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句子成分. 主语 谓语 宾语 表语 定语 状语 补语 同位语 英语句子八大块, 主谓宾表真实在; 补语跟着主宾跑, 定语同位把名词伴。 状语它自由自在, 左右随心所欲摆。

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Presentation on theme: "句子成分. 主语 谓语 宾语 表语 定语 状语 补语 同位语 英语句子八大块, 主谓宾表真实在; 补语跟着主宾跑, 定语同位把名词伴。 状语它自由自在, 左右随心所欲摆。"— Presentation transcript:

1 句子成分

2 主语 谓语 宾语 表语 定语 状语 补语 同位语

3 英语句子八大块, 主谓宾表真实在; 补语跟着主宾跑, 定语同位把名词伴。 状语它自由自在, 左右随心所欲摆。

4 1. I met my best friend Tom at the station yesterday. ↓主语↓主语 ↓谓语↓谓语 ↓定语↓定语 ↓宾语↓宾语 ↓同位语↓同位语 ↓状语↓状语

5 一. 主语 表示句子主要说明的人或事物,动作的 执行者。 Jack likes running. She went out for a walk. Nine is a lucky number. The young should respect the old. To see is to believe. Smoking is bad for health. What I said is true.

6 充当主语的形式: 1 )名词 2 )代词 3 )数词 4 ) the +adj. ( 名词化形容词 ) 5 )不定式 6 ) v-ing 形式 7 )名词性从句

7 名词性从句及不定式、动名词作主语时 ,谓语动词一般用单数形式。 1.To have a good rest is what I want. 2.Doing sports is helpful to your health. 3.Who will be the winner is still unknown. 但是, what 引导名词从句作主语时,其 表语是复数形式时,系动词也可以是复数形 式。 【例如】 What we badly need here are teachers.

8 *形式主语 1.It is n. (pleasure/ pity/ shame /fun…) adj. (difficult/ easy/ important…) for/of sb. to do sth. 2.It is + n.(use, good, fun, a waste of …) adj.(nice, useless, hard, foolish…) + doing sth. 3.It + 动词的被动语态 + 从句

9 谓语形式:动词 (英语句子的灵魂)

10 二. 谓语 表示主语的行为或进行的活动。说明主语 的动作,状态或特征。 简单谓语 : 由动词或动词词组组成 (可以有不同的时态,语态和语气。) I saw the flag on the top of the hill. He looked after two orphans. 复合谓语 : 情态动词或助动词 + 动词 ; He can speak English well. I don’t like sports.

11 谓语动词常考点 记忆 —— 只接不定式作宾语的词 / 词组 只接动名词做宾语的词 / 词组 主动表被动类 (主语的特点、 性质、状态) 使役、感官动词类 接动名词、不定式意义不同 掌握 —— 接虚拟语气的词 注意 —— 一坚持、二命令、四建议、四要求

12 2.The day he has looked forward to__at last. A. coming B. came C. come D. comes 1.She looked forward every spring to_____ the flower-lined garden. A. visit B. paying a visit C. walk in D. walking in

13 3.The boss made them _____12 hours a day. A. work B. to work C. worked D. working 4.They were made_______12 hours a day. work C.worked D.working 5.--Have you got a ticket for the concert? --No, the tickets___well and they ___out last week. A. sell; were sold B. sell; sold C. sell; have been sold D. are sell; sold

14 三. 宾语 行为或活动的对象,接受者或受影响 者,跟在及物动词之后。 *双 宾 语 宾语分为直接宾语和间接宾语. 直接宾语 指物, 间接宾语指人. He gave me the book.= ↓ 间接 宾语 ↓ 直接 宾语 He gave the book to me.

15 1) 能用 to 转换 的动词有 bring,give,lend,hand,send,offer, pass,promise,show,teach,pay, tell,write; 2) 能用 for 转换 的动词有 call,cook,fetch,choose,find,get,do, order,buy,make,draw,sing,save,spare.

16 *介宾 介词后面的名词代词动名词 Are you afraid of the snake?

