1 Effective Strategies to Successful Collaborative teaching Role of the Chinese Co-teachers English Village, Zhungli Elementary School Mar. 7, 2012 Rae.
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1 Effective Strategies to Successful Collaborative teaching Role of the Chinese Co-teachers English Village, Zhungli Elementary School Mar. 7, 2012 Rae Lan, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages & Applied Linguistics National Taipei University Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Rae Lan 藍蕾 Ph.D. (2001-2005) Second Language Education Curriculum & Instruction University of Maryland, College Park. 美國馬里蘭大學 課程與教學系 第二語言教育 博士 MA. (1985-1987) Comparative Literature University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign 美國伊利諾州立大學 香檳校區 比較文學碩士
Rae Lan Ph.D. 研究專長與興趣 (2003-2011) 兒童英語學習策略 國小學童語言學習策略教學 語言學習策略教師信念 教學專長與興趣 (1987-2011) 兒童英語教學 ( 教材教法、活動設計、故事教學 ) 語言學習策略 英語教材教法 第二語言習得
6 Presentation Outline Collaborative Teaching- Definition Various Models for Collaborative Teaching Pros and Cons for Collaborative Teaching YOUR Model- Stay in the “comfort zone” or stretch to explore new possibilities? Problems and Challenges Effective Strategies to Deal with the Issues Voices from experienced NESTs & Non-NEST Positive Attitudes and Mindsets
7 Defining Team-teaching Teaming To Teach: Operational Definitions Team teaching can be defined as a group of two or more teachers working together to plan, conduct and evaluate the learning activities for the same group of learners. Quinn and Kanter (1984) define team teaching as "simply team work between two qualified instructors who, together, make presentations to an audience."
8 Two Major Types of Team Teaching Category A: Two or more instructors are teaching the same students at the same time within the same classroom Category B: The instructors work together but do not necessarily teach the same groups of students nor necessarily teach at the same time.
10 Traditional Team Teaching In this case, the teachers actively share the instruction of content and skills to all students. For example, one teacher may present the new material to the students while the other teacher constructs a concept map on the overhead projector as the students listen to the presenting teacher. ( 雙師合教分配教學內容與教學技巧 )
11 Collaborative Teaching This academic experience describes a traditional team teaching situation in which the team teachers work together in designing the course and teach the material not by the usual monologue, but rather by exchanging and discussing ideas and theories in front of the learners. Not only do the team teachers work together, but the course itself uses group learning techniques for the learners, such as small- group work, student-led discussion and joint test- taking ( 雙師合作強調使用小組活動與分組討論 )
12 Complimentary/Supportive Teaching This situation occurs when one teacher is responsible for teaching the content to the students, while the other teacher takes charge of providing follow-up activities on related topics or on study skills. ( 雙師合作互相支援 - 一師負責教學 一師負責提供相關活動 )
13 Parallel Instruction In this setting, the class is divided into two groups and each teacher is responsible for teaching the same material to her/his smaller group. This model is usually used in conjunction with other forms of team teaching, and is ideally suited to the situation when students are involved in projects or problem- solving activities, as the instructor can roam and give students individualized support. ( 全班分兩組分別由雙師進行相同內容之教學， 尤其適合以 project 為主之分組活動 )
14 Differentiated Split Class This type of teaching involves dividing the class into smaller groups according to learning needs. Each educator provides the respective group with the instruction required to meet their learning needs. For example, a class may be divided into those learners who grasp adding fractions and those who need more practice with the addition of fractions. One teacher would challenge the learners who grasped the concept more quickly, while the second teacher would likely review or re-teach those students who require further instruction. ( 雙師依學習能力分組進行適性教學 )
15 Monitoring Teacher This situation occurs when one teacher assumes the responsibility for instructing the entire class, while the other teacher circulates the room and monitors student understanding and behaviour. ( 一師負責教學一師負 責協助學生了解並掌管教室秩序 )
16 Advantages It gives the participating team teacher a supportive environment It allows for development of new teaching approaches It aids in overcoming academic isolation and increases the likelihood of sounder solutions regarding the discipline of problematic students It augments the opportunity for intellectual growth
17 Disadvantages The primary disadvantage to team teaching appears to be the element of time: the time required prior to the implementation of the team teaching partnership for professional development, the many meetings needed during the running of the program as well as the numerous impromptu chats that are bound to arise from such an endeavor. Ironically, the time factor that is so necessary to team teaching can also be divisive as it may lead to conflict while allowing for efficient & supportive class instruction!
18 Your Co-teaching Model Rethinking your co-teaching system What is the best model for YOU? What are the deciding factors? What needs to be improved? What are the do’s and don’ts?
