动名词（ Gerund) 动名词可以起名词的作用，在句子中作主语，宾 语，表语和定语。 1. Playing football is my favourite sport. 主语 2. Our work is serving the people. 表语 3. I remember being taken to Wuhan when I was a very small child. 宾语 4. We have a swimming poor in the back yard. 定语
主 动 被 动 一 般 writingbeing written 完 成 having written having been written 时态和语态
I remember being taken to Wuhan when I was a very small child. （动名词的一 般被动态） She admitted having opened the box. （动名词的完成被动态） How about the two of us taking a walk down the garden? (MET93 17) ( 动名词的复 合结构 )
只能用动名词作宾语的动词 1.advise, allow, avoid, admit, consider, delay, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, imagine, mind, miss, permit, practise, risk, suggest,dislike,appreciate 2.feel like, give up, put off, keep on, look forward to,insist on, can ’ t help,get used to,devote … to 3.It ’ s useless/no use/no good … doing …
下列动词后跟动名词或不定式意思完全不同。 1.remember,forget, regret + doing 记得 / 忘记 / 遗憾曾做过某事 + to do 记得 / 忘记 / 遗憾要做某事 2.want,need,require +doing 需要被做 +to do 需要做 3.stop,try, mean,go on go on to do 接着又做另一件事 /go on doing 继续做 同一件事 stop to do 停下来去做某事 /stop doing 停止做某事 try to do 努力做某事 /try doing 试一试做某事 mean to do 打算／想做某事 /mean doing 意味着／ 意思是做某事
作定语时，与现在分词的区别 动名词作定语表名词的作用或功能，现在分词作定 语表名词正在进行的动作。 现在分词动名词 a sleeping child 一个正在 睡觉的孩子 a sleeping car 一辆卧车 a flying bird 一只正在飞 翔的鸟 a flying course 飞行课程 a swimming girl 一个正在 游泳的女孩 a swimming pool 一个游泳池 the running water 自来水 the running track 跑道
1. 作定语 an interesting book the man sitting by the window boiling water falling snow the bridge being built A. 与动名词作定语的区别 B. 与过去分词, 不定式 作定语的区别 ①过去分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾关系或 过去分词表示的动作以完成。 ②现在分词作定语表示动作正在发生，与修饰词 是主谓关系。 ③不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作。 the house being built/to be built/built 正在被建 / 将要 被建 / 建好了的房子
boiling water 正在沸腾的水 boiled water 开水 the changing world 变化中的世界 the changed world 变化了的世界 the developing countries 发展中国家 the developed countries 发达国家 falling leaves 正在落下的叶子 fallen leaves 落叶 rising sun 正在升起的太阳 risen sun 已经升起的太阳
旅行是有趣的，但是使人疲劳。 Travelling is interesting but tiring. 如果要学生学得太多，他们会感到糊涂的。 The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much. 他的论点很令人信服。 The argument is very convincing.
3. 作状语 1.Seeing the teacher entering the room, the students stood up. 2. Being a student, he was interested in sports. 3. Having written the letter, John went to the post office. 现在分词作状语时，注意如下三点： 相当于相应的从句 分词的逻辑主语就是全句的主语 现在分词作状语时有不同的时态与语态
4. 作补语 Can you get the machine going again? The boys were seen walking on the grass.
一些独立结构： 1. Generally _____( speak ), we have learnt a lot in this school. 2. _____(judge ) from his appearance, he is somebody. 3. _____( tell ) you the truth, your work is terrible. speaking Judging To tell
Consolidation The verb-ing forms in these sentences are all used as the attribute. Can you change the following attributive clauses into verb-ing form? 1). A taxi which is waiting is around the corner. Go and take it. A waiting taxi is around the corner. Go and take it. 2).It is said that nothing that lives can be found on Mars. It is said that no living things can be found on Mars. 3).The boy who was smiling ran to his mother. The smiling boy ran to his mother.
4).The woman who is coming to dinner this evening works in the bank. The woman coming to dinner this evening works in the bank. 5).The young man who is looking at the map is lost. The young man looking at the map is lost. 6).The man who is performing in the street can play five musical instruments. The man performing in the street can play five musical instruments.
