield to
Language Practice 1. She wouldn’t want to _________ them ____ the I like the photo very much as it is suffering of a huge ceremony. 2. The famous orator ___________ the public to promote his newly-published book which could add to his reputation. 3. At that period, South Africa ______________ a period of unchangeable events as the Blacks were fighting for equality. 4. ________ _______________1978, we should not be surprised about some of Mrs. Thatcher’s comments, bearing in mind the party she belonged to. put… through addressed himself to was going through Throwing our minds back to
Language Practice 5. Parley ______ general pressure from the society and bitterly took the child to a specialist. 6. The world is changing rapidly, our plans must change accordingly. Otherwise, we should ______ with the harsh market economy. 7. Martin’s upbringing shaped his whole life, with so many _________ every now and then. 8. Julia has been made to undergo physically and psychologically ______for her inability in having children. yielded to close an account ups and downs misfortune
Language Practice Keys: 1. put… through 2. address himself to 3. was going through 4. Throwing our minds back to 5. yielded to 6. close an account 7. ups and downs 8. misfortune
Comprehension Check 1.Why does the author urge people to be patient? Because he understands that the war is long and tough: it is not to end in months but in years. He tells the people there that however the war lasts, the final victory belongs to Britain. But at the same time he makes it clear that not every day is an opportunity to take action: they have yet to wait and persevere.
Comprehension Check 2. What is the change in the widespread mood referred to in Paragraph? For one thing when Britain came under the heavy air attacks by Germany, many other nations thought that Britain was finished. As the country stood the ordeal to their great surprise, those nations changed their view. For another, people now start to see the hope of the final victory as long as they persevere to the end, as opposed to their pessimistic mood in the past as evidenced by the term “darker days” in school song and by the author’s suppression of his desire to change it.
Comprehension Check 3.Why does the author change “darker” into “sterner”? Because the author has a strong conviction of victory. The two terms have different implications. When used in the text to refer to the days of war, “darker days” emphasizes the dark/negative side of the event and shows the user’s pessimism. “sterner days”, though identical in its reference, suggests the bright side and shows the user’s optimism.
Oral study 1. It‘s not like that. 不是那样的 It's not like that. 这句话是用来辟 谣的。当别人误会了一件事的来龙去脉， 你就可以跟他说 It's not like that. 「不是那样的。」当然随着语气及情境 的不同， It's not like that. 这句话 也有可能是你用来硬拗的藉口
Assignment --- Essay writing Getting to Know the World Outside the Campus Outline 1. 大学生了解社会的必要性 2. 了解社会的途径（大众媒介、社会服务等） 3. 我打算怎样做 Requirements: You should write at least 150 words and you should base your composition on the outline