19 Your Co-teaching Model What is YOUR model? Is it the BEST model for teachers & students? Is it enjoyable, rewarding & edutaining? Any problems or challenges? What needs to be changed? (handouts on what is and handouts on problems and challenges)
20 Effective Strategies for Co-teaching Take it as a great opportunity for LEARNING Setting up a goal for your students & SEFL Building up professional & personal relations Giving and taking and sharing! Pre- During- Post-
21 Effective Strategies Before Class- Preparation counts! -1 Assignment based on key factors (age, gender, experience, personality, beliefs) Meeting for first time (casual setting preferred & a little gift goes a long way) Your crucial role in helping NEST better understand your ss by providing key background information in a HARD COPY) Getting the lesson plan in advance Exchanging ideas & sharing experience on- WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHY and HOW!
22 Effective Strategies Before Class- Preparation counts! -2 Exchanging ideas & sharing experience on- WHO- Who is your co-teacher & who are YOU? WHAT- What objectives/beliefs/jobs? WHEN - When to meet and how often? (inside & outside of the classroom) WHERE - Where to meet and how often? WHY- Why pursuing such an experience in TW? HOW- The MOST important issue!!!
23 Effective Strategies During Class- Two heads are better than one! -1 Communicating to reach mutual understanding What exactly is your job description? How do you translate (use L1 and repeat L2) Can you be more than just a translator and behavior manager? Using your interest & knowledge in L2 and your talent and experience in teaching How about a DUEL in presenting a dialogue?
24 Effective Strategies During Class- Two heads are better than one! -2 Using effective non-verbal communication Between being the authority & a helper To what extent do you “help”? Should you use the same class management strategies? How about using L2 for CM? Judging the professionalism of your CT Noting down problems Dealing with personality clash Don’t ever dispute in front the class
25 Effective Strategies After Class- Communication is the key! -1 Having a quick chat about problems Show support and encouragement Keeping a simple classroom log Reflecting on what has been learned Reviewing makes a HUGE difference Dealing with POWER issue Building up trust in your CT and students It takes TWO to do the TANGO!
26 Building Successful Relationships within Co-teaching Models Voices from Native English Speaking Teachers Co-teaching is an innovative experience. Co-teaching is like a marriage. Forming a successful relationship within co-teaching models. - Samantha Sayanna (2007)
Building Successful Relationships within Co-teaching Models Beyond the classroom: Be open to communication. Try to learn from each other. Be aware of each other’s likes & dislikes Try to remember special events. (Example birthdays) Try to create a pleasant and easygoing environment.
Building Successful Relationships within Co-teaching Models Inside the classroom: Communication is the key. Learn from each other. Adapt and try to “read” each other. Have impromptu discussions about various topics. Show interest. R-E-S-P-E-C-T, respect each other.
Building Successful Relationships within Co-teaching Models * The following are pearls of wisdom by an unknown author: -- The six most important words "I admit I made a mistake." -- The five most important words "You did a good job." -- The four most important words "What is your opinion?" -- The three most important words "If you please." -- The two most important words "Thank you." -- The one most important word "We" -- The least important word "I"
Establishing An Ideal Partnership: Wording – Jenny Yong Don’t sFeelingDo’s You have to/You must… An order has been given. Maybe it’s a good idea that we… or I’m wondering if it’s possible that we… No, that’s not good. NegationThat’s a great idea, but wouldn't it be better if…, because… (sound reason) You’re wrong.Negation, embarrassment I might be wrong, but shouldn't it be…
Establishing An Ideal Partnership: Approaches -1 Don’t sFeeling, Consequence Do’s Stop what the foreign teacher is doing in the class. Embarrassment, disrespect Determine an acceptable way of addressing problems with the foreign teacher. Tell the foreign teacher what is expected from him/her without the supporting explanation. Disrespect, misunderstanding Provide more information for a clearer picture.
Establishing An Ideal Partnership: Approaches -2 Don’t sConsequenceDo’s Notify the foreign teachers of what you want them to do at the very last moment. Tension in the relationship. Poor quality of work. Give them sufficient time to react. If they have a problem, there’s room for discussion towards a solution. No one has to suffer. Judge the foreign teacher in comparison with others. Disregard for the teacher’s self-esteem. Appreciate the strengths and the style of the foreign teacher. People perform best when they do the things they are good at.
A Practical Approach to Co- teaching with Homeroom Teachers Voices from a Native Speaking English Teacher (NEST)- Jack Biller The strengths of homeroom teachers Problems in working with homeroom teachers Practical approach to improving situations
A Practical Approach to Co- teaching with Homeroom Teachers HTs are Key to students and classroom situation Knows the students Routines / Their abilities Intellectual / Within the classroom Their class and family background Knows the classroom situation To get student’s attention To drill When English curriculum can fit with others Offer extra opportunities
A Practical Approach to Co- teaching with Homeroom Teachers Problems with communication and relationship Little English and/or little confidence Feeling challenged by dealing with another culture Misunderstanding the expected role of co-teacher Pressure of work
Positive Attitudes and Mindsets Be open-minded. Build up mutual trust and show mutual respect Show constant caring, support and commitment Learn from each other (language teaching experience & culture) Improving oral communication skills (HOW) Sharing responsibilities and giving credit for accomplishments Building partnership takes time