Can you rewrite these sentences,using clauses introduced by when,after,because,as a result,and if ect. Knowing that there was a dog outside, the little boy didn ’ t open the door. Because he knew that there was a dog outside, the little boy didn’t open the door. Having plenty of money, she was able to go anywhere on holidays. Because she had plenty of money, she was able to go anywhere on holidays. Lucy and Lily, looking so alike, are often mistaken for twins. Lucy and Lily, because they look so alike, are often mistaken for twins. The couple went shopping, leaving their eldest daughter alone at home. The couple went shopping. As a result, they left their eldest daughter alone at home. Time permitting, I will meet you for lunch. If time permits, I will meet you for lunch.
Multiple choice: 1. — Where is my passport? I remember it here. — You shouldn ‘ t have left it here. Remember __________ it with you all the time. A. to put ； to take B. putting ； taking C. putting ； to take D. to put ； taking 2.After finishing his homework he went on__________ a letter to his parents. A. write B. writing C. wrote D. to write 3.Only English doesn't mean________ the language. A. to learn ； to learn B. learning ； learning C. learning about ； learn D. learning about ； learning
4.Would you mind quiet for a moment? I'm trying ___________a form. A. keeping ； filling out B. to keep ； to fill out C. keeping ； to fill out D. to keep ； filling out 5. the news of his father's death, he burst into tears. A. After hearing B. On hearing C. While hearing D. Having heard 6.Our father often told us in the past that _____is believing. A. to see B. seeing C. see D. to be seen
7._____is a good of exercise for both the young and the old. A. The walk B. Walking C. To walk D. Walk 8.There was a terrible noise _______the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed 9. It was so cold that they kept the fire ________all night. A. to burn B. burn C. burning D. burned 10._________a reply, he decided to write a sixth letter. A. Not receiving B. Not to receive C. Not having received D. Having not received
1. Mr. Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to ______ some schools for poor children.(01 上海 ) A. set up B. setting up C. have set up D. having set up 2. I really appreciate _________ to relax with you on this nice island. （ 01 上海 A. to have had time B. having time C. to have time D. to have time 3. In some parts of London, missing a bus means _________ for another hour.(02 上海 ). A. waiting B. to wait C. wait D. to be waiting 链接高考
4 ． ________ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement.(03 上海 ). A.The president will attend B.The president to attend C.The president attended D.The president ’ s attending 5 ． Victor apologized for _______ to inform me of the change in the plan.(04 上海 ). A. his being not able B. him not to be able C. his not being ableD. him to be not able 6. Alice returned from the manager ’ s office _______me that the boss wanted to see me at once. （ 04 全国 IV ） A. having told B. tells C. to tell D. telling
7._______ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home.(04 北京 ) A. To wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited 8.The flowers ______sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of name.(04 上海 ) A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt 9. The old man, ______abroad for twenty years, is on the way back to his motherland.(04 江苏 ) A. to work B. working C. to have worked D. having worked
10. He looked around and caught a man _______ his hand into the pocket into a passenger.(04 春季北京 ) A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting 11. The storm left,___________a lot of damage to this area.(05 全国 I) A. caused B. to have caused C. to cause D. having caused 12. “ You can ’ t catch me! ” Janet shouted, __________away.(05 全国 II) A. run B. running C. to run D. ran
13. It ’ s necessary to be prepared for a job interview. __________the answers ready will be of great help.(05 北京 ) A.To have had B. Having had C. Have D. Having 14. I couldn ’ t do my homework with all that noise ____________.(05 北京 ) A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on 15. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found ______ in the kitchen.(NMET 03) A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked
16. The Chinese are proud of the 29 th Olympic games __________in Beijing in 2008.(06 四川 ) A. hold B. holding c. held D. to be held 17. My cousin came to see me from the country, ___________ me a full basket of fresh fruits.(06 广东 ) A. bought B. bringing C. to bring D. had brought 18. Tom sounds very much _________ in the job, but I ’ m not sure whether he can manage it.(06 山东 ) A. interested B. interesting C. interestingly D. interestedly
19. Whenever he was asked why he was late for class, he would answer carelessly, always ______ the same thing.(06 江苏 ) A. sayingB. saidC. to sayD. having said 20. -- There is a story here in the paper about a 110- year-old man. --- My goodness! I can ’ t imagine _________ that old. (06 江苏 ) A. to be B. to have been C. being D. having been
1.disappoint(P29) disappoint Vt. to fail to satisfy someone or their hopes, desires, etc.; to cause someone to feel unhappy: 使失望 I'm sorry to disappoint you, but I'm afraid I can't come after all. We don't want to disappoint the fans.
