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洋务运动 The Westernization Movement

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1 洋务运动 The Westernization Movement
中国近代化的起步 The starting of the modernization in China

2 19世纪中期,近代化是世界性的进步潮流,它是指从传统农业社会向近代工业化社会的转变过程。
On the mid-19th century,Modernization is a worldwide progressive trend,It points the process of changing from a traditional agricultural society to a modern industrialized society.

3 中国近代化Modernization in China
经济领域(Economic Field): 工业化(以机器生产为标志)——富强 Industrialization(Marked by machinery production)--rich and strong 政治领域(Political Field): 反侵略——民族独立 Anti-aggression--National Independence 反封建——民主自由 Anti-feudalism--Democracy and freedom 思想文化领域(Ideology and culture field): 学习西方——思想解放 Learn from the western --Ideological Liberation 中国近代化Modernization in China

4 何谓“洋务”? What does "Westernization" mean?
是指诸如外事交涉、签订条约、派遣留学生、购买洋枪洋炮、开矿办厂等与外国资本主义有关的事情。 They are matters relating to foreign capitalism,such as Negotiation about foreign affairs、Sign treaty、Returned Students dispatch、purchase foreign gun and cannon、develop mine and duild factory

5 何谓“洋务运动” What does "The Westernization Movement" mean?
是指19世纪60—90年代,封建统治阶级中的洋务派打着“自强” 、 “求富”的旗号,开展的一场企图摆脱内忧外患、维护清朝封建统治的自救运动。 On 19century 60s-90s, the Westernization Group in the feudal ruling class carried out self-help movement and attempted to get rid of internal and external Sufferings , uphold the rule of the feudal Qing Dynasty in the name of "self-strong"、“pursuing wealth”。

6 洋务运动兴起的历史背景 The historical background of the rising of the Westernization Movement
太平天国运动仍未被镇压下去(内忧) The Taiping Rebellion hadn't been repressed (internal sufferings) 第二次鸦片战争再次战败,签定了一系列不平等条约 (外患) The Second Opium War lost again , a series of unequal treaties were signed(external sufferings)

7 第二次鸦片战争后,中外反动势力开始勾结 1861年,总理衙门设立 辛酉政变后,慈禧太后掌握实权 汉族官僚势力逐步扩大
After the Second Opium War, Chinese and foreign reactionary forces began to collude. 1861年,总理衙门设立 In 1861, The Premier Government was established. 辛酉政变后,慈禧太后掌握实权 After xinyou coup,the Empress Dowager Cixi mastered real power. 汉族官僚势力逐步扩大 Han bureaucratic forces expanded gradually.

8 洋务派与顽固派的争论 洋务派要购买外洋器物,始而演习,继而试造,主张学习西方先进技术,剿发捻,勤远略,即镇压农民起义,抵抗外侮,中心是维护清朝统治 The Westernization Group want purchase oceanic artifacts ,started to exercise, then tried to make advocates ,learned the advanced technology, destroyed hair twist, a little ground away, Tt was to repress peasant uprisings and against foreign aggression, the center was defending the rule of Qing Dynasty

9 顽固派在对待西方技术上,明显存在盲目排外、仇视一切外洋事务的主张
When treated western technology,the Diehards against everything foreign , hated the idea of all the oceanic affairs

10 洋务派与顽固派的异同 相 同 Similarities 阶级属性: 地主阶级 the Landlord Class 根本目的:
Similarities and differences between the Westernization Group and the Diehards 阶级属性: Class attribute : 地主阶级 the Landlord Class 相 同 Similarities 根本目的: The fundamental purpose : 维护清朝封建统治 Maintain the feudal rule of the Qing Dynasty 思想观点:Ideas and views: 中学胜西学 Chinese study win Western study

11 不 同 对待西方近代文明成果的态度和解决内忧外患的手段不同。 洋务派:
The attitude to modern western civilization and the means of solving internal and external problems is different. 不 同 Differences 洋务派: the Westernization Group: 守旧排外,原样统治Conservative exclusion, stood rule 顺应时变,学习西技 Comply with time-varying, learn Western technology 顽固派: the Diehard:

12 中体西用 洋务运动的指导思想 Westernized Chinese Style__The guiding ideology of Westernization Movement
洋务运动的口号就是师夷长技以自强 The Westernization Movement's slogan is Learning the skills to self-reliance —既承认西方在技术方面的先进,又强调学习的目的在增强自身实力而不是削弱自身传统;既认同传统观念的精神价值,又确认西方工业、机器生产技术的实用价值。这就为洋务运动的逐步开展奠定了理论基础-

13 Not only acknowledged the technical aspects of Western art, but also stressed the purpose of learning and enhance their own power rather than undermine their own traditions; both agreed the spiritual values of traditional concepts, but also confirmed the practical value of the Western industrial and machinery production technologies . This laid theoretical foundationfor gradual development of the Westernization Movement.

14 洋务派试图把西方资本主义先进技术,嫁接到清王朝腐朽的封建制度上来。
The westernization Group attemptted to graft western capitalism advanced technology on to the decadent feudal system of Qing Dynasty. 建立在近代资本主义政治、经济基础上的近代技术与腐朽的封建社会体制是不相容的,这正是洋务派的不足之处。 The modern technology established on modern capitalist political and economic are incompatible with the decadent feudal social system , this is the deficiencies of the Westernization Group.

