38 「查那巴斯」 Chinampas Chinampa 浮島 marsh沼澤,濕地 brackish微鹹的,有鹽味的 味道不好的;令人不快的 valley低凹處 GeographyThe Valley of Mexico is roughly 35 miles (60 km) east-to-west and 50 miles (80 km) north-to-south. The valley is an endorheic basin, with no natural outflow. As a result, before the 20th century, much or most of the valley was covered with a chain of inter-related lakes, including Lakes Texcoco, Chalco, Xochimilco, Zumpango, and Xaltocan. These have since been drained and little of their original expanse remains. The greater Mexico City urban area covers almost the entire valley today. PollutionAir pollution associated with this urban environment, consisting primarily of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and suspended particles, is trapped by the natural contours of the valley. In winter, thermal inversions contribute to the pollution problem. This has led many organizations, from the World Resources Institute to the Guinness Book of World Records, was once designated Mexico City as the most polluted major city in the world, which are now surpassed by many cities in the world, mostly in Asia. The pollution level has, however, decreased dramatically since the late 1980s and early 1990s. Whereas the air reached unhealthy levels for 355 days during 1991, it improved to 170 days in 2003 and 141 in 2004. ClimateThe Valley of Mexico averages roughly 7350 feet (2240 meters) above mean sea level. Although the valley is located within a tropical zone, the high altitude keeps it relatively temperate. The annual median temperature is between 61° - 64° F (16° - 18° C) and seasonal changes are small. Night frosts can occur in the coldest months, but even in January the average high is 70° F. April and May are the warmest months. The rainy season, during which it usually briefly rains every day in the afternoon, normally lasts from late May until early October and accounts for 80% of the annual 33 inches (850 mm) of rainfall and moderates the usual dryness of the airMexico City is located in the Valley of Mexico, also called the Valley of Anáhuac, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,349 ft). It was originally built by the Aztecs in 1325 on an island of Lake Texcoco. The city was almost completely destroyed in the siege of 1521, and was redesigned and rebuilt in the following years following the Spanish urban standards. In 1524 the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenustitlán, and as of 1585 it is officially known as ciudad de México.
66 間作(intercropping) 在同一田地上於同一生長期內，分行或分帶相間種植兩種或兩種以上作物的種植方式。 Intercropping is the growing of two or more crops with at least one crop planted in rows. in proximity to promote interaction between them.• 不同作物在田間構成人工複合群體，個體之間既有種內關係，又有種間關係。• 間作的作物播種期、收穫期相同或不相同，但作物共處期長，其中，至少有一種作物的共處期超過其全生育期的一半。• 間作是集約利用空間的種植方式。間作時，不論間作的作物有幾種，皆不增計複作面積。
67 帶狀間作 Strip intercropping 作物成多行或占一定幅度的相間種植，形成帶狀，如四行棉花間作四行甘藷，二行玉米間作三行大豆等。Growing two or more crops together wide enough to permit separate crop machine production but close enough for the crops to interact.
71 應考慮生產成本的增加以及間作的潛在利益 間作的生產力評估： Land Equivalent Ratio Table 1. Yields of sweet corn and southern peas from intercropsSeed RatesCornPeasLERPounds/acreFull corn5600***Full peas1200Low corn4200800Medium corn4600High corn5000500應考慮生產成本的增加以及間作的潛在利益間作的生產力評估：1.421.491.31Land Equivalent RatioLER = (intercrop corn / pure corn) + (intercrop pea / pure pea)
82 農林間作 Agroforestry農作物與多年生木本植物相間種植，也有人稱爲多層作。木本植物包括林木、果樹、桑樹、茶樹等；農作物包括糧食、經濟、園藝、飼料、綠肥作物等。Intercropping of perennial trees with field crops, in order to.create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic and environmental benefits for land users at all levels.
104 SRC land type 2 1000 £/HA 47800 Miscanthus 920 £/HA 44000 種植面積達 21,700公頃 產生 279,000 公噸的生質量減少 43,400 ~190,960公噸的CO2釋放量CROP/LAND TYPE Grant: SRC land type 2 1000 £/HA Miscanthus 920 £/HA一次申請最少合計3公頃/5年SRC (short rotation coppice) land type 2Other eligible land, ie arable land, non agricultural land and land which forms part of an agricultural holding but is neither arable or forage.4.3m GJ 能量1GJ= *10^9卡在石化燃料不可或缺的今日，找到其他替代能源對全體人類而言是一件刻不容緩的大事。『能源作物計畫』即在於藉由政府的補助與鼓勵提高能源作物的種植面積，以達到代替石化能源並且降低引起溫室效應氣體的目的。在計畫之初，能源作物將包含木本作物：白楊屬植物與柳樹種的輪伐（short rotation coppice,SRC）18，以及Miscanthus19。Miscanthus 是芒草屬植物，原產於亞洲及非洲，約在九０年代初期開始在歐洲有廣泛的研究。這些能源作物有很高的生質量。評估其能源效應（生產作物所需能源：該作物的能源潛力），SRC 和Miscanthus的比例由1：10 到1：90 不等，平均而言為1：20，而一般作物約只有1：7 而已。當土地擁有者申請加入計畫通過後，視其在耕地上栽種的是SRC 或Miscanthus 而有不同補助金額。對於SRC 而言，一般耕地與畜牧地是每年每公頃補助1600 英鎊，其餘非屬耕地及畜牧地者每年每公頃補助1000 英鎊。對於Miscanthus，則不分土地種類每年每公頃補助920 英鎊。除了提供土地管理人種植能源作物的補助金之外，能源作物計畫上有另一種補助，鼓勵生產人組織團體種植這些能源作物。這些補助金額將占整個計畫預算的一半，提供給這些組織包括了一般組織運作費用、辦理活動費用、生產與收穫作物所需器材費用等。
112 List of agroforestry niches Farm BordersLiving FencesWindbreaksTrees in Crop FieldsHedgerow IntercroppingWide-row IntercroppingShade and Nurse TreesSupport TreesTrees in Livestock SystemsTrees in Livestock Systems, continuedHome GardensShade/OrnamentalTemporal Systems and WoodlotsTemporal Systems and Woodlots, continued WoodlotsWindbreaks防風林;防風物Hedgerow灌木樹籬,排栽灌木Woodlots植林地