disappointed Adj. unhappy because someone or something was not as good as you hoped or expected, or because something did not happen: 失望的 We were deeply disappointed at/about the result. His parents were bitterly disappointed in/with him. She was disappointed (that) they hadn't phoned. He was disappointed to find they'd already gone. disappointing Adj. making you feel disappointed: 令 人失望的 What a disappointing result! The response to our advertisement has been somewhat disappointing. disappointedly Adv. 失望地 disappointingly Adv. 令人失望地
disappointment N. 失望 1 ） [U] the feeling of being disappointed: Book early to avoid disappointment. To my (great) disappointment (= sadness), he decided to leave.. 2 ） [C usually singular] something or someone that is not what you were hoping it would be: The party turned out to be a huge disappointment. I'm afraid I've been rather a disappointment to my parents
2.One of the customs officers was watching the arrivals very closely.(P29) closely Adv. in a close manner 接近地，紧密地，严密地， 密切地 listen closely=listen carefully The two events are closely connected. Cf. close: Adv. leaving little space between, in a close position 位 置接近地，无空隙地 作副词时， close 常表示具体的距离的近。 closely 常表示抽象意义。 类似的还有： deeply, deep; highly, high 等。 After 20 years of marriage, they're still deeply in love. The submarine sailed deep under the ice cap. For our country to remain competitive, we need a highly- skilled, highly-educated workforce.
close adj. 1. having direct family connections or shared beliefs, support and sympathy: 关系接近的，亲密的 There weren't many people at the funeral - just close family/relatives. Mira is one of my closest friends. 2. not distant in position or time: 时间空间等接近 Don't get too close to that dog, Rosie. I hate people standing too close to me. As Christmas gets closer, the shops get more and more crowded. Emma looked close to tears (= almost going to cry). 3) having only a small difference: 相似，势均力敌的 The election results were so close they had to vote again. He came second in the race, but it was very close.
链接高考 （ 02 北京） It was raining heavily. Little Mary felt cold, so she stood ______ to her mother. A. closeB. closely C. closedD. closing
3.After all, they are limited.(P31) After all 1) in spite of what has been said, done or expected 毕竟，终 究 The rain has stopped, so the game will go ahead after all. 2 ） it should be remembered 应该记住，别忘了 I do like her - after all, she is my sister.
all 常用短语及搭配： at all 根本，全然 Is there any uncertainty at all about the way she died? all in all 从各方面考虑 All in all, I think you've done very well. go all out 全力以赴 The team went all out for a win. in all 总计 The bill came to £25 in all. by all means 当然可以，别客气 "May I borrow this book?" "By all means." above all: 最重要的 A clock must above all correct. all but: 几乎 The game was all but over by the time we arrived. all the same ：仍然，还是 It rained every day of our holiday - but we had a good time all the same. all of a sudden ：突然 It seemed to happen all of a sudden - I felt dizzy and I just collapsed. all too ： The holidays flew by all too quickly.
4. As a result, you impressed the audience.(P31) as a result: therefore as a result of sth :because of something: He was late as a result of the triffic jam. without result :in vain 徒劳，毫无结果 He tried to recall her name without result. result in sth: phrasal verb to cause a particular situation to happen: The fire resulted in damage to their property. His attempt resulted in failure. result from sth: phrasal verbIf a situation or problem results from a particular event or activity, it is caused by it: His difficulty in walking results from a childhood illness. The terrible accident resulted from his careless.
链接高考 （ 2005 江西） My friend Martin was very sick with a strange fever; __________, he could neither eat not sleep. A. as a result B. after all C. any way D. otherwise
Homework 1.Review the use of “verb- ing form” 2.Preview the next part of this unit.