15 如何判定洋务企业的性质? How to determine the nature of the Westernization enterprises?

16 The nature of an enterprise is decided mainly by features such as production purposes, the product distribution, sales and business management . Such as the Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureau military industry, its production was for the Qing government services, products assigned by the Qing government to the military use , within non-accumulation funds and foreign non-market links, business management organization is bureaucratic feudal style, so We call it such as the feudal nature of the military-industrial enterprises; Steamship such as civilian business, its purpose is to produce a profit, the management company also appears the management of the nature of capitalism, these civilian enterprises are profit, market and the capitalist law of value-based nature of the enterprise,basically.

17 Assessment on the Westernization Movement
层面:器物层次 对洋务运动的评价 Assessment on the Westernization Movement 中国近代化首次大规模实践 China's first Practice of large-scale modernization total 精神:敢于冲破传统,面对现实,注目世界,正视自己不足,学习别人长处,符合历史潮流 Spirit: Dare to break through the traditional, face reality, attention in the world, to face your own weaknesses, and learn the strengths of others, consistent with the historical trend 进步Progress 标志中国国防近代化开端,利于增强国防力量 Mark the beginning of China's defense modernization, which will help increase national defense capability 军事 Military

18 经济 文教 culture and education
瓦解了中国自然经济,刺激了中国资本主义产生与发展 The collapse of China's natural economy, to stimulate the emergence and development of Chinese capitalism 经济 economy 标志中国生产近代化开端,利于提高生产力 Signs produced in China the beginning of modernization , which will help to increase productivity 壮大了中国无产阶级队伍 Expand the ranks of the Chinese proletariat 抵制了列强经济侵略 Resist economic aggression of the powers 标志中国教育、科技近代化开端 Flag Chinese Education, Science and Technology beginning of the modernization 文教 culture and education 引进了先进科技,培养了人才 The introduction of advanced technology and trained personnel 冲击了传统思想,促进了西学东渐和早期维新思想的产生 The impact of the traditional thinking, promoting Western ideas and the early reform ideas generated

19 Assessment on the Westernization Movement
层面:器物层次 对洋务运动的评价 Assessment on the Westernization Movement 目的:维护清朝封建统治,镇压人民反抗为主—反动性 Purpose: Maintain the feudal rule of the Qing Dynasty, mainly against the suppression of the people - Reactionary 指导思想:中体西用 Guiding principle: Westernized Chinese Style 局限Limitation 方式陈旧不科学,腐败严重 The method is old and unscientific, corruption 经营管理 过于依赖西方,用特权排斥民族资本主义 Over-reliance on the West, and use privileges to exclude national capitalism 结果:无法富强 Result: Can not be rich and powerful

20 The bankruptcy of the Westernization Movement
洋务运动的破产 The bankruptcy of the Westernization Movement 标志: Mark: 甲午中日战争的惨败 Sino-Japanese war defeat 列强不愿中国掌握先进技术 The powers do not want China to grasp the advanced technology. 客观 objective 洋匠敲诈勒索foreign carpenter extortion 顽固派阻挠破坏 The diehards to block and destruct 原因 causes 缺乏健全有力的领导核心 Strong core of leadership without a sound 主观: subjective: 不变革封建制度 Did not change the feudal system —根本原因 -Root cause

21 洋务运动 给近代中国带来了哪些新的东西? which thing new did the Westernization Movement bring to Modern China ?
1、改变了中国军队专恃刀矛等原始武器的落后状态 Changes in China's military professionals rely Daomao backwardness of primitive weapons 2、引进西方先进的技术设备,使近代化的机器大生产开始在中国确立 The introduction of advanced Western technology and equipment, so that the modernization of machinery in China since the establishment of large-scale production

22 3、兴办新式学堂,促进中国近代教育的变更 6、发展了工人阶级队伍 ----- 4、传播了近代的科学文化和企业管理经验,培养了一批人才
Set up new schools, to promote change in China's modern education 4、传播了近代的科学文化和企业管理经验,培养了一批人才 Spread modern science and culture and business management experience, training a pool of talent 5、使中国外交开始向近代化转变 Start the Chinese diplomatic from transition to modern 6、发展了工人阶级队伍 Develop the working class

23 The failure of the Westernization Movement
洋务运动失败的教训 The failure of the Westernization Movement 1、独立自主是富强的前提。 Independence is a prerequisite for prosperity. 2、引进最先进科技并避免重复引进与建设 不依赖别人,注重自我创新。 Introduce the most advanced technology and avoid duplication in the introduction and construction , not dependent on others, focus on self-innovation 3、加强领导与科学管理,排除与减少阻力。 Strengthen leadership and scientific management, remove and reduce the resistance

24 4、改革是个系统工程,经济体制改革时须进行政治体制改革。
Reform is a systematic project, political restructuring is to be carried out to adopt to economic reform. 5、人的现代化是国家经济、政治、文化现代 化的先决条件。 Modern man is the country's economic, political and cultural prerequisites for modernization

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