17 ● I like music. ● People dislike four. ● I love you, my motherland. ● He wanted to leave here. ● They enjoyed playing computer games. ● I believe what you said You don’t find opportunities… you make them. 你找不到机会。你得去创造机会。

18 充当宾语形式: 1 )名词 2 )代词 3 )名词短语 4 )名词从句 5 )数词 6 )不定式 7 ) v-ing 形式宾语 Sb.think/make/find/consider/feel/ suppose /believe it n./adj.for sb. to do sth.

19 复 合 宾 语 有些及物动词除了接宾语外,还接补足语,即宾语补 足语,用来说明宾语的动作、状态或特征。宾语 + 补语合 称为复合宾语。 宾补可以有下列形式: 1 、名词 They named him John. 2 、形容词 I consider you clever. 3 、介词短语 He found himself in trouble. 4 、分词 I saw them playing football. 5 、不定式 I ask them to go out. 成分 P5P5

20 四. 表语 说明主语身份,特征,属性或状态。系动词后的 部分是表语。 1. 表示特征和存在状态的 be(am,is,are,were,was),appear, look, 2. 感官动词 seem,feel,smell,taste,sound, 3. 表示状态延续的 remain, stay, keep, continue, stand; 4. 表示状态变化的 turn,become,get,grow,come, run, fall, go etc.

21 1 、名词 I am a teacher. 2 、代词 That’s all. 3 、形容词 The baby is cute. 形容词化的分词 My book is missing/lost/gone. 4 、副词 A new film is on tonight. 5 、介词词组 Our classroom is on the fifth floor. 6 、不定式 To wear a flower is to say “I’am poor.”. 7 、动名词 My job is teaching you English. 8 、表语从句 This is what they saw last night.

22 1.The war was over. 2.They seem to know the truth. 3.Love is precious. 4.I’m not the man before today. 5.Who was the first? 6.He got lost. 7.He is out of control. 8.Time is what I need. Practise

23 1.The war was over. 副词 2.They seem to know the truth. 不定式 3.Love is precious. 形容词 4.I’m not the man before today. 名词 5.Who was the first? 数词 6.He got lost. 过去分词 7.He is out of control. 介词短语 8.Time is what I need. 名词从句

24 表语构成形式: 1 )名词 2 )形容词 3 )代词 4 )数词 5 )不定式 6 ) v-ing 形式 7 )过去分词 8 )副词 9 )介词短语 10) 名词从句

25 1. Della stood there, looking ___ (sad\ sadly) at herself in the mirror. 2. Della looked very__ ____, for her pet dog died last night. sadly sad

26 五. 定 语 定语的作用是对修饰的词进行限定, 常修饰和限定名词 或代词,可以做定语的有: 1 、形容词 Issac Newton is a famous scientist. 2 、名词 This is an apple tree. 3 、动名词 He is in the sleeping car. 4 、分词 Look at the falling leaves./ fallen leaves 5 、不定式 I have no pen to write with. 6 、介词短语 I finally thought a solution to the problem. 7 、副词 I used to live in the room above. 8 、从句 He who laughs last laughs best.

27 Practise He is a clever boy. His father works in a shoe store. There are 54students in our class. Do you known betty’s sister? He bought some sleeping pills. There is a sleeping baby in bed. His spoken language is good. I met a friend on my way home. ( 形容词 ) ( 名词 ) ( 数词 ) ( 名词的所有格 ) ( 动名词 ) ( 现在分词 ) ( 过去分词 ) ( 副词 )

28 The girl in red is his sister. We have a lot of work to do. The girl standing under the tree is his daughter. Do you know the man who spoke just now? 后置定语

29 定语分前置定语和后置定语两种,单个的 形容词和名词作定语放在被修饰的名词前叫 前置定语,其它的(如各类短语,各类定语 从句作定语都要放在被修饰的名词之后叫后 置定语。 例: He is a kind person. kind 形容词作前置定语 She is an English teacher. English 名词作前置定语 The girl standing over there is my friend. standing over there 是分词短语作后置定语。

30 定语构成形式: 1 )限定词 2 )形容词 3 )名词 4 )数词 5 )不定式 6 ) -ing 形式 7 )过去分词 8 )介词短语 9 )副词 10 )从句

31 定语从句常错点 1. 句子成分不完整 2. 不一致

32 六. 状语 用于修饰动词,形容词, 副词以及全句的句子成 分,叫做状语。 可表示时间, 地点, 原因, 结 果, 目的, 方式, 伴随, 条件, 程度, 让步, 频率等。

33 一). 修饰性状语: 修饰动词,形容词,副词等 (时间,地点,肯定,否定, 程度,频度,方式,伴随,原 因,目的,比较等)。

34 Home never looks so good as when you come back from getting away from it. 只有出走又回家时, 家才最感亲切。

35 二). 连接性状语: 连接上下文(顺序,递 进,转折,让步,结果, 推论,比较)。 First comes spring, then summer.

