5 非爭訟性法律文件 3. 轉讓契、公契、租約 assignment, DMC (deed of mutual covenant), lease / tenancy 轉讓契公契 4. 各類證書、公證書、委託書、決議案 certificate, notary certificate, power of attorney (mandate), resolution
6 非爭訟性法律文件 5. 公司章程文件 constitutive documents 組織章程大綱及細則 M&A - memorandum and articles of association 組織章程大綱及細則 M&A 公司註冊證書 Certificate of Incorporation 公司註冊證書 Certificate of Incorporation 公司更改名稱證書 Certificate of Change of Name
7 非爭訟性法律文件 6. 遺囑及遺產文件 遺囑 will 遺囑認證書 grant of probate 遺囑認證書 遺產管理書 letter of administration
14 法律翻譯的難處 英譯中 1. 拉丁文 -pari passu 、 mutatis mutandis 2. 法律術語 -mens rea, undivided share, easement 3. 法律用語 -leave, conversion, wrong, costs in the cause 4. 指示副詞 指示副詞 -hereof, thereof, whereupon… -“The Terms” means the terms and conditions contained herein in relation to the Transaction. -“CO” means the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32) and any subsidiary legislation made thereunder.
15 法律翻譯的難處 5. 舊式英語 -In witness whereof the Parties hereby put their hands unto this Agreement on the date first written above. 6. 合併句子 -The Purchaser hereby agrees to purchase and the Vendor hereby agrees to sell the Property at the Purchase Price upon the terms and conditions set out hereunder. -The Lender, as creditor, has offered and the Borrower, as debtor, has accepted the Loan provided by the Lender subject to and upon the terms and conditions herein contained.
16 法律翻譯的難處 7. 句子冗長 a.The Borrower agrees to indemnify the Lender against all liabilities suffered or incurred by the Lender as a result of any matter or thing in breach of this Agreement. 借款人同意，就貸款人由於任何違反本協 議的事宜或事情而蒙受或招致的所有債務， 向貸款人作出彌償保證。
17 法律翻譯的難處 b.The Borrower agrees to indemnify the Lender against all liabilities, losses, damages, outgoings, costs and expenses of whatever nature or description suffered or incurred by the Lender directly or indirectly at any time before the Maturity Day as a result of any matter or thing in breach of any of the representations and warranties in this Agreement. 借款人同意，就貸款人由於任何違反本協議任何陳述及 保證的事宜或事情，而在到期日之前的任何時間直接或 間接蒙受或招致的任何性質或種類的所有債務、損失、 損害賠償、支出、費用及開支，向貸款人作出彌償保證。
18 法律翻譯的難處 8. 文意複雜 -e.g. attestation of a will -“SIGNED by the said Testator as his last will and testament in the presence of us both present at the same time who at the Testator’s request in the Testator’s presence and in the presence of each other, have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses.” -putting all the signature requirements into one sentence
19 法律翻譯的難處 9. 法律用語 vs 通俗用語 Legal tongue vs daily language -The Vendor shall deliver up vacant possession of the Property to the Purchaser on or before the Completion Date - 交出空置管有權、交吉 -Occupy, occupier, occupation permit - 佔用、佔用人、住戶、入伙紙
21 法律翻譯的難處 R. v. Tam Yuk Ha (HCMA933/1996) “any alteration or addition which would result in a material deviation from the plan thereof approved under by-law 33” 「進行任何更改或增建工程，而該更改或增建 工程會令該處所與根據第 33 條獲批准的圖則有 重大偏差」 By-law 35 of the Food Business (Urban Council) By-laws, Cap 132 (now s.34, Cap 132X)
22 法律翻譯的難處 Metal trays = addition “Under bilingual legislation, both the English language text and the Chinese language text of an ordinance are equally authentic. It is not the English language text which prevails over the Chinese language text nor vice versa. It is the two authentic texts together which make up the legislation enacted by the Legislative Council.
23 法律翻譯的難處 “If one of the authentic texts is ambiguous and the other authentic text is clear and plain, the court must reconcile the difference of meaning of the two authentic texts in a way so as to give effect to the authentic text with a clear and plain meaning. “If the two authentic texts cannot be reconciled with one another, the only reasonable step to take is to give effect to the authentic text which favours the appellant.” 註：只適用於法例，而非私人合約、協議等
24 法律翻譯的難處 12. 法理分析 Legal reasoning Compare: definition of “easement” An easement is a non-possessory interest to use real property in possession of another person for a stated purpose.
25 法律翻譯的難處 判詞 – 層層推進的思考過程 e.g. Donoghue v Stevenson (1932) Neighbour Principle – There must be, and is, some general conception of relations giving rise to a duty of care, of which the particular cases found in the books are but instances.... The rule that you are to love your neighbour becomes in law you must not injure your neighbour; and the lawyer's question: Who is my neighbour? receives a restricted reply. You must take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions which you can reasonably foresee would be likely to injure your neighbour.
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