36 三 ). 评述性状语 : 修饰整个句子, 表示说 话人的看法或态度。 Luckily,no one was hurt. 幸好没有人受伤。 Honestly, that's all the money I've got! 我的的确确只有这点钱了。

37 1 、副词 Jill writes beautifully. 2 、介词短语 The Smiths live in Russia. 3 、分词短语 Knowing the truth, I decided to give up. 4 、不定式 His mother often comes to see him. 5 、名词 Please come this way. 6 、状语从句 He was late because his bike broke down.

38 I will be back in a while. They are playing on the playground. He was late because he got up late. He got up so late that I missed the train. I waited to see you. His parents died,leaving him an orphan. Please call me if it is necessary. This book is very interesting.

39 I will be back in a while. ( 介词短语) They are playing on the playground. ( 介词短语) He was late because he got up late. (原因状语从句) He got up so late that he missed the train. (结果状语从句) I waited to see you. ( 不定式) His parents died, leaving him an orphan. (现在分词) Please call me if it is necessary. (条件状语从句) This book is very interesting. (副词)

40 状语常考点 区别现在分词和过去分 词做状语

41 (由动词类别来决定) 宾语补语 We call him Xiao Qiang. 主语补语 He is called Xiao Qiang. 表语补语 I am sure to succeed. 用来说明宾语或主语所处的状态或者 正在进行的动作,因为英语中有些动词加 宾语后意思仍然不完整。 ( 七)补语:

42 构成形式: 1 )名词 2 )代词 3 )形容词 4 )数词 5 )不定式 6 ) -ing 形式 7 )过去分词 8 )介词短语 9 )副词 10 )名词从句

43 宾语补足语 Please make yourself at home. She asked me to lend her a hand. Please keep the dog out. We must keep it a secret. I found the book interesting. Do you smell something burning? He made himself known to them

44 主动语态变成被动语态后, 宾语补足语变成主补. 1. I last saw him playing near the river. → He was last seen playing near the river. 2.The teacher caught the student cheating. → The student was caught cheating 3.We made her monitor. → She was made monitor. 4.He pushed the door open. →The door was pushed open.

45 八. 同位语 一个名词 ( 或其它形式 ) 对另一个名词或 代词进行修饰,限定或说明,这个名词 ( 或其 它形式 ) 就是同位语。 同位语也是一种名词修饰语,单词、短 语和从句都可用作同位语,最简单而又常见 的同位语是位于所修饰的先行词之后,用来 说明身份、职务、称号等的名词或名词短语 。 同位语与被它限定的词的格要一致 ,并常常紧挨在一起。

46 China, our motherland,is very beautiful. (our motherland 是主词 China 的同位语, 指 同一个国家。 ) Jack, my best friend,is a nice boy. (my best friend 是主词 Jack 的同位语, 指同 一个人。 )

47 同位语构成形式 : 1 )名词 2 )代词 3 )名词短语 4 )数词 5 )不定式 6 ) -ing 形式 7 )名词从句

48 1 .名词及其短语(有时有逗号隔开) Chairman Mao , the great leader of China , was remembered by people forever . 2 .动名词短语(有逗号隔开) A . He enjoys the exercise , swimming in winter . 3 .不定式短语(有时有逗号隔开) There is one thing he‘ll never do—tell lies . 4 .形容词及其短语(有逗号隔开) All the countries , big or small , are equal . 5 .介词短语(有时有逗号隔开) As the head of the company , he had to explain what had happened . 6 .名词性从句。这样的先行词有 fact , news , truth , knowledge , idea , hope , question 等。 They had to face the fact that they